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Cutting pork carcass: scheme, description and features

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Pigs are bred to produce meat. Therefore, we must be able to butcher the pork carcasses. If you are a novice farmer, then you do not have the skills of such work. You can't learn it remotely, you need experience. It can be obtained only by helping the master, participating in this process from beginning to end.

But theoretical training is also important. It is impossible to become a doctor without reading textbooks, but only attending operations. Therefore, in order not to look at the process “like a ram on a new gate”, read this article.

When is it better to slaughter pigs

The best time for slaughter is considered the beginning of winter. This is due to the following reasons.

  • The best preservation of meat in the cold season. In the absence of large refrigerators, natural glaciers can be used.
  • Savings on feeding costs. In winter, pigs have little weight gain, and a lot of feed is consumed. Therefore, feeding them is not profitable.

Slaughter features

Before slaughter the animal must stop feeding. The minimum duration of the hunger strike is 12 hours. During this period, the mumps can only drink water.

The method of slaughtering carcass and the quality of meat depends on the method of slaughter. Practice two methods.

  • Pig bind all the limbs, lay on one side, cut the throat.
  • Pierce the heart.

Exsanguination

In the first case, all the blood gradually flows out of the cut carotid artery. The blood does not clot. Meat is cleaner and better.

In the second - not all blood flows. She remains in the chest. From there it is scooped up after opening the carcass. But still remove all the bloody clots fails.

In case of further use of blood, it is collected in sterile large containers. If not, then poured to the ground.

Stages of cutting

When working with a slaughtered pig carcass, you need to follow a specific sequence of actions that can be called stages.

It is better to carry out all actions with the carcass when it is in the hanging position. Since it is easier to work with strained muscles and tissues. But, unfortunately, it is difficult to implement. Most often, it is placed on the ground, laying straw, or placed on the table.

Before work prepare the tool.

  • Universal knife. The length of the blade must be at least 18 centimeters.
  • Knife-ax, which can be cut bones.
  • A hacksaw with small teeth and an ordinary ax.
  • Burner or blowtorch.

Scorching the bristles or skinning

To get rid of the bristles, the skin of a clogged boar is seared. To do this, use a blowtorch torch. Then the charred layer is scraped off.

Here's how, for example, looks like classical pig carcass cutting scheme:

- at first, the head is cut off from the carcass and the remnants of blood are drained (at this point, a well-fed pig that eats a balanced diet always has a collar, and cervical vertebrae are strong enough. Especially when the pig is slaughtered in the heart blood from the chest does not flow away and it must be scooped up manually.)

- the so-called “apron”, consisting of the muscles of the peritoneum and fat, is cut out in the headless carcass in the abdomen area; And then, pushing the entrails (stomach and intestines) away from the abdominal wall, gently enlarge the incision. During the cut, the fingers are guided in front of the knife so that nothing but the peritoneum falls under the blade. Thus, the entire abdominal cavity of the pig is opened,

- after the incision is continued through the middle of the sternum, in the place where the ribs are joined,

- Before reaching the esophagus, it is tied up and cut off above the superimposed bundle in order to completely eliminate the dumping of its contents into the abdominal or chest cavity. After that, remove the heart, lungs and diaphragm. From the opened peritoneum they take out the stomach, the intestines, the gallbladder, the liver,

- internal fat is separated, then the kidneys are taken out, the bladder is removed carefully, holding it by the apex,

- the heart is necessarily cut, the remaining bloody clots are cleaned out of it,

- all contents are squeezed out of the intestines, and after that they are thoroughly washed and salted, if they are not going to be used immediately,

- the pork carcass on the inside is thoroughly rubbed with a clean rag. You can not wash it from the inside if you are going to store meat or prepare it for sale.

- a fully gutted carcass is cut along the spine with a hatchet, or it is cut with an ordinary small hacksaw, dividing it along in half, getting two half-carcasses,

- pork carcasses are allowed to cool for a short time before further cutting,

- then, depending on the adopted scheme of cutting pork carcass: separate the legs and cut them at the joints, fat and fat are cut, it is divided into pieces by ribs and vertebrae,

Most often, each half-carcass is broken into 6 parts: the fat is separated, the neck is cut out, the front leg is separated, it is usually cut into a shank - the lower part and shoulder blade, the back leg (ham), brisket and brisket are separated. It should be noted that the greasy layers are removed from the hams and bones in large chunks, and from the remaining parts - in smaller pieces.

