General information

Viola (Pansies) - growing, planting and care


Where do landscape designers use these garden flowers? Viola is great for framing rabatok and borders, tamping shrubs of small height. Low-growing varieties look very organic in rock gardens and rockeries. Mixed viols give the landscape a unique flavor, creating a bright accent. Today it is difficult to imagine a garden without this beautiful plant.

Viola is a magnificent container plant. It will perfectly decorate the terrace or balcony.

How correctly called a flower

Very often with the name of this plant there is confusion. Some call it a violet, others call it a viol, and still others call it pansies.

Violet is a genus of plants from the violet family (Violaceae). Viola (Viola) - the Latin name of violets. Perennial pansies (or tricolor violet) - a type of plant from the genus of violets.

Viola (or violet) - often one-, two- or perennial herb, less often half-shrub. Plant height 15-30 cm.

A bit of history

Viola, whose flowers are one of the oldest garden plants, has been known to botanists since the 16th century. Even in ancient Greece and Rome, people decorated their premises during the holidays. But they began to cultivate it only two centuries later. The first to do this was F. Miller, the famous English florist.

In Russia, the violet appeared at the end of the XVIII century, thanks to the well-known botanist P.S. Pallas, who studied the flora of the Altai. It was he who brought to St. Petersburg violet, which is now called the Altai.

At the beginning of the XIX century in Europe there were known to all pansies - Vittrock hybrid violets. They combined the beauty of three types of violets: Altai, yellow and tricolor.

Seed planting

How is viola grown? Flowers, growing from seeds of which is the easiest and cheapest way, can also be planted by sowing in open ground or cuttings.

Growing from seed - this way you can grow enough plants for the garden or balcony. In addition, it is beneficial - the seeds are much cheaper than ready seedlings. To improve the germination of the seeds of the viola before planting, it is desirable to soak for a day in a solution of special preparations (for example, zircon).

Any variety of perennial and biennial viols can be grown according to one of 3 schemes:

  • Sowing seeds in open ground in autumn - flowering next year. In August and September, seeds are sown in the ground. Before the snow plants have time to ascend and develop powerful roots. Viola, planting and care for which are very simple, blooms the next year after sowing. Flowering lasts from April to frost.
  • Sowing seeds in early spring for seedlings - flowering in the year of planting. It is believed that with this method, the viola begins to bloom in the second year. In fact, flowering can begin as early as the first summer after planting. To do this, sow the seeds in an earlier period - from late February to early March. It is advisable to use extra light. The resulting seedlings bloom in May and June. If you create suitable conditions for the viola (she does not like direct sun and heat), then she will bloom all summer, and next spring will bloom again. Seedlings grown in the spring, then planted in open ground or on the balcony.
  • Sowing seeds in summer. From late May to early June, you can sow the seeds immediately into the ground. Viola bloom begins in August-September. Snow covers plants already with flowers. In early spring, the viola blooms again.

Seed germination

The period of seed germination depends on the variety. Usually sprouts appear on the fifth or eighth day. Causes of slow germination:

  • old seeds
  • a thick layer of soil over the seeds,
  • heavy and dense soil, which is sprinkled with seeds.

Emerged shoots expose to the light. And even direct sunlight in the spring is not dangerous for plants.

Sowing and growing seedlings

For planting select any suitable containers: special cassettes for seedlings, small flower pots, food containers, etc. It is very important to choose a suitable soil - it should be loose. Special soil for violets can be bought or prepared by yourself.

Fill the tank with soil and start sowing. It can be produced in different ways:

  • Seeds are buried in the ground. In the ground form depressions (up to 0.6 cm) after 1 cm from each other. In the resulting grooves, the seeds are laid out after 1-2 cm. Sprinkle the seeds with earth. Landings are shed or sprayed with water. To create a wet microclimate in the seating containers, they are covered with a film or glass. To prevent mold, twice a day, the film is opened for about 10 minutes. Put the "greenhouse" with the seeds in a warm place (20-25 ° C). Illumination does not matter.
  • Seeds in the ground are sown superficially. The soil is poured abundantly or sprayed with water, preferably warm (30-35 ° C). Seeds are laid out in the grooves after 1-2 cm. The container with the seeds is covered with a film or glass. Soil is regularly ventilated. Place the container with the seeds in a warm place and cover with some material (for example, a sheet of cardboard).
  • Seeds lightly sprinkled. First, seeds are sown superficially (as in the second embodiment). Then lightly sprinkled on top (1-2 mm) with earth or sand. Spill or spray planting with warm water. Capacities cover with a film or glass, regularly aired. Put the seedling container in a warm place. Illumination does not matter.

