Before buying feeds for a milk cow, it is imperative to find out what kind of food the cows need to be given, since it depends on the diet, to a greater extent, the amount of milk that can be fed from one animal.
Nutrition also plays an important role in the process of preserving reproductive function.
The longer a cow gives calves, the better it will be for you.
Therefore, you should approach the issue of the diet of your milk cow very seriously.
To determine the optimal amount of food to be given to a milk cow, one should be aware of how this rate is calculated.
There are several guidelines that tell you how much food is required for your cow.
The main emphasis is on the weight of the cow, therefore, the more she weighs, the more food consumes.
Per 100 kg of live weight should be given for 1 feed unit. Also taken into account are the volumes of milk produced per day, the feeding, the age of the cow, the possible necessary weight gain, as well as the conditions of the animal.
So, for 1 kg of milk produced should be given 0.5 feed units. The younger the Burenka, the more energy she needs, so a surcharge of 10% will only positively affect the growing body.
If you are in front of, that is, bred, a cow, then she will need to give 1-2 feed units more food in order for the brute to regain strength.
If you want your ladybug to gain some weight, then she needs 0.5 feed units more than the norm suggests in order to achieve a weight gain of 1 kg.
Dairy conditions are also affected by the conditions of the barn, where the animal is kept.
Therefore, if it is impossible to somehow improve the exterior of the room, then the cow should be given 10% more feed.
How much feed should be given so that the animal doesn't accidentally overdo it?
This question can be answered by determining the dry matter content of the feed. The daily rate of dry matter is 2 - 3 kg per 100 kg of live weight of the cow.
If a cow consumes little juicy feed, then you need to increase the rate to 4 - 4.5 kg.
But the lack of these most succulent feeds needs to be replenished, since a normal consumption of a cow will be 8 to 10 kg per 100 kg of weight. Rough feed, the animal should be given no more than 1 - 2 kg.
Above, the phrase "feed unit" appeared. According to the standard, this very unit is equal to 80 - 120 grams.
The cow's body needs to be given both heavy and light carbohydrates, but in a certain ratio. For example, 1 feed unit may consist of 30 - 40 g of fat, 240 g of fiber, 7 g of salt, 86 - 108 g of sugar, 7 g of calcium and 5 g of phosphorus.
The basis of the diet of the cows is 3 types of feed:
Balancing feeds that are sources of energy and protein
Feed to ensure the nutritional value of milk
Rough feed, also called basic, animals should be given an unlimited amount twice a day. What was eaten was not needed.
As such "rough" products, you can make hay, straw, husk, husk. These feeds contain a large amount of fiber, which reduces the acidity of the stomach, so you need to give these feeds before you intend to feed the animals with concentrates.
But zootechnicians advise not to remove coarse feed from feeders at all, because exactly half of the daily ration of a cow should consist of such substances.
Balancing feed supplements coarse by eliminating the deficiency or excess of protein in the latter. Also balancing feed should be given to animals in the event of a lack of any vitamins and nutrients in the body.
To date, there are many types of feed that create a protein balance in the body of the animal. It is these compound feeds that are called balancing.
If there is too much protein in the cow’s body, at her food needs to be added cereals (barley, wheat, oats).
If protein, on the contrary, is not enough, the animal needs meal (rapeseed or soy). This type of feed contributes to the fact that a cow produces the most possible amount of milk.
Productive feed helps to increase milk production, as well as to improve milk in terms of nutritional value. If you keep the animal exclusively on the main feed, it can give a maximum of 15 - 20 liters of milk per day, even if these feeds are well balanced.
Concentrates are productive mixed fodder that provides milk production above the norm. At one meal a cow can be given a maximum of 3 to 4 kg of concentrates.
The best option would be give the animal concentrates in small portions every 4 hours during the day.
When calculating the diet, you must first calculate how much the cow should eat the main feed, how much - balancing, and after that - the number of concentrates.
The amount of nutritional component should be considered individually for each cow, based on milk production indicators. For every 2 liters of milk should be 1 kg of feed.
In the daily ration of a cow should include all 3 components, with 50% should be allocated only for roughage. The second half is diverted to concentrates and protein feed.