Pork carcass cutting schemes in different countries.

Cutting pig carcasses for sale in the retail network is carried out in all countries in its own way, but the cutting scheme is more or less similar, there are many differences in the minor details and in the cutting schemes of the pork side. More about it here - “Meat boning. Cutting half carcass pigs.

I think that it doesn’t hurt to recall that the best sorts of meat, and this is recognized in all countries, are located along the spine, and note that the best ones are from behind. That is, the meat is closer to the head of the animal and the lower it is from the spine, the worse the quality of meat is considered.

Cutting pigs around the world.

For example in France, Denmark and Norway pork carcass is divided into 5 parts:

1 - jambon - rear hams,

2 - samorre - region of the sacrum,

3 - filet - loin and back,

4 - echiriee - the beginning of the neck and part of the back,

5 - poitrine - the anterior part of the sternum, part of the abdominal muscles, ribs.

And the Germans cut into 2 halves, and then sorted into 4 varieties and 8 main parts.

7 - Schinken (rear ham),

2 - Rckenst (lumbar part),

3 - Koteiettenst (cutlet part).

4 - Kamm (anterior spinal section),

5 - Vorderschinken und Brustst (front ham and brisket).

6 - Bauch (peritoneum),

7 - Kopf und Backen (head and cheeks),

American cutting scheme.

And the Americans, in the United States, are carved up by standardly separating it lengthwise into 2 parts, and then each half is cut into 6 more parts:

1 - Shoulder - scapula,

2 - back and loin - back and fillet,

5 - picnis shoulder - the front ham,

6 - head - head.

In addition, 1, 2 and 4 parts, in turn, are divided in thickness into 2 parts, namely: The shoulder blade is divided into the sebaceous stratum and the so-called “Boston region”, the Back - to the tenderloin and dorsal fat, Sidewall - to the ribs and bacon (bacon with layers of meat). From the head can still cut off the back of the head.

In England, almost always pork carcass is divided into 4 large parts

- ham (back),

- middle part (back and ribs),

- the front (chest and shoulder),

Well, in the slaughterhouses of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, cutting of carcasses, with the collapse of the USSR, is almost non-standardized, but more often it is being cut into 8 pieces

How to remove the skin?

Before you start butchering a pig carcass, you must release blood from the carcass. Why do you need to do this? If you have such plans to cook black pudding and immediately after butchering do meat processing, then you do not need to release blood. But it is necessary to remember that the less blood is in the pig, the better the meat will look and the tastier it will be.

The easiest way to exsanguinate the carcass is to cut the jugular vein and carotid artery when the pig is lying on its side, but not clogging the heart. The blood that protrudes from the vessels is collected in a small container and then poured into a bucket if you are going to use it in cooking. But if you do not need it, then the blood just pours onto the ground.

A more effective way to exsanguinate an animal is to hang it in a horizontal position, and the outflowing blood is collected in a basin placed on the ground. But if you have slaughtered an animal in the heart, you first need to cut the chest and then collect all the blood, but with this method of collecting the animal is not bled, that is, any blood clots will remain.

After exsanguinating the pig carcass, it is necessary to wipe it with a rag or cloth, you can never wash it from inside, as the meat can quickly deteriorate. The animal almost never removes the skin, only makes it burn with a burner, and then very carefully scraped off the charred layer. But if you need to remove the skin, then follow the instructions below.

Description of skinning technology:

  • • For a mascara that lies on the back, you must first make an incision behind the ears, then around the head, below the neck, and then along the chest bone parallel to one nipple line to the anus.
  • • Near the genitals of the sow and near the anus, the skin must be trimmed.
  • • The process of skinning begins with the hind legs in the direction of the abdomen, chest and shoulders of the animal. In this case, with one hand, you must pull the skin over and up, and the second hand
  • knife to separate the skin from the fat.
  • • When you remove the skin from the back and sides, the carcass must be rotated.
  • • After you have removed everything, you must roll the skin with the bristles up and leave to cool for thirty minutes.

Then, after cooling, the skins must be preserved with salt. To do this, you need to put salt on a clean floor, put pork skin, put some salt on top of it, with the expectation that three kilograms of salt can be spent on one kilogram of skin. At the end it is necessary to gently rub the salt. Then you need to roll up the skin again and leave to be salted for six days. And then move this skin to a building with cool air so that it does not freeze.