Proper care of seedlings viola

After the emergence of seedlings immediately remove the film from the container is not recommended - you need to give the seedlings to get stronger. It is best to gradually increase the ventilation time during the week.

Viola seedling is sufficiently resistant to temperatures of 5-10 ° C, so before the appearance of real leaves of the container (already without a film) you can take it to a balcony for hardening.

Seedlings need proper and regular watering. The topsoil should never be dry, but it is not necessary to flood the seedlings either.

When sprouts appear 1-2 true leaves, they dive into separate containers. Usually, at this point, the seedlings stretch the central stem to the cotyledons. When picking sprouts up to the cotyledon can be buried in the ground - they will be more stable, with powerful roots.

To seedlings better bush, at the stage of two or three pairs of true leaves do nip shoots.

When warm weather is established and the threat of frost passes, they begin to plant seedlings on a permanent place - on the balcony (March) or in the open ground (May-June).

When planting seedlings in the ground can withstand an interval of 10-15 cm. If the seedlings are planted in boxes or pots, then observe the following ratio: 1-2 liters of soil per plant.

Viola: planting and care in the open field

Many people think that growing seedlings is a rather troublesome business, so they prefer to sow seeds immediately in open ground. When sown in late May - early June, the viola will begin to bloom in August and September. If you sow the viola in August, flowering will begin in early spring next year.

When sowing, the seeds are laid out in small depressions (up to 0.6 mm), observing an interval of 10-15 cm. After that, the ground is poured abundantly and waiting for the emergence of shoots.

Pinching done at the stage of two or three true leaves. In the future, the care of plants consists in regular and sufficient watering, feeding.

When planting seedlings or sowing seeds of great importance is the choice of location. Best of all, viols grow and bloom in bright sunny places, but with shading from the bright midday sun. In the garden it can be a place under the trees with a not very thick crown, and on the balcony - the western or eastern side.

No less important is the appearance of the soil. Viola, planting and care in the open field for which are discussed above, prefers well-hydrated, drained and fertile soil.

Viola Types

About 500 species currently includes the viola. A flower whose varieties are so diverse amazes even the experts.

There are several types that are considered the most popular among gardeners:

  • Viola tricolor (V. tricolor). Two or annual plant. Height is 10-20 cm. In the open ground, this viola blooms from May to September, with the most decorative, it looks in the second year of flowering.
  • Viola Wittrock (V. wittrokiána). It is usually considered a two- or an annual plant, but it can also be grown as a perennial with annual division. Height is 15-30 cm. It is a strongly branchy plant. Large flowers have a diameter of 4-10 cm. Flowers of the most diverse colors, while it can be monotonous or spotty. Depending on the time of sowing seeds and planting seedlings in the soil, the viola may bloom in summer or autumn. Viat Wittrock varieties are conventionally divided into several groups: “trimardo”, “hemalis-winter”, “schweizer rizen”, “Swiss large-flowered”, etc. For example, varieties from the group “Pyrnaer” are distinguished by early flowering.
  • Viola Altai (V. altaica). Ornamental perennial plant. Height is up to 20 cm. Frost-resistant. May bloom twice a season: from mid-spring to mid-summer and from August to the first frost.
  • viola yellow (V. lutea). The most unpretentious of all violets. Height is 8-15 cm. Viola received its name for its bright lemon yellow color of flowers. It blooms from May to July.
  • Fragrant Viola (V. odorata). Herbaceous perennial plant with small flowers (diameter about 2 cm). From the second half of the summer, a large number of easily rooting shoots, which form a dense cover on the soil, grow in the viola. The flowers have a dark blue color and have a pleasant delicate aroma. Viola fragrant can bloom for a whole month.

With its incredible beauty and variety of shapes and colors, the viola, the planting and care of which are discussed above, inspires breeders, landscape designers, flower growers and artists to work.