A cow must be provided with water, because if a cow gives a lot of milk, then she will also drink a lot. The best proportion between water and milk is 1: 3 in liters.
In the summer, cows will mainly feed on grass in pasture. In winter, all types of feed should be given an approximately equal amount.
Even in the matter of feeding dairy cows need keep balanceso that the animal feels comfortable and grateful to you in the form of a large amount of delicious fresh milk.
External characteristics of highly productive breeds of cows
Only cattle with a well-developed body (sternum and belly), proportional to the bowl or bath-shaped udder with medium nipples, with strong and healthy front and rear limbs, are able to process large amounts of blood. The size of the lungs and the state of the respiratory system depend on the size of the chest. If a cow has a large, whipped, but not saggy belly, it can consume large quantities of vegetable feed, thereby producing more cheap milk.
A bulky udder in dairy cows has thin skin and well-developed glandular tissue, which falls down and forms folds after each milking process, which makes it possible to use machine milking and favorably affects the health of animals - eliminates the appearance of mastitis. Strong limbs allow them to graze more time on pasture, and less rest, which prolongs the life of the cows.
Udder cup shape - the characteristic difference between dairy cows
Formation of signs of milk production of livestock
The productivity of milk yield with high content of fat and protein is directly dependent on the feeding of dairy cows and hereditary factors, therefore, acquiring a hen, ask her parents. It is desirable that the calf was produced from the purebred and upscale bull, which you will find at the station of artificial insemination.
Keeping and feeding dairy cows affects how much milk they give.
The rational and economical cultivation of a heifer is based on the abundant feeding of cheap vegetable food and ensuring the development and growth for the full realization of the genetic background obtained from pedigree parents.
Nutrients in the rations help the animals to move, breathe, work their heart, to ensure a constant body temperature, that is, they are a supporting food. In addition, you need a productive feed that is processed into milk.
The conditions of the cow have a direct impact on the amount of milk
What to look for when feeding dairy cows
In-bed cows need increased nutrition in order for the calf to develop properly. Enhanced nutrition contributes to the creation in the body of nutrient mineral reserves, which subsequently increase the amount of milk produced. With rational feeding should not overfeed the animal. When composing food rations, one should not forget about the unequal chemical compositions and nutritional properties of various vegetable feeds, as well as take into account the weight, age and dimensions of the cow.
The feed unit of nutrition is 1 kg of oats, which correspond to 2.5 kg of hay, about 6 kg of straw, 7 kg of fresh grass, 3 kg of potatoes. It is useful to feed dairy cows with meal obtained from flax and sunflower, which have a greater percentage of nutritional value than oats. The larger the size of the animal, the more it requires the number of feed units supporting food, as well as an increase to it to produce milk.
Food should be varied, feeding should not be disrupted.
In summer, most of the cow’s diet should be fresh grass.
Proper feeding of dairy cows is a guarantee that the milk will be tasty and healthy. Overfeeding a cow can hurt her. Milk is formed in her body only if it contains a sufficient amount of substances of a certain ratio, which are necessary for the animal's body. These are carbohydrates, vitamins, macro- and micronutrients - sulfur, cobalt, calcium, phosphorus, iodine and others, which provide the cow’s body with special feed additives that are included in their diets.
What does a cow need to eat to increase milk yields
- Foods with a large amount of carbohydrates, which are quickly digested in the stomach, forming glucose, and are part of fodder beet, potatoes, carrots, oats, corn silage, legumes, and cereal-bean hay.
- In the summer, they need fresh green grass, carbon, vitamins and concentrates.
- Mixtures of coarse bulky feed with strong protein feed.
- Silage feed (the most nutritious of beans and corn).
- Bone flour.
- Sena, improve digestion.
- By adding urea (carbamide) to the feed, which feeds the stomach bacteria, enriching them with protein.
- Vegetables and root vegetables - beetroot, pumpkin, carrots, potatoes, zucchini, which affect the improvement of appetite and increased yields.