What is the burning process?

After the slaughtering process has passed, you can proceed to the initial processing of the carcass. When using a blowtorch or torch, they burn the skin and immediately scrape away the charred layer. The skin on the stomach is very delicate, so it cracks from the fire.

Therefore, you need to burn very carefully. You can also use burning straw instead of a lamp. After you have burned the entire skin, it should be washed with warm water. If you are going to cut the skin, then firing is not necessary.

Pig carcassing, process description

Depending on where you want to define meat, there are several options for cutting it, which you will learn about below:

  • • For your own consumption.
  • • Meat intended for sale.
  • • Meat, which you left for smoking and salting.
  • • And finally, all that remains is bacon and fat.

There are several well-known schemes for cutting animal carcass: the American, German, English, and Russian schemes. It must be remembered that when cutting carcasses according to one of these schemes, the most important part is the muscles, these are the muscles that were least stressed during the life of the pig, the muscles of the spine and farther from the head.

Unlike many other pets, the pig's neck muscles are also sedentary and are very valuable in cooking. And the meat of the lower part, like in other animals, is harsh, therefore it is less appreciated.

The German scheme consists in dressing one carcass into two halves, which are then divided into eight parts, each of them is a separate grade.

The English butchering consists of dividing it into four equal parts: the head, the front, the center and the back.

The American butchering consists of cutting it into two large pieces. And then each of them is cut into: a shoulder blade, a back with a sirloin, a leg, flank, front part of the ham and head. In addition, it is necessary to divide the shoulder, back and side part into two equal parts. Shoulders should be divided into the greasy and meat parts. The back should be divided into tenderloin and pork fat, and the side divided into bacon and ribs.

Cutting a pig according to the Russian scheme consists of eight parts: the back legs, part on cutlets or back, part between the shoulder blades and the head (neck), neck, cheeks and head, shoulder blades and shoulders, chest, middle part of the legs, legs themselves.

Of course, at home there is no definite answer to the question: how to cut a pig? Every specialist at home does this procedure as he wants. Perfect conditions for butchering a pig are its horizontal hanging. Qualitative bleeding of the carcass is achieved by opening the carotid artery and the jugular vein.

In addition, the remaining drops of blood are removed when the head is separated in this position of the carcass. When dressing carcasses for sale, the presence of blood is not desirable, since it impairs the look and smell of meat, and also accelerates the deterioration process.

It is possible that you do not have such an opportunity to hang the carcass, so you have to do this process on a pallet or on any site.

In order to begin the carving process, you need to prepare the following tools:

  • • A knife, about eighteen centimeters long with a very sharp blade.
  • • Knife with a thick and wide blade for gutting.
  • • And to cut thick bones, prepare an ax or a hacksaw.

After separation of the head from the carcass, it is necessary to cut it into two identical parts, and if you are preparing it for sale, then you should not cut it. But be sure to remove the eyes and teeth. The brain also needs to be extracted, you can make a very tasty dish from it. It must be removed very carefully.

After you have separated the head, you can go to the abdomen and cut off a piece of meat, which consists of fat and abdominal muscles. You need to carry out everything with extreme care so as not to damage all internal organs. To do everything without damage you need to lead a finger in front of a knife and push away organs.

The next thing you need to do is get all the organs, such a process is called "nutrovka".

After removing the organs, the entire carcass must be very thoroughly wiped from the blood clots with clean and dry rag napkins. After that, the whole carcass can be divided into two separate parts, two half carcasses. As this is done, it is necessary to leave these two parts for the time to cool.

Separating one side must be done in the following sequence:

  • • Separate part of bacon and bacon
  • • Cut the neck.
  • • Cut off the front leg, which is then cut into two parts: the upper and the lower, that is, the shoulder blade and the knuckle.
  • • Next, cut off the back ham.
  • • And last, cut the brisket and brisket.

All this separation can be done without cutting the carcass into two half-carcasses, can be divided according to the English scheme, all divided into four parts. Then each of the parts is cut into small pieces. You can do everything in the following sequence: cut the back, cut off the gammon and then there will be the rump - the end of the back. Looking at your discretion, you can cut the ham into several pieces.

If you carve a suckling pig, then you only need to gut it, as it is usually baked whole.