Growing Viola seedlings

Sowing. You can start sowing at the end of winter. Most viola species remain viable for up to two years. This is not so little, but in any case, buying them in the store, pay attention to it. Land for sowing can be taken and universal, but it is noted that the seedlings of pansies will develop better in the soil "For violets." Before sowing, seeds can be prepared by soaking them for a day in any stimulator (Epin, Heteroauxin, Kornevin, etc.). The technique of sowing the seeds of viola is the same as for other plants grown by seedlings: we sow them in shallow grooves, and cover them with a layer of light, fluffed earth. After sowing, the seed container is covered with any transparent material to create greenhouse conditions and placed in a place with moderate (+15 - 16 degrees) temperature.

Care for seedlings forks. After 7-10 days, the first shoots will start to appear. After this cover can be removed. Further cultivation of seedlings viola should take place at a fairly low temperature (about + 10-12 degrees) and bright, but diffused light. In the process of growing it is periodically watered and fed. You can feed the full mineral fertilizer once every two weeks. If you planted seeds of pansies in a common container, then it is quite possible that after the appearance of a couple of true leaves, it will have to be dived into separate pots. But if you originally sowed them separately, then there is no need for a dive. Often the viola is planted in the open ground already flowering.

Viola: landing

When and where to plant. Terms of planting pansies in open ground depend on how quickly the warm days come and the earth warms up. Most often they fall on the end of April - May. For planting pick up a sunny plot with light fertile soil. It can be improved by digging with the addition of humus, peat and sand. It is desirable to add a part of charcoal, which will perform a disinfecting function, and serve as a drainage.

Landing. In group plantings, seedlings or viola seeds are planted with a distance of 10 to 15 centimeters.

Viola: care

Caring for these flowers is very simple. It will mainly consist in watering, removal of faded flowers and weeds. If summer is normal, not dry, then there will be no special need for watering. Otherwise, water the viol after the earth dries. To bloom pansies lush and long, feed them once a month. Viola responds well to fertilizing with superphosphate.

Viola after flowering and collecting seeds

With annual plants, everything is simple - after withering, they are removed from the site. Perennial types of viola should be prepared for winter. It is a fairly resistant plant and is able to withstand even extreme cold with proper protection. It is enough to cover the viola before their attack with fallen leaves, compost, sawdust or spruce branches.

In late summer - early autumn, you can start collecting seeds.

The seeds of pansies extracted from the boxes are dried in the shade and sent to storage. A good place to store them is a fridge.

Difficulty Growing Viola

Due to excessive waterlogging of the soil and low temperature, “gray rot” and “black leg” may begin to develop. This is a very unpleasant disease for any plant. Immediately remove all affected flowers, and treat the soil around healthy plants with a fungicide solution (Fundazol, for example).

The most common disease of viola is "powdery mildew." A sign of the disease - white or light gray bloom on the leaves and buds. The cause of the disease can be either a glut of nitrogen fertilizers or natural factors - hot sunny weather with abundant morning dews. Powdery mildew on pansies can be fought with spray solutions of fungicides or soda with soap. If one-time processing of the results does not give, then it will have to be repeated after 14 to 15 days.

Attack the viola and pests. Particularly often, pearl violet and caterpillar clover moths. You can destroy them with a suitable insecticide, chlorophos or a folk method - extract of tobacco dust.

Where to plant the viola, the choice of place for the flower

Viola belongs to the Violet family, therefore it is also called the garden violet. The plant is one-year, two-year, and also long-term. Depending on the sort of flowers viola planting and cultivation can be carried out even on the balcony, providing it with proper care.

In the open field, a high flowerbed would be an ideal place for a viola, since it meets the plant's need for moisture and light.

What kind of lighting and temperature does the viola like?

These flowers grow best in a cool place, but they also need a lot of light. Therefore, places with slightly shaded areas will be the right choice for planting the viola and further care in the open field.

For example, under young trees that do not close the leaves with the main part of the illumination, but will protect them from the arid influence of the direct rays of the sun. At home, suitable balcony on the west or east side.

If there is little light for the viola, then the flowering will not be so abundant, and the flowers themselves will be small and not so bright.

What should be the soil for planting

The best soil for pansies is a loamy soil, fertile and moist.

Also, peat is ideal for viola as a primer, as it retains heat, moisture does not stagnate in it. In addition, peat contains the nutrients necessary for the viola, so gardeners often use peat tablets for plant germination.

How to plant pansies

Most often, the planting viola is carried out in open ground. This happens in April and May, as the plant loves coolness. The proportions for the soil is better to choose the following:

  • sod land - 2 parts,
  • peat - 2 parts,
  • humus - 2 parts,
  • sand - 1 part.
Do not forget about the drainage, pounded coal can perform its function. You should also choose a place without closely flowing groundwater in order to avoid stagnation of water at the roots of pansies.