Zucchini and other vegetables increase yields
Proper care of dairy cows and chicks
In summertime, animals should spend a lot of time grazing in meadows with lush green grass. In winter, a dry straw bedding should be used for the cow, clean its udders, legs, skin, after each milking, carefully wipe the udders and nipples, lubricate them with petroleum jelly so as not to crack, take the cow for a walk no less than a couple of hours a day. You can not make noise and rude handling of cash cows.
Chicks, which feed on mother's colostrum for up to six months, require special attention. They can not be overfed and accustom to the consumption of various feeds carefully and gradually.
The room that contains the calf should be spacious, dry and bright, with good ventilation. He needs daily walks and removal to pasture. Do not forget that in order to grow large, highly productive, healthy cattle, the heifer must be properly fed in the first two years after birth - an animal is formed during this period of time.
Digestion, milk formation, bones and muscles of the skeleton develop in heifers after six months of age. They are fed with juicy, rough and green fodder and concentrates, which develops the gastrointestinal activity of calves, protects them from the tendency to obesity and early onset of puberty, and contributes to the production of livestock with high milk production. In winter, they use cereal-bean hay, fodder beets and benign silage for their feeding, and in summer - fresh green grass on pastures.
Walking on pasture can significantly increase the productivity of cows
- Coarse, dry with plenty of fiber (hay with straw).
- Grain or concentrated, containing the necessary quantity of necessary substances and components of the basic diet of livestock (meal, cake, vitamins and minerals).
- Juicy, which include fresh meadow herbs, vegetables, silage.
- Green - easily digestible and digestible grass, containing in large quantities high-grade protein and many other nutrients.
- Dietary delicacies - oats, barley and wheat.
- Humennymi - barley and oat straw.
- Branches - needles branches: pine, spruce.
- Vitamin and mineral supplements (salt, bone meal).
- A dairy cow should consume enough liquid, best of all, clean water.
It is recommended that weight, age and lactation period be considered in the diet of Ayrshire dairy cows. Burenka with a mass of half a ton and an average daily milk yield of seventeen kilograms should be given the following feed:
- thirty kilos of silo
- five kilos of sugar beet,
- six kilograms of hay
- one and a half pounds of sunflower oil cake,
- seven hundred grams of wheat bran,
- one kilogram of barley flour,
- not less than forty liters of water.
In the stall period with a threefold feeding, feed should first be given, then the roots and tubers and only at the end of the hay.
It is better to divide the daily rate into three doses at once. If you put a daily dose in the feeder, the Ayrshirka starts digging in it and wets it with saliva. After that, she herself will refuse sour-smelling feed.
And when transferring from deadwood to grazing in the first fourteen days, they feed hay. Young green fodder on pasture they lack. This is done for cows according to their physiological state and needs. When the female begins to refuse additional food, you can not add hay.
On some livestock farms, cattle-feeding with amaranth has become popular. This green food makes cows feeding and the quality of dairy products higher.
Amaranth meets the requirements for amino acid composition, when there is not enough protein and vitamins in animal nutrition.
In Russia, the plant is often replaced by a spice, also from the amaranth family. Wild grass is considered weedy, but for animals it is a lot of good. For example, goats with pleasure savor shchiritsa.
The middle and the conclusion of lactation
The type of feeding of cows three months after the start of lactation should not differ much. Cattle owners aim to increase milk production. To maintain and increase it, feeding with bulky products is necessary:
- the amount of hay supplied is increased by thirteen percent
- haylage in feeding cows also takes up more space - from fourteen to twenty-two percent,
- with concentrates the opposite situation - their volume is reduced by fifteen percent or one hundred grams per kilogram of milk.
This is the time to compensate for the weight lost in the breakdown. By the end of the period, the Burenka adds up to eight hundred grams every day. The main thing is to prevent obesity, which negatively affects dairy individuals. Therefore, it is important to observe the rules of feeding for milk cows always.
In the final stage of lactation milk yield drops to twenty-five and ten kilograms, even in highly productive individuals. No need to give a lot of concentrates. Their number is reduced by one hundred grams. Root vegetables are given on the basis of one and a half kilograms for each liter of the product in excess of ten kilograms. Some females can store up to six MJ of energy. Due to this supply, they give more than 1.6 tons of milk in addition.
