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Ultra Early Potato - Farmer: variety description, photo, detailed description

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Potato Farmer - population variety. This hybrid belongs to the table varieties of very early ripening. From the moment of planting, you can harvest in 50 - 60 days. And under good conditions of storage of seed tubers and favorable weather conditions, these periods are shifted to 40 - 50 days. An interesting fact is that the tops of the hybrid are green and with flowers almost to the cold, but mostly the physiological period of its withering away is in the region of 70 - 90 days. The most favorable during the growing season is considered to be the temperature of 15 - 20 ° C. Also important is sufficient soil moisture, especially during the growth of tubers. These indicators allow cultivating the Farmer variety practically in all regions of our country.

The hybrid plant has a bright green color, the plant is erect, of an intermediate type, with not very intense white flowering, the inflorescences are small, few-flowered. Tubers of elongated oval shape with yellow skin, on which there are shallow, sparse superficial eyes. The flesh is light yellow with excellent taste. Starchiness is not very high - at the level of 12%. When boiling potatoes do not crumble, suitable for cooking any dishes.

Potato Farmer has a high and stable yield, about 800 - 900 grams of potatoes can be harvested from a bush, the average weight of a tuber is 90 - 110 grams. The peculiarity of this variety is its resistance to degeneracy, subject to planting seed tubers from the best bushes. Such a crop is able to maintain a variety up to 5 years, or even more. It is important that an elite reproduction was used during the first landing. The Farmer potato growing zone is also considered an important point - in the southern regions, the degeneracy occurs much earlier, almost in a year or two. This is due to high temperatures and the population of insect pests, vectors of diseases (Colorado potato beetle, aphid, cicada). In the northern areas there is no such problem.

In order to take the maximum yield, you must follow many rules for plant care, harvesting. Consider the main ones.

  1. Timely prevention of pests and the introduction of soil herbicides. Do not wait for the moment when the Colorado potato beetle will eat half the green mass. Even before its appearance, it is necessary to treat plants with pesticides.
  2. It is necessary to spray potatoes from late blight, and up to 6 times over the entire period of potato growth.
  3. If you plan to send the harvested potatoes for sale, you need to dig up the tubers late, when the stems are completely dry, because only then will the potatoes have all the necessary characteristics for export. If you need seed, then you can dig it in the stage of technical readiness, that is, in early August, when the stem is just beginning to turn black. New technologies for growing potatoes imply cleaning in 2 stages: first, the entire tops are completely eliminated when it begins to change color, then after 15-16 days the tubers. This allows you to accumulate all the nutrients in the roots, as well as significantly increase the keeping quality of potatoes (peel becomes denser).
  4. Crop rotation is extremely important. It is impossible to plant the same crop from year to year, especially if it is potatoes. Once every 4 years - an ideal crop rotation, and the predecessor should be peas or beans. If before this pumpkin grew, for example, you should not wait for a big harvest.
  5. Watering is done at least 4-5 times per season, but it must be before the flowering and 12-14 days after that - it is at this moment that the tubers begin to form and you need to give them as much moisture as possible so that they gain mass.

To date, a record crop is 1200 kg / ha, that is, 1200 kg per one hundred square meters. It was the Dutch farmer who received it in 2005. The mass of the largest potato - 4.5 kilograms, it is listed in the Guinness book. Adhere to the Dutch technology and perhaps the next record holder will be you!

Botanical description

"Farmer" refers to typical potato varieties that are actively cultivated in temperate climates. Therefore, the plant is characterized by an average length of shoots and low expressiveness relative to other cultures. But despite this, the plant has unique features, the combination of which determines its main distinguishing features.

Tubers of a plant are characterized by the following botanical features:

  • size - medium, fruits of the same type,
  • the shape is oval, elongated, the tubers look neat and balanced,
  • peephole type - small, superficial,
  • peephole color - no staining,
  • skin type - thin, smooth,
  • the color of the peel and pulp is monochromatic, light yellow shades prevail,
  • average weight - 90-110 g,
  • the amount of starch in 100 g - 10-12 g,
  • culinary qualities - potatoes are suitable for cooking boiled and fried dishes; when slicing and heat processing the tubers do not fall apart, they also retain the color of the pulp.