After you slaughter a pig and exsanguinate it, the carcass loses its mass from the lack of blood, internal organs, separation of the skin, all legs and head. After you cut the carcass into small pieces, you need to separate the meat from the bones and separate all the cartilage, films and tendons. After you have separated all this, the weight of meat products in a pure state is called meat output.

Since the weight of the slaughtered pig is taken as one hundred percent, weighted meat after separation of all bones and cartilage, you can get the meat yield in percentage terms.

Location and use of the main parts of pork carcass in cooking

As mentioned earlier, all the different parts of the pig, depending on their location, have different taste characteristics, so they differ in price. And also, in order to cook this or that dish, it is best to use certain parts of the carcass.

Therefore, when butchering or buying, you need to know the name of this or that part and how it looks. The following descriptions of all parts of the carcass will help you in more detail.

Description of ham

In many cases, the ham is divided into two parts along the thigh. The upper part of the ham is more meaty, so it can be used in the preparation of schnitzel, various chops, kebab, goulash and many other dishes.

The lower half of the ham consists of a small amount of meat and most of this part is used in the preparation of aspic.

Shoulder neck cut

The scapular-neck part is usually divided into three pieces: the neck, the scapula with the bone and the boneless scapula.

The part that has a boneless spatula can be used when frying, baking, and also cut into cubes to make goulash. You can also make sausage and ham from this part.

Часть лопатка на кости является очень жестким, поэтому необходимо очень хорошо обработать. Чаще всего эту часть либо коптят, либо жарят

Часть шеи без кости относится к очень сочному и нежному мясу. Поэтому данная часть подходит практически для приготовления всех блюд. Так как шейная часть свиньи во время жизни очень мало задействована.

Рулька

The leg is the part of the leg adjacent to the joint (on the back leg - the shank, and on the front leg - the forearm). This part consists of compacted muscles and connective tissues, so most often this part is used in the preparation of jelly or for smoking. Sometimes when cooking this part trim and twist into a roll.

Carbonate and tenderloin

This part is located along the spine of the animal, that is, it supports it. In the whole life of the animal, this part is practically not straining at all, and therefore this part is a very desirable piece. Most often this part is used in the preparation of chops or escalopes. The tenderloin refers to the most important part of the carb. The meat from the spinal-lumbar cut is called carbonate. Basically, carbonate is first boiled, and then baked, or smoked or smoked.

Abdominal cut

This cut consists of brisket, peritoneum and subtitle. The brisket (thick end of the peritoneum) can be used for smoking and frying, as there is a fatty layer. The flank or the thin end of the peritoneum is located near the back of the ham. From it prepare the rolls and you can fry. The under-leg is a part of fat with meat layers, it is located in the lower part of the belly. Most often podtchevok fried or baked.

Brisket

The brisket on the bone is the dorsal part, on which the ribs and meat are on the cutlets. Ribs can be smoked and used in the preparation of first courses. Meat for meatballs are used in many meat dishes.

Boneless loin is pure meat that is located on the lower back of the carcass. Use it with whole baking. And in cross section, you can cook a steak.

Kostrets

This part is located at the end of the pig's back. Bonfire is not the fat part. It is used in baking or cooking kebabs.

And the last part is the head.

The head is cut into small pieces and cooked aspic from them. From the language you can make aspic. From the brain, you can also cook a very tasty dish. Ears can be boiled first, and then baked with the addition of mustard and seasonings. And cheeks, too, can be baked or added when cooking broth.

From this article we see that cutting up pork carcass only immediately seems to be a difficult process. With a more detailed acquaintance with the various carcass dressing schemes, as well as after observing the master several times, you can proceed to do this work yourself.

Preparing for pig cutting

Pork carcass is quite large, so you need to understand where to start. There are several important rules that allow you to perform the required actions as efficiently as possible. The taste characteristics of pork depend on how quickly and efficiently the butcher does his job.

It is important to cook even before the slaughter of the animal:

  • sharpened knives with a blade length of 15 cm or more,
  • hand saw or hacksaw,
  • retainer or hook to hang the carcass,
  • a basin or bucket of water that will be required to wash the body,
  • capacity under the blood
  • desktop directly for cutting.

This is the minimum that is necessary for everyone who is going to carve the carcass.

Pig slaughter methods

You need to do a little preparation for this process. For 12 hours, the pig stops giving food, but it is allowed to drink. During this time, the intestine is completely emptied and becomes clean in the process of cutting. Also hungry pig is much easier to pull out of the room.