Any violations in the mode or balance of power lead not only to a drop in volumes, but also to the impossibility of returning to the initial level. Therefore, in the second half of lactation and at the end you can not give too much food, as in the first. So the farmer incurs additional expenses for food and goes to obesity of a livestock.
Feeding lactating cows in the final phase often occurs in the winter. At this time, many include in the diet certain portions of urea. Synthetic urea try to fill the lack of digestible protein, sugar and starch:
- feeding cows during the pasture period does not provide for the presence of urea, since it is sufficient in green grasses,
- urea is not combined with hay of legumes and with active giving concentrates,
- it can not be used in pure form with liquid food and drinking water,
- increasing the dose when feeding pregnant and dry individuals is fraught with scar diseases. Therefore, they can be given up to one hundred grams per day,
- giving to calves over half a year allows a cottage of fifty grams,
- feeding the fattening bulls means eighty grams
- Urea must be injected slowly from small doses and given along with pulp and silage. If there was a break, then again start with small volumes.
By the way, a few days before the calving, the dacha of beet pulp for dry individuals should be stopped.
There are certain recipes that help raise yields. One of them is to brew three kilos of bran. После того, как обварили кипятком, нужно подождать тридцать минут. Затем массу тщательно взбить и добавить соли, распаренного льняного семени и половину стакана настойки укропа.
Употребление такой каши желательно в утренние часы. Ten days later, when the milk will be more, you need to slowly withdraw from the diet mixture.
Sour-milk products made from cows are tastier when fed to the female with clover hay. Also, the quality and fat content of milk is well influenced by root vegetables, primarily the introduction of beets and carrots.
Optimal diet of dairy cows
Growing dairy cows is one of the main branches of modern animal husbandry. With proper care and nutrition, dairy and meat and dairy breeds of cows can bring quite substantial profits to their owner. The fundamental point in the cultivation of dairy cows, is the diet.
Improper feeding will lead to the fact that milk cows do not reach the level at which the milk yield will be maximum.
What should be taken into account when preparing the diet of dairy cows? The main factor influencing the growth and productivity of dairy cows is the amount of energy produced. So, to maintain life, a cow weighing 600 kg should receive 7,500–8,000 kcal per day, and about 712 kcal per day is needed to produce one liter of milk.
The main source of energy is carbohydrates. It is also necessary to pay attention to the amount of fiber. It depends on the digestibility of a particular feed included in the diet! The lower the fiber level, the more effective the feeding. For example: if you want to get up to 20 liters of milk per day, dairy cows should eat food with a fiber content of 20%, with 30 liters of milk per day - 14-16% of fiber. It is also necessary to pay attention to the conditions in which the dairy cows are located.
The optimum temperature is between +15 -15 degrees Celsius. The water temperature should be around 12 degrees, even in winter.
In addition, it is necessary to include in the diet of food 100-120 grams of protein, depending on milk yield. Dairy cows should receive calcium, carotene and a sufficient amount of phosphorus.
The diet of cows should include salt in the form of briquettes for sucking. Feeding should be calculated in such a way that per day per 100 kg of weight dairy cows receive 2 kg of roughage, of which at least 1.4 kg of hay, and up to 10 kg of succulent feed, while the optimum amount of fodder or sugar beet is up to 6 kg.
It is also necessary not to forget that the diet should include such amino acids as tryptophan in the amount of 2g per liter of milk and lysine - 1g per liter.
Diet for dairy cows in the summer
Feeding dairy cows in the summer period has its own characteristics, because nature itself has taken care to ensure that all healthy vitamins, minerals and trace elements are included in the diet of dairy cows at this time.
To do this, it is necessary to graze animals on pastures, or if this is not possible for some reason, then introduce freshly cut grass into the diet. The range of grazing land per dairy cow is 0.5 ha.
If you do not have such land, it is necessary to use bait.