Plant bushes are characterized by the following botanical features:

  • bush size - medium,
  • the type of stem is intermediate, upright, forms not spreading branches,
  • green mass formation is medium,
  • leaflets - medium-sized, medium-sized, they are characterized by a weak waviness of the edge and clearly traced veins,
  • leaf color - bright green,
  • corolla - compact, assembled from several large flowers,
  • the color of the flowers is white,
  • berries - small and few,

Disease resistance

Farmer is highly resistant to many potato diseases found in the Northern Hemisphere. This plant is highly resistant to the following ailments:

  • potato cancer,
  • late blight tops,
  • late blight of tubers,
  • nematodoses

However, in order to obtain high and high-quality yields, the green mass of potatoes must be processed against the Colorado potato beetle and aphid.

Terms of ripening

"Farmer" is characterized by early ripening. Tubers are ready to harvest in 50-60 days after planting. Under particularly favorable conditions, as well as in a zone with a tropical or subtropical climate, the tubers mature 40–45 days after planting.

Yield

Potatoes have high yields, about 1–25 tons of potatoes can be harvested from 1 hectare of plantings. This means that a single plant can form at least 10-15 tubers. In addition, the Farmer variety has a fairly high commercial quality, since the percentage of substandard tubers after harvest is minimal, regardless of the climatic conditions and the growing region.

Harvest "Farmer" has a high keeping quality (90-95%). Tubers are perfectly stored at a temperature of + 2-3 ° С for many months, while the storage room for the harvest must be periodically ventilated to avoid excessive moisture.

Growing regions

The Farmer potato grows well and bears fruit in both northern and temperate and tropical climates. Plants are able to actively grow and develop even at a temperature of about + 10-15 ° C, however, the richest and highest-quality yields are observed in regions with a warm and mild climate, with a minimum number of sharp changes in seasonal temperatures.

Growing seedlings from potato seeds

In most cases, the active cultivation of potatoes involves the cultivation of the crop by planting seed tubers. This agricultural technique makes it possible to obtain high-quality potatoes for many years. However, in order to achieve the highest possible yields on an ongoing basis, it will not be possible to manage without growing seed seedlings. Only reproduction by seeds is able to provide the plants with the necessary exchange of genetic material, which completely excludes the degeneration of the variety. Therefore, below we consider all the main subtleties and features of this process.

Optimal timing

Sowing seeds for seedlings in temperate climates is carried out in the second half of March, as the plants will need at least 1 month to fully form before planting on the site. In a warmer climate, it is possible to start growing seedlings much earlier, but certainly not earlier than 1-1.5 months before the estimated date of planting plants to a permanent place, since at least 3-4 true leaves should be formed on them. Otherwise, in the open field seedlings will die.

Seed preparation

In order to germinate as efficiently as possible, and the resulting seedlings are highly resistant to all kinds of environmental challenges, the seeds must first be prepared for sowing. This process makes it possible not only to improve the quality of future planting material, but also to reject seeds with a low viability index. The procedure includes the following steps:

  1. Sterilization of sunflower seeds - dry and fresh seeds are soaked for 5 minutes in a disinfecting solution, then washed abundantly with cooled boiled water. As a sterilizing liquid, you can use a 70% ethanol solution, a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution or a 0.8% potassium permanganate solution.
  2. Hardening of sunflower seeds - seed should be evenly, sprinkle in a single layer on a small saucer, then pour a small amount of cooled boiled water. During the day, soaked sunflower seeds are kept in room conditions, and at night in a refrigerator, at a temperature of about + 5 ° C. Hardening is carried out for 2 days.
  3. Pre-germination - sterilized and hardened seeds are laid out in a saucer, on a white cotton cloth or filter paper at a distance of 1 cm from each other, then moistened with a small amount of warm water. In this form, the seed is kept in a warm and lighted place for several days, until a small bore and spine appear. Next, sprouted seeds are ready for sowing into an artificial substrate, not sprouted seeds are rejected.