It is also recommended to wash the animal just before slaughter. To do this, use warm water and a brush. It is important to understand that you cannot kill animals during a hunt. It is worth waiting 10 - 14 days after its completion. During this time, sex hormones return to normal and do not affect the quality of meat.

There are several methods for the slaughter of animals, but two are most often used. It is worth considering them in more detail.

Table. Slaughter methods

The first method is relevant for small pigs. When this is not necessary to cut the throat. He is quite humane and does not require much skill. Most often it is used on small farms. The second method, on the contrary, requires certain skills. Often large individuals with a knife in the heart can get up and run away. To prevent this from happening the animal can be initially stunned. This is done with a special gun or any heavy object.

Important. A pig must be cut when it is at rest. A frightened animal releases a large amount of hormones that negatively affect the quality of meat.

It should be understood that if, using the second method, you do not get into the heart, the pig will be under stress. Moreover, she, most likely, will cease to trust the person. Therefore, to deprive her of life without compromising the quality properties of the meat will be problematic.

Peculiarities of pig skin treatment

If it is necessary to skin for further use in the light or food industry, do the following:

  • put the carcass on your back,
  • make a small incision between the ears, then move around the entire head down to the neck and so on to the tail of the animal (the skin around the genitals and anus is not used in industry, so it is clipped),
  • they remove the skin, starting from the hind legs, and with the second hand it is necessary to separate the skin from the fat using a knife,
  • when the skin is removed from the sides and back of the animal, the carcass must be placed so that it is comfortable to do,
  • the removal along the spine line ends, after which the skin folds neatly and remains dormant for 30 minutes.

Portion of pork carcass

After that, it can be mothballed. It must be remembered that at least 3 kg of salt should fall on 10 kg of skin so that its quality does not deteriorate. An insufficient amount of this mineral causes the skin to dry out, and therefore it becomes brittle.

Masking Technology

Not all farmers know how to chop a pork carcass properly. In fact, it all depends on how the meat will be applied later. If the slaughter of the animal occurred in order to later eat the meat on its own, then it doesn’t matter how to carve the meat properly. But for the sale of products it is necessary to act in accordance with the established requirements.

The correct process of cutting pork carcass is reduced to the following steps:

    decapitation, after which you need to wait a little for a small amount of blood that did not come out earlier, glass (if the pig received high-quality food in sufficient quantities, then it will form a large fat layer, which is difficult for normal blood flow).

Incision in the sternum

The carcass is cut in half in two

To make the process as convenient as possible, the carcass is divided into 6 parts: brisket, fat, neck, back leg, front leg and brisket.

The carcass is divided into 6 parts

Important. Before cutting the carcass, you must show it to the veterinarian. This recommendation is relevant regardless of whether the meat is used for sale or for itself. The specialist will examine it and tell if there are any visible problems, in connection with which the meat can be a danger to human life and health.

If you plan to sell products, you must provide a sample for analysis and obtaining permission.

Cutting patterns for pigs in different countries

The process of butchering pigs in all countries is about the same. It comes down to the division of carcasses into several parts. However, their number varies:

  • Russian scheme - 8 parts. The process of carcass cutting is detailed above.
  • English scheme - 4 parts. The first is the hind limbs, the second is the part of the body between the limbs, the third is the front legs and the fourth is the head.
  • American - 6 parts. It is similar to the Russian, but differs in that the back part is not divided additionally on the hoof and the knuckle. Also, the front limbs are not divided along the joint: they are divided into upper and lower parts.
  • German - 8 parts. As close as possible to the Russian scheme of cutting pig carcass. The fundamental difference is that the front limbs are divided, as in the United States.

Pig Cutting Scheme

Thus, there are several ways of slaughtering pigs. But the most important thing is not to let them be nervous, so that the meat retains its properties. It is recommended to agree in advance with the veterinarian so that he is present at the time of stabbing the pig, so that he can immediately tell how safe it is to use meat for personal use and for sale. The process of carcass dividing itself is a matter of technology. It takes several hours for specialists, but beginners can spend almost a whole day on one pig.

It is important to understand that for sale it is necessary to properly carve the carcass and sort the meat accordingly. There are also special requirements for its storage. It is necessary to ensure their compliance in order to obtain permission to sell products. Otherwise, you can use the meat obtained only for personal purposes.

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