How to feed a cow - the special nutritional features of the seasons
The diet of the feed in the summer per cow per day should be as follows:
- barley corn - 1,1 kg,
- Meadow hay - 6 kg,
- sunflower meal - 0.5 kg,
- oatmeal - 2 kg,
- wheat bran - 0.5 kg,
- cereal grass - 15 kg,
- meat and bone meal - 0.1 kg,
- meat flour - 0.5 kg,
- 0.07 kg salt
Diet for dairy cows in winter
The diet of dairy breeds in the summer is different from feeding animals in the winter.
Indeed, in the winter, you will not find fresh grass, in addition, as already mentioned above, you need to monitor the temperature of the water you give to the cows.
In winter, the following ingredients are necessary for feeding cows: coarse fodder - hay, juicy fodder - sugar beet, pumpkin, and concentrates. There are feeds that increase the fat content of milk in winter. Such feeds include: brewer's yeast, sunflower meal or hay of legumes. On an average day, a cow should eat up to 1.5 kg of hay per 100 kg of weight, not more than 40 kg of beets. Beets are best given at the rate of 1 - 1.5 kg per liter of milk.
Also in the diet of the cow must be present carrots, bran.
Now, knowing the basic principles of feeding dairy and dairy meat of cows in a different period of the year, you will be able to successfully develop your cattle breeding farm.
Approximate rations of highly productive dairy cows
Milk is formed from nutrients feed, sucked into the blood. For the formation of 1 kg of milk through the mammary gland flows up to 500 - 600 liters of blood, indicating a strenuous metabolism in lactating cows.
During lactation, the nature and intensity of the processes associated with the formation of milk undergo significant changes.
High-yielding cows experience an especially large energy need in the first period after calving, when the nutrients of the diet do not cover the expenditure of energy used for the synthesis of milk.
In this regard, at the beginning of lactation, they often have a significant energy deficit, to cover which the body intensively uses the nutrient reserves deposited in the body.
At the same time, in dairy cows, up to half of the energy consumption for milk synthesis can be covered by tissue reserves. However, the intensive mobilization of deposited fat during this period and the lack of carbohydrates for the coupled utilization of fatty acids can lead to the formation of a large number of oxidized products, metabolic disorders such as ketosis and a decrease in productivity.
A significant reduction in the energy deficit in this period in dairy cows can be achieved by introducing into the diet of energy-rich feeds - concentrates and tubers.
In the second period of lactation, the cow must replenish the supply of nutrients previously used for the synthesis of milk.
The decrease in productivity with the course of lactation should not be a reason to reduce the usefulness of feeding the animal, because during this period the growth of the fetus occurs, the formation of tissues and organs of which consumes a significant amount of organic and mineral substances.
Dairy cows are fed with regard to their live weight and daily milk yield in accordance with accepted standards, which are designed for full-aged animals of average fatness. Young cows, as well as full-age cows below average fatness, increase them on average by 10%.
The multiplicity of feeding of dairy cows usually coincides with the multiplicity of milking.
Hay and succulent feed should be given twice a day. It is impossible to leave dairy cows without hay and good straw, because of the fiber contained in them in the rumen acetic acid is formed, which is a precursor of milk fat.
In the summer in a green grass there is not enough fiber, therefore milk is less fat. Concentrates give at the rate of 300 g per kg of milk in the winter period, 200-250 g - in the summer. To obtain high milk yields from cows, it is necessary to start them separately for 10-15 days after calving, provided that the animal does not have any diseases of the mammary gland.
In the first 10 days, feeding cows should be moderate with a gradual shift to a full diet.
The best feed during this period is good hay and in a small amount juicy and concentrated feed. During the time of cows, in addition to the required amount of feed for the actual milk yield, an advance of 4-6 kg of milk per day is given in the amount of 2-3 feed units. An advance payment is given until the cows respond to it with an increase in productivity. After that, the diet of dairy cows is gradually adjusted to the actual milk yield. During the first three months after calving, a cow gives milk 40-45 percent of the annual milk yield, while there is an increased removal of nutrients from the body, which must be compensated.
When organizing abundant feeding of cows during the period of downturn, it is necessary to take into account the effect of feeding on the reproductive functions of animals, since during this period fertilization of cows takes place, therefore special attention is paid to their good nutrition and providing animals with nutrients in accordance with the norms of need.