Soil and capacity for seedlings

Growing seedlings on light, but fertile soils. For these purposes, you can use as a ready substrate for solanaceous crops, and prepared personally from a mixture of peat, garden soil and sand (4: 2: 1). Potato seedlings are grown in small containers, not more than 0.5 liters in volume. For these purposes, you can use as specialized garden pots made of plastic or porcelain, and simple plastic cups. Like the majority of horticultural crops, potatoes are best grown with periodic picking, so for germinating seeds, you must definitely get containers with different volumes - from 0.1-0.2 ml to 0.5 liters.

Sowing seeds

Seeds are sown in a superficial way, in a moist and slightly compacted soil, wrapping no more than 1–2 cm in a layer of soil, otherwise the similarity of seeds is reduced several times. Sown containers must be covered with glass or cut off the top of a transparent plastic bottle before the first gatherings.

Periodically (1 time per day), the shelter should always be ventilated for 10 minutes, and the soil should be watered as needed. Potato seedlings are particularly susceptible to damage by any pathogenic fungi, therefore, a few days before sowing sprouted seeds, the substrate should be necessarily treated with Trichodermine, Fitosporin or any other complex fungicide.

Seedling care

Potatoes are a more fastidious crop than tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables, so proper and careful care of the seedlings is the main condition for healthy and fruitful plants. Best of all, she feels in a warm and lighted place, without drafts, at a temperature of + 20-25 ° C. If possible, the plants need to be illuminated, since a lack of light can lead to excessive stretching of the seedlings.

Seedlings require gentle irrigation, since an excess of moisture can cause putrefactive damage to the stem and rhizomes, so they water it with a small amount of water and only if a small dry crust appears on the ground. To improve plant growth, they are periodically treated with complex mineral fertilizers, as well as biostimulants. Mineral feeding is carried out no more than 1-2 times, spraying biostimulants carried out periodically, according to the manufacturer's recommendations.

After 2 true leaflets appear on the plants, they dive into hotel tanks, after which, after 2-3 weeks, they begin to harden the seedlings. This procedure helps young potatoes to acclimatize under natural conditions. Hardening is the gradual training of the plant body to possible sharp drops in temperature. As a result of the process, plants have a high natural resistance to various abiotic environmental factors. It is carried out 5-6 days before planting in open ground, at an average daily temperature of about + 10 ° C. Hardening consists of the following steps:

  1. Primary cooling of plants - for this purpose, for 1-2 days, the flowerpots with the seedlings are kept in the open air at a temperature of + 10-15 ° С for no more than 3-4 hours.
  2. Prolonged cooling - the plants are kept for 2-3 days after the initial cooling in the open air at a temperature of + 10-15 ° С for 5-6 hours.
  3. Full movement in natural conditions - for this, the seedlings in the basins are moved to the natural environment on a permanent basis, up to and including transplantation to a permanent place.

Transplanting seedlings in open ground

Quite often, the majority of both beginners and experienced growers at the stage of transplanting plants in natural conditions make many fatal mistakes. As a result, seedlings grown by painstaking labor die, which almost completely destroys all chances to achieve high yields. Therefore, we will further examine in detail the main subtleties and the main stages of this process.

VIDEO: CULTIVATION AND CARE OF POTATO BREEDING

Choosing a place

As mentioned above, potatoes prefer light, fertile, slightly acidic soils, so the highest crop yields are found on black soil or peat soils. It is also possible to actively grow crops in areas with sandy, loamy, and even sandy soil, but such areas must be well-fertilized with organic and mineral fertilizers.

Great attention should be paid to the place of the plot where the vegetable will be cultivated. Potatoes prefer a sunny, free from the dense shade, but a quiet part of the garden, without serious drafts. You also need to make sure that the landing site has a high level of groundwater. This indicator should be not less than 80 mm of productive moisture in the horizon of up to 1 m. Despite the fact that the culture does not like an overly wetted substrate, a high level of groundwater will allow plants to endure summer drought, which is especially important for regions with warm and dry climate.