It is fairly easy to follow the basic rules of how to plant viola flowers in open ground and how to carry out the subsequent care.

For the seedlings, wells are prepared (the distance between them is 10-15 cm), flowers are placed there, then they are sprinkled with earth, lightly tamped around the soil, and watering is carried out.

It is better to plant different varieties separately from each other, because the plant is cross-pollinated.

Viola Care Rules

Often gardeners think how to grow a beautiful and healthy viol. For this you need to regularly remove the flowers that wilted. In addition, to prolong the flowering of pansies will help mulching the roots of the plant in hot weather. Be sure to also remove ripened seed boxes.

If the viola blooms worse, few new buds are formed, then you can cut the plant, while leaving the length of the stems about 10 cm. After that, it is necessary to water and feed the viola plentifully, which will allow it to quickly grow young shoots and blossom with new forces.

How to water pansies

Often in the heat of the cause of drying out of the roots is their proximity to the soil surface. Therefore, watering garden violets should be carried out regularly, but not too copiously, so that the roots do not rot. Optimally - 2-3 times a week, and in the heat it is possible to water the viol every day.

Удобрение и подкормка цветов

Подкормка виолы должна осуществляться один раз в месяц. Для этого используют суперфосфат или аммиачную селитру в расчете 25-30 г на квадратный метр. Существуют также специальные комплексные удобрения, имеющие в своем составе калий, фосфор, азот, микроэлементы. Such fertilizers are sold in stores and used according to the instructions.

Soil care

Flowers viola unpretentious, but during the cultivation must be maintained in a certain state of the soil. Since the roots are not far from the surface - at a depth of only 15-20 cm, we need timely watering and loosening the soil for air to reach the roots. In addition, it is important to remove weeds in time from the site where the viola grows.

Reproduction Methods Viola

If you want to independently get a new viola plant with beautiful flowers, for growing it is worth choosing a method suitable and suitable for your capabilities. Among them, reproduction by seeds, cutting pansies, as well as reproduction by layering.

Seed propagation

You can grow the viola seeds. Sowing takes place in several terms, depending on when you want to get flowering.

Sowing pansies in January-February, you will see the first flowers by the end of spring. However, in the conditions of an apartment it is difficult to get good seedlings, as the seeds sown need coolness and plenty of light.

If you sow the seeds of viola in March, the flowering will begin in late July - August. The following year, at the beginning of spring, both plants and other plants will give good flowering.

If sowing is done in summer, flowers will also appear next year in spring. However, in the summer, you can sow directly into the open ground, bypassing the cultivation of seedlings at home.

There are general rules for sowing viola seeds:

  1. Seeds are poured on moist soil, lightly sprinkled with earth on top.
  2. The temperature in which the seedlings are should be 15-20 ° C. It is necessary to maintain a constant sufficient moisture.
  3. Seedlings should be in a dark place until shoots appear.
  4. After 10-14 days, the seeds will sprout, then you need to provide good lighting, and reduce the temperature to 10 ° C.
  5. After 2-3 weeks you need to dive seedlings.

Reproduction by cuttings

The cuttings of pansies are carried out in late spring - early summer in several stages:

  • cut off from the top of the bush green shoots, which should be 2-3 nodes,
  • planted these shoots in the area in the shade to a depth of 0.5 cm. They should be close to each other,
  • cuttings abundantly watered, sprayed.
Rooting occurs in a month. From one bush you can take about 10 cuttings at a time. If you propagate the viola by cuttings you decide closer to autumn, the flowering will appear as early as next year in the springtime. If in the spring, then pansies bloom by the end of summer.

The main positive point of this method of reproduction is the rejuvenation of the bush and improvement of flowering as a result.

Reproduction by layering

Many varieties of pansies form long side shoots. In September, they can be gently sprinkled with earth, and by the end of autumn they will take root.

In spring, these layers can be transplanted to a new place, and if they have gained enough strength, flowering will begin by the end of spring. This method allows you to save the characteristics of the variety, carrying the features of the mother bush.

Some varieties branch out themselves, while others can be a little priteen to make the shoots lengthen.

Viola plant has more than 400 species. There are viola monophonic, spotty, striped, with wavy edges, terry. A variety of varieties, colors and shapes, abundance and duration of flowering determine the popularity and wide distribution of these beautiful plants.