In the diets of highly productive cows, you must use high-quality hay, roots and concentrates.
Hay in the diet should be introduced 8-10 kg, roots - 20 kg and concentrates - 6 kg, this diet provides a daily milk yield of 20-22 kg.
After the end of the breastfeeding, from the fourth fifth month of lactation, feeding of highly productive cows is carried out in accordance with the actual milk yield, in order to keep the daily productivity at a high level until the sixth to seventh month of lactation with a gradual decrease by the end.
To save feed, it is necessary to ensure the watering of animals in the winter with warm water (35-36 ° C), due to this it is possible to increase the milk productivity by 5-10%.
In the transition from winter-stall content to summer, digestive disorders are common in animals, leading to a decrease in milk yields and a decrease in milk fat. To avoid this, a gradual transfer of milk cows to green fodder, feeding 2-3 kg of hay, allows.
Green grass often has a low content of sugars, and therefore the value of sugar-protein ratio in it decreases.
To equalize the diet in terms of this indicator, it is advisable to additionally give 6-8 kg of fodder beet to highly productive cows. The lack of fiber in green fodder is especially felt during the first cycles of bleeding, which is why roughage should be an integral part of the rations during the transition period.
In addition to hay and haylage, you can use straw cutting, evenly mixing it with concentrates.
Feeding roughage with coarse fiber preserves the health and productivity of animals, increases the synthesis of volatile fatty acids, including acetic acid, in the rumen. When eating green mass of alfalfa, clover, pea in animals, there is an acute swelling of the rumen or tympania, which is due to a lack of fiber in legumes, with a large structure characteristic of hay and straw.
Here it is useful to recall that the genetic ability of cows to produce milk is primarily associated with the consumption of just bulky feeds.
Statistics show that the productive life of dairy cows is longer where they are fed less concentrate.
You can not feed the cows in the first days of grazing wheat bran.
Diet of dairy cows
They increase peristalsis and contribute to further dilution of the intestinal contents. Vegetable foods contain little sodium, so the table salt should be given to the cows regularly. With 1 l of milk, 1 g of sodium chloride is released on average, and on low salt rations the level of milk productivity decreases. Although salt lick only partially satisfies the need of dairy cows for sodium, it should always be in the feeders.
It should be noted that in green grass there is an increased amount of 4 to 5 times the normal amount of potassium, which increases the excretion of sodium from the body, causing salt starvation of animals.
To prevent this, the cottage salt is increased to 120-130 grams per head per day.
The second most deficient element in the diets of dairy cows is phosphorus. For balancing diets for phosphorus during summer feeding of livestock, it is preferable to use disodium phosphate, 100 g of which contains 22 g of phosphorus and 13 g of sodium. It is better to feed disodium phosphate in a mixture with mixed feed, as part of wet mash, or to add to feed mixtures.
It is highly soluble in water and contributes to an increase in milk fat.
During this period, special attention should be paid to the usefulness of feeding dry pregnant cows. In the last third of pregnancy, their need for nutrients increases by 15-20%. Unfortunately, they are often fed uniform food during this period and do not give concentrates at all.
Calves are then born weak, constantly ill, many expensive medicines are consumed for their treatment.
Of these, it is difficult to raise good cows. It is very important to remember the water needs of cows. Milk contains on average 87% of water, therefore the level of its consumption largely depends on the size of milk yield. Cows drink about 4 kg of water per 1 kg of milk, and they are more sensitive to lack of liquid than feed.
Translation of livestock from pasture to stall is also a crucial moment.
Green food of the autumn period (after perennial grasses, rape, corn, fodder, tops of root crops, waste from vegetable gardens) are valuable sources of protein and vitamins in the diet of animals, but they are distinguished by high humidity, low nutritional value, they are low in easily dimmable carbohydrates, fiber, macro-and micronutrients.
Only the green mass of corn is characterized by a high amount of sugar with a lack of protein, so you need to consider that the diet will not be balanced.
This leads to a decrease in animal productivity, a decrease in milk fat content of dairy cows due to a change in the digestive processes in an unfavorable direction.