Traditionally, legumes are the best predecessor for all vegetable crops, so yields after legumes are always of high quality, as well as excellent taste characteristics. Not bad fruit culture after cereals, onions, cabbage, cucumber, sideratov, carrots, peppers, beets and garlic. As a predecessor for potatoes, any of the varieties of solanaceous crops (tomatoes, eggplant, vegetable peppers, etc.) should be avoided, since this often negatively affects not only the yield, but also the general epidemic condition of the site.

Therefore, in order to get rich and high-quality yields of the Farmer, one should always adhere to the system of small crop rotation. It includes the consistent cultivation of mutually beneficial plants that contribute to the restoration of the soil after the main crop. In this case, the potatoes should be grown in the same place, not earlier than once every 3 years.

Such a system includes the following crop rotation:

  • potatoes - the main culture,
  • green manure culture (rye, oats, etc.) - the first predecessor, is sown in the fall, immediately after harvesting potatoes, after which young plants are mown before the onset of frost. During the winter, the grass decomposes and becomes a natural fertilizer for the soil,
  • cabbage, cucumber, pumpkin, zucchini- the second predecessor, is planted for the next season after potatoes and green manures,
  • legumes (peas, beans, soybeans, etc.) is the third and final predecessor, it contributes to the complete restoration of the soil and its saturation with easily assimilated nitrogen compounds.

Soil preparation

Planting potato seedlings, like any other agricultural crop, provides for preliminary soil preparation at the site. It makes it possible not only to eliminate a huge amount of weeds and pests, but also to saturate the soil with the necessary oxygen, as well as to give it the necessary structure for growing the crop. The process involves the following steps:

  1. Осенью, до наступления морозов, участок нужно обязательно освободить от лишней ботвы, сорняков и прочего мусора, после чего тщательно вскопать на глубину не менее 30 см. Additionally, in the ground you can create small grooves, which will help in the spring to remove excess moisture from the site.
  2. In the spring, after the snow cover descends, the soil is leveled with a rake, which makes it possible to keep it at optimum humidity.
  3. When the optimum temperature for planting comes, mineral (Nitrophoska) or organic fertilizers are applied to the soil surface, then it is plowed thoroughly and then leveled with a rake.

Landing pattern

In modern agronomy, there are many ways and approaches for placing potato plants on the site. But most often breeders resort to row planting culture. For this, on the ground, parallel to the short side of the plot, the required number of rows is marked with a garden marker. The aisle should be about 60-70 cm. Plants are planted in rows, at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, after which they should be carefully wrapped with soil. The depth of each well depends solely on the type of soil. For chernozem and sandy soils, it is in the range of 10-12 cm, for clayey soil it should not exceed 6 cm.

How to care

After the seedlings have been planted in open ground, careful care is required. Despite the fact that the plants were grown from seeds, their physiological features are no different from their relatives. Therefore, the further care of the seedlings is practically no different from the care of potatoes for tuber reproduction.

Potato is a demanding crop, so seedlings must be periodically watered. Watering in the early stages of plant acclimatization is especially important, since the lack of free moisture can cause the death of seedlings. The main sign of the need of potatoes for watering is a distinct dry crust on the soil with a thickness of 6 cm or more.

It is best to carry out the procedure in the evening, because only at this time the water will be able to evenly soak the soil, without drying out under the rays of the sun. Adults average bush will require about 3 liters of water, while for young seedlings, this volume will not exceed 1 liter.

For stable growth and development of potatoes, in addition to essential nutrients, plants will need a huge amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium and calcium. Therefore, potato plantations necessarily need to be fed with high-quality fertilizers. For the first time the soil is fertilized in the spring, immediately before the plowing of the plot. To do this, 500 kg of manure or humus, as well as 3 kg of ammophoska should be added to the soil per 1 sq.m. Organic fertilizers are more preferable than mineral fertilizers; however, in the absence of them, organic matter can be replaced with Kemira Universal Universal complex fertilizer, Kemer Potato (3 kg / sotka) or analogs.

Extra root dressing is carried out 2 times during the period of active vegetation: before hilling and during active budding. To do this, you can use the manure dissolved in water in proportion (1:10) with the addition of ammonium sulfate (1.5 tbsp l / 10 l) or use mineral fertilizers. For this fit any complex mixture based on magnesium, potassium and phosphorus.