Varieties and varieties

Scientifically, this plant is divided into two types: Viola Vitrocca and Violet tricolor. The latter species has small flowers and reproduces itself perfectly by self-sowing: if you let them go, they will disperse throughout the site. But Viro Vitrokka is better to grow from seed to maintain a decorative look, bright colors and good flowering. It is she who today flaunts in modern front gardens, flowerpots and drawers on the balconies. Sprawling bushes grow in height of no more than 25-30 cm.

Viola flowers have large, corrugated or smooth at the edges of the petals, which differ in a variety of juicy colors. In addition, the flowers can be monotonous, with original strokes and spots of various colors: white, red, yellow, dark purple, sky blue, burgundy, etc. The most impressive group of varieties Rococo, characterized by very strong flowering and corrugated petals with a border. No less delicious Swiss giants with a diameter of flowers up to 10 cm.

Seedling care

How and when to plant pansies, we figured out, and now a few words about leaving. Viola is quite unpretentious, but will fully show its charm only under optimal conditions. For example, under the scorching sun the bush may burn, and in the penumbra the flowers lose their brightness and shrink. It is advisable to fertilize the soil before planting seedlings with compost, rotted manure at the rate of 5 kg per "square". Mind you fresh manure can not stand the flower.

In the future, pansies, care for which also consists in loosening the soil and watering, can be periodically fed. For example, before budding, pour water with nitroammophoska dissolved in it (a tablespoon of fertilizer is taken on the bucket). Before flowering, Art. spoon superphosphate and watered. We are not lazy to remove the weeds so that they do not choke the planting.

Viola is prone to over-pollination, so unexpectedly for yourself, you can suddenly become the only owner of an instance with an unusual pattern or color. In this case, you can collect the seeds and sow them next year. Collect the seeds when the box turns white or turns yellow. It is important not to miss the moment before it opens, and the seeds do not wake up on the ground. The plant is winter-hardy enough, but still winters better under a layer of spruce needles. It is impossible to cover bushes with leaves or sawdust - with frequent thaws, they just get wet.

Among them, the most popular in the culture are:

  • Viola tricolor - wild growing one- or two-year-old herbaceous plant, which is popularly called wild pansies. Compact bushes are represented by rosette rounded leaf plates and flowers of white, blue, violet, yellow tones, forming on elongated peduncles. Flowering occurs from mid-spring to early fall.
  • Viola horned - a perennial garden form of violet, which does not lose its decorative qualities over a long period of time. Species varieties have good winter hardiness. Flowers with different colors, pleasing to the eye from mid-spring to autumn frosts, have a rather large diameter up to 5 cm and a pleasant aroma. Due to light pollination with other violets, which can threaten the loss of varietal traits, you should not plant a view next to a viol with a tri-color or a viol with Vittrok. Famous varieties: Alba, Boughton Blue, Columbine, Hansa.
  • Viola Vittrock - the most common hybrid, which can be easily purchased at a flower shop. He is a garden form of pansies. The shrub of this type of viola is formed from upright shoots up to 30 cm high, covered with oval leaves with serrated edges. Irregularly shaped flowers with a diameter of up to 11 cm are painted in different, rarely monochromatic, colors with strokes and specks. Some varieties deserve special attention: "Swiss Giants", "Bambini", "Rococo".
  • Viola Sororia - bush species with early flowering in April-May. Flowers of small diameter rise above the leaf-shaped heart-shaped plates. Popular varieties: Ruba, Albiflora, Freeckles.
  • Viola Altai is a perennial up to 20 cm tall with flowers, the petals of which are painted blue or white with blue stripes and tinted with a bright yellow speck. Frost-resistant variety that can bloom from mid-spring to the most frost.
  • Viola Williams - brightly blooming hybrid with flowers of small diameter, which are distinguished by the lack of a characteristic "attractive face". In culture, the plant is represented in both bush and ampelous forms, which are often used in hanging pots or in flowerpots on the balcony. Famous varieties: “Pearl Waterfall”, “Bengal Fire”, “Amber Kiss”, “Frose Chocolate”.