As the analysis shows, the maximum milk yield is obtained in the first half and mid-summer (June, July), and since August they are reduced, which is especially noticeable in September-October, when the transition to winter feeding is underway.
From the second half of the summer, the transition from summer feeding to winter one actually begins.
Reducing the amount of grass on pastures and deterioration of its quality, which occurs in August, leads to the need in September to almost completely satisfy the need of dairy cows for energy and nutrients through winter fodder, and to use pasture and green fodder in stalls only as an additional feeding , combining with active walks of livestock and providing a gradual adaptation of animals to winter feeds.
Introduction to the diet of watery fodder (fodder cabbage, tops of root crops, waste of horticulture) is well combined with giving hay, straw.
Simultaneously with the beginning of lactation, it is necessary to monitor the behavior of the cow in order to identify hunting for subsequent mating or insemination.
Sexual hunting is understood to mean the period of sexual arousal, when a cow exhibits the so-called immobility reflex, that is, it stands quietly in a characteristic pose when other animals are jumping on it.
Hunting in cows and heifers usually lasts 10-12 hours, but its duration can vary widely from 1-2 hours to 1 / 4-2 or more days.
Flow can last up to 3-4 days.
A characteristic feature of it is the leakage from the genital organs to the outside of the vitreous transparent mucus, formed by liquefying the mucous plug of the cervical canal. By the end of estrus, the mucus becomes thicker and muddy. For many cows, the signs of hunting are so short-lived and mild (quiet estrus) that they usually do not notice it and the animals remain inseminated.
Such cases are especially common in fresh cows.
To identify hunting in cows and heifers it is necessary that they move freely. With round-the-clock keeping of cows on a leash, it is difficult to determine the optimal time for insemination, since the duration of estrus varies greatly depending on various factors.
It is usually recommended to inseminate a cow when the mucus flowing from the genital organs is most liquefied and transparent.
In the pasture season, 80-90% of cows hunt begins to appear in the early morning hours and only 10-20% of animals the rest of the day. When pasturing animals on pasture in the morning, signs of hunting can be identified in almost 100% of cases in the first 30 to 60 minutes after the cow is freed from the leash.
From the biological and economic points of view, the most expedient is mating of cows in the 1st hunt after calving at the end of the 1st month of lactation.
During this period, lactation has not yet reached its peak and no lactation dominant is observed.
We understand the basics of the diet of dairy cows
Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation
Ural State Academy of Veterinary Medicine
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
subject: "Feeding farm animals"
on the topic: "Feeding dairy cows"
3 course, group 31 "Z"
Basics of normalized feeding
2. Feeding dairy and dry cows
3. Nutritional table of feeds and feedings
4. Feeding rates for full-age dairy cows with live weight of 500 kg, per head per day.
Calculation of the need for feed for a year per cow and for all livestock
The number of cows in the farm is 500, with a live weight of 500 kg.
Feeding dairy cows
The yield per year from one cow is 2718 kg. The stable period from October 1 to June 1, from June 1 to October 1 - pasture.
The farm has the following feed:
Spring wheat straw,
grass grassing pasture.
Make a diet for 1 cow per month.
Nutrition table of feeds and dressings
Dairy cattle breeding is the most important branch of animal husbandry, it largely determines economic efficiency in agriculture and production.
In recent years, in connection with the transition to market relations in cattle breeding, as in all agriculture, significant changes have occurred. Резкий скачок цен на промышленные и сельскохозяйственные товары, снижения уровня кормообеспечения и другие факторы, обусловили кризис в молочной отрасли и в других отраслях животноводства. Это привело к существенному снижению поголовья крупного рогатого скота и уменьшения уровня молочной продуктивности.
In this situation, the collective farms are taking the necessary measures to increase the production of livestock products with minimal labor, fodder and money.
There are great opportunities for this. It is necessary to skillfully use the achievements of science, technology and advanced production experience. Livestock production is biotechnology, which is a system where the animal takes the main place.
Without the systematic implementation of the achievements of zootechnical and veterinary sciences, the proper organization of feeding, housing and care, the use of progressive forms of work organization - it is impossible to unleash the genetic potential of animals.
The main direction in the development of dairy cattle breeding is its intensification.
The effectiveness of intensification is to implement the following development paths:
Full implementation and increase of the genetic potential of dairy cattle.
Abundant, biologically complete feeding of animals.
Procurement of a sufficient amount of high-quality feed.
The introduction of rational technology.
Long-term use of cows, which calve every year and for many lactations, maintain stable and high milk yields - a pledge to get out of the crisis situation in dairy cattle breeding and to fully provide the population with food.
Feeding affects on development, growth intensity, body weight and reproductive functions of the animal.
Only with the full provision of cattle with high-quality feed can livestock be successfully developed. Of all environmental factors, feeding has the greatest impact on productivity. In the structure of the cost of livestock production, the share of feed in the production of milk is 50 - 55%, beef - 65 - 70%, pork - 70 - 75%.
For livestock, it is not only the quantity that matters, but mainly the quality of the feed, i.e.
their value is determined by the content of nutrients. Such rations and feeds that contain all the substances necessary for the body of an animal and are capable of ensuring the normal administration of all its physiological functions for a long time are considered complete.
Basics of normalized feeding
In the conditions of intensification of livestock production and production on an industrial basis, the organization of the proper full feeding of farm animals is of particular importance.
The organization of full feeding of farm animals is determined by the quality of food.
The animals' need for energy, nutrients and biologically active substances is expressed in the norms of feeding.
Normalized feeding This is called feeding, in which the animal receives the necessary nutrients in accordance with its physiological needs.
Feed rate called the amount of nutrients needed to meet the needs of the animal to maintain the body and obtain the intended products of good quality.
Feeding rates are reviewed periodically. If non-compliance with the norms of feeding in the diet may be an excess of substances and lack of others. Practice shows that the observance of new standards of feeding can increase the productivity of animals by 8 ... 12% and at the same time reduce the cost of feed per unit of production.
In the detailed norms for animals of different species, taking into account their physiological state, age and productivity, the following indicators are indicated: amount of energy (in feed units, energy feed units), dry matter, crude protein, digestible protein, lysine, methionite, cystine, sugar, starch , crude fiber, crude fat, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cabalt, iodine, carotene, vitamins: A, D, E, B1, B2, B3, B4 , B5, B6, B12, in some cases, vitamins C and K.
Based on the norms of feeding make up the daily diet.
Diet - this is the necessary quantity and quality of feed, which corresponds to the norm of the animal's need for energy, nutrients and biologically active substances at a given level of productivity, ensures the safety of health and obtaining high-quality products.
The diet is made up for a certain period of time (day, decade, etc.) for each mature group of animals.
They are systematically reviewed and adjusted depending on the availability of feedstuffs. If the diet according to the main nutritional indicators meets the needs of the animal, then it is called balanced. Interest ration should be balanced in all standardized indicators and ensure that it is fully fed the planned level of productivity. In the preparation of a full-fledged diet should pick up food and various mineral and vitamin supplements.
For this, along with the norms of feeding and nutritional value of the feed, it is necessary to know the characteristics of each feed, i.e. its palatability, taste, the presence of organic acids, the effect of food on health, productivity and product quality.
Great attention in the preparation of the diet pay attention to its cost.
Important when feeding animals diet structure i.e. the ratio of certain types or groups of feed (coarse, juicy and concentrated), expressed as a percentage of the total nutritional value.
Compliance with the optimal structure of the diet is very important for the normal process of digestion and the required ratio of nutrients in the diet.
The table shows the structure of the diet, developed by the All-Russian Research Institute of Livestock (VISH) and recommended for dairy cows.
The systematic combination of feed in the diet creates a certain feeding type , which is understood as the ratio (in percent of the total nutritional value) of the main groups or types of feed consumed by animals for a year or a season.
The calculation is based on the ratio between concentrated and bulky feeds. The name of the type of feeding is determined by the type of feed prevailing in the diet. For example, if haylage and silage predominate in cattle rations, then this type is called silage and hay, if silage and root crops are silage and root crops.