The sowing of high-quality seeds, acquired at specialized points, is carried out at the end of winter as follows:

  1. Seeds are soaked for half an hour in a solution of fungicide for disinfection, and then for several hours in a growth stimulator.
  2. The seedling box is filled with a pre-calcined substrate of leafy earth and rotted compost.
  3. The seed is distributed over the wetted surface of the soil mixture.
  4. The container is covered with a film and moves to a warm, shaded place.
  5. 2 weeks after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings begin to gradually accustom themselves to life without a film.
  6. A week later, the protective film is removed completely.
  7. When 3 true leaves are formed, the seedlings are spiked into separate dishes, where they are grown before planting in open ground.

Selection and preparation of the landing site

Pansies can grow both in sunny areas and in shady areas. However, the “golden mean” will be a well-lit area with light shading, which will ensure the brightness of flowers and a long flowering period. Cute shrubs with cheerful "attractive faces" develop well on fertile, light soils with a loose structure. Before planting, the soil in the selected area is dug up with the simultaneous introduction of peat, humus and sand, which will help to ensure all the required indicators of the soil composition.

Important! Poor soils can cause the loss of ornamental plants, which is manifested by fading, shallowing flowers and is especially important for varietal hybrids.

Planting flowers in open ground is carried out according to the standard scheme:

  1. On the prepared site, the holes are dug up taking into account the root system of the seedlings and the distance from each other of 10 cm.
  2. In each recess is added to the sand, which acts as a drainage.
  3. Then the bushes of pansies are placed on it and covered with earth.
  4. Plants are watered, and the soil around them is mulched.

Correct watering schedule

The moisture-loving plant does not tolerate stagnant water, therefore it is necessary to establish the correct irrigation schedule. In the summer heat for the root system of the viola, which is in the topsoil (up to 20 cm), it will be enough to get a small portion of water at intervals of 24 hours.

Attention! The lack of moisture negatively affects the decorative state of the crop: the shoots break up on the ground in order to retain moisture on the surface of the leaf plates, and the flowers turn pale.

How to care for the soil?

In order for the soil to maintain a loose structure that provides free access of air to the roots, after frequent water procedures, it is necessary to loosen it slightly by breaking the upper, air-tight crust. Also, to prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, you can cover the soil around the bushes with a layer of peat or sawdust mulch.

Additional nutrition is carried out both root and foliar method:

  • At the beginning of the growing season, the plants are fed with complex mineral fertilizers with a nitrogen content.
  • To prolong the abundant flowering, superphosphate is added under the bushes, which can also be added during soil preparation.

Caution! Do not use manure as a fertilizer for the viola, which does not like the high fat content of the soil.

Among the main enemies that often attack and hit culture are the following:

  • Spider mite When a microscopic insect appears, the plants are treated with an insecticide solution.
  • Gall nematode. To protect the bushes from settling the pest will help preplant tillage by applying sodium nitrate.
  • Smut. To prevent the development of the disease is possible with the help of pre-sowing seed treatment.
  • Leaf spot. At the first manifestations of the landing disease are sprayed with a copper-containing fungicide.
  • Gray rot. In the initial stages of the disease, the normalization of the irrigation regime will help to stop its development.

The procedure is carried out in early summer:

  1. Cuttings with 2 - 3 internodes are cut.
  2. On the shaded area prepared beds.
  3. Fresh planting material is placed tightly to each other and deepened to 5 mm.
  4. After planting the cuttings watered.
  5. Rooting occurs in 20 to 30 days, depending on the variety and growing conditions.
  6. In late summer, young plants are transplanted to a permanent place.

This method of reproduction is also quite popular technique:

  1. Long shoots bend down to the soil and fit into a previously prepared groove.
  2. Layers are fixed in the groove with staples and sprinkled with soil.
  3. A month later, the roots begin to develop from the internodes.
  4. After full rooting, the shoots are separated from the parent specimen and planted in a permanent place.

Garden decoration - where better to plant pansies?

Early flowering compact bushes have been used in the design of landscape gardening compositions.

They are often used for decoration:

  • garden paths,
  • hanging pots,
  • Alpine slides,
  • lawn lawns with bright greens,
  • beds and rabatok, where with the help of flowers create luxurious ornaments.

Thus, pansies, characterized by beauty and early flowering, will be a wonderful decoration of the garden. Moreover, planting and caring for such an elegant and bright pet will not give the grower a lot of trouble.

Description of the plant: varieties and varieties

Pansies - perennial plants, but the cultivation is usually carried out on agrotehnike two-year culture. Abundant flowering in the open field in the spring and the first half of summer. The touching flowers open their petals towards the first sunshine, barely the snow melts.

Single flowers with a diameter of 6 to 10 cm rise from the leaf sinuses. Sometimes the flowers of the viola emit a delicate, subtle fragrance. The leaves of the plant are delicate, light green, oval, with an urban or jagged edge.

Cultivars amaze with the magnificence of various colors. Breeders deduced a huge number of multi-colored viols, including: the whole range of purple shades, yellow, white, blue. It is not uncommon now pansies reddish-brown tones. Varietal viols have contrasting bands on the petals, eyes, edging.

Classification of Viol Wittrock: varieties and varieties.

Pansies can be divided by the height of the bush:

The second sign of the division of viola varieties is the largest flower:

  • species with large flowers
  • small-flowered varieties,
  • with giant flowers.

In addition, pansies differ in the form of the edges of the petals:

  • even petals
  • wavy edge of petals.

The color of the petals distinguish the following types of viola:

  • varieties with monotonous (one-color) color,
  • two-color varieties,
  • a series of flower varieties with contrasting spots and stripes.

Pansies make up more than 15 groups of decorative garden varieties, which differ significantly in terms of flowering time, color and size of a flower, shape, and winter hardiness. Breeders brought a lot of giant varieties with a wavy edge, including semi-double and terry varieties. They can grow perfectly in open ground.

The enchanting flowers of the Russian Size variety are in excess of 10 cm in diameter. Novelties of selection are ampelous pansies of the Waterfalls variety. These plants are designed for hanging baskets, they are characterized by abundant, lush, long flowering.

Mono-colored pansies are popular in landscape design. Planting of them makes it possible to distinguish the territory of the garden with contrasting color spots.

At the present time monochrome copies of the viola of bright, pure colors are displayed:

Planting a plant

High decorativeness of pansies in open ground directly depends on the place of planting. Although the plant is rather shade-tolerant, it degenerates in a dense shade: the flowers become shallow, lose their saturation, the stalks of the plant stretch out and fade. The flowering time of such plants is significantly reduced.

The second condition for the luxurious flowering of pansies is the soil. Viola does not tolerate dry, stony, sandy soil. This flower grows beautifully in fertile soil, with a high content of nutrients and moisture. Viola care is minimal.

Plant propagation

In addition to sowing seeds, pansies easily grafted. Reproduction of viola by cutting in the open field is not difficult. At about the beginning of summer green cuttings with 2-3 internodes are cut from the bushes. Fresh cuttings are planted in the prepared bed. When planting viola should be watered and sprayed with water.

Reproduction of culture by green cutting, allows in less than a month to get a hardened, full-fledged shrub ready for flowering.

Diseases and pests

Unfortunately, tender pansies do not bypass disease and pests. There are many illnesses of pansies:

Mealy dew affects the whole plant. The affected parts of the flower die over time, new buds are not formed.
Treatment: water-soap emulsion is sprayed over the plant.

Gray rot causes damage (rotting) of all parts of the plant. Treatment: spraying with 0.5% solution of copper oxychloride up to 4 times in 1 week.

Spotting - premature dying off of leaves, slowing flowering. Лечение: те же меры борьбы, что при серой гнили.

Чёрная ножка — развитие гнили на корневой шейке и корнях цветка. Развивается при излишнем поливе, плотной почве и застое воды. Профилактика: использование чистого посадочного материала, правильно организованный полив. Cultivating a crop in an over-wet bed leads to the death of plants.

Pests of pansies - aphid and spider mite. The affected plants wither, cease to bloom, eventually die. In case of severe infection, it is necessary to treat the flower garden with the appropriate pest preparations.

Pansies: combination with other plants

Violet Wittrock is perfectly combined with stunted perennials or biennials:

When planting flowers together, plants should be selected with a suitable size so that nearby growing specimens do not oppress each other.

An excellent combination on a flower bed is achieved by planting only pansies, with the choice of varieties of the same color, or multi-colored mixture. Such beds look elegant and decorative.

Pansies in landscape design

The use of pansies in landscape design is widespread and very justified:

  • young cultures bloom the same year (when sown through seedlings),
  • a wide palette of colors make it possible to choose the right variety for any decision of flowerbed design,
  • flowering culture begins quite early in the cold spring, when there are few flowering crops.

Viola curtains look great on an emerald green lawn. They spread carpet ornaments from the flowers, planted paths with them, planted them in hanging pots. Landing does not cause troubles and difficulties, and the care of the viol is quite simple, therefore, it is often used to design the territories in landscape design.