Weeding and loosening the soil

Weeding from weeds and loosening are among the main conditions for the successful cultivation of agricultural plants. Loosening is also called “dry irrigation.” This vegetable is quite demanding on the amount of available air in the soil, and also has a low resistance to weed control, so these procedures are mandatory and are carried out periodically throughout the season. For the first time, loosening and weeding is carried out a week after planting, and then as necessary.

Loosen the earth to a shallow depth, no more than 3-6 cm. The most optimal period for this is a warm sunny day, closer to noon. In this case, it is possible to ensure the plant not only the optimal air regime, but also to destroy up to 80% of the weeds.

Hilling

Often culture spud twice per season. For the first time, the procedure is carried out 10-14 days after planting, and then repeated after 2-3 weeks. However, if double hilling does not produce the desired results, it is repeated 10–14 days after the previous one. At the same time it is necessary to adhere to the equal height of the mounds. It should be between 14 and 20 cm.

Preventive treatment

As practice shows, potatoes grown from seeds are more intensively affected by all sorts of pests. Therefore, prophylactic treatment of plants with complex means of protection is a vital condition for growing a crop.

Plants are often treated once, 2-3 weeks after planting the seedlings. Repeat the procedure as necessary, after the second hilling in the case of mass distribution of pests on neighboring areas. As a means of protection using any complex drug from the nearest garden shop.

Harvesting and storage

Harvesting potatoes in the temperate zone often takes place in the second half of August, but in a warmer climate, the optimal period can be 1-2 weeks earlier. A clear sign of the maturity of the tubers is the drying of the leaves in more than 50% of the planting area. Previously, 7-10 days before the start of picking potatoes, mow the tops in the plot, leaving a small stem process no more than 10-12 cm in height.

Harvesting is carried out on a warm and sunny day. Dug up tubers are collected in baskets, then poured into larger containers, and then sent to a permanent storage location. Before storage, potatoes must be carefully washed, dried, rejected unsuitable tubers. Seed tubers require mandatory "greening". To do this, they are kept for 7-10 days in a dry, warm and lighted room (without direct sunlight). In such conditions, they form a special substance, giving them a green hue, the so-called solanine. It contributes to the protection of tubers from microorganisms, pests and rodents, until the spring thaw. Store the crop in a dry, ventilated room at a temperature of about + 5 ° C.

Advantages and disadvantages

Like any other vegetable culture, the Farmer potato variety has its advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, before embarking on the active cultivation of this variety, it is necessary to become familiar with them. This will help not only to protect themselves from all sorts of unforeseen circumstances during the cultivation of culture, but also from unnecessary waste of effort and money.

The main advantages of potato "Farmer":

  • resistance to infectious diseases
  • high yield
  • almost perfect shape and size of tubers,
  • excellent taste of tubers,
  • short time of fruit ripening,
  • a high degree of preservation of the crop for a long time.

The main disadvantages of potato "Farmer":

  • need for special soil conditions,
  • plants need a special water-ground regime
  • low resistance to colorado beetle and aphid.

"Farmer" is one of the most high-yielding varieties in modern horticulture. Despite the fact that the potato was not bred by professionals, the “national breeders” managed to create a really high-quality product that could profitably present domestic vegetable growing on the international market. However, potatoes require careful and painstaking care, as well as a special microclimate at the site.

Potato Farmer: variety description (with photo)

Potatoes of the table variety Farmer are classified as hybrids of super early ripening. After 50–60 days after planting, you can safely harvest. This period can be significantly reduced (almost 40 days) if you store seed tubers correctly in a dry cool place, and the vegetative growth period of the plant occurs under favorable weather conditions - warm, sunny summer with regular, not long rains.

For the Farmer, the most favorable is the air temperature within 15–20 ° C, also good soil moisture is important. Due to this, the variety is adapted for cultivation in almost any region of Russia and many CIS countries with a moderate to sharply continental climate. Of course, in the southern regions, the farmer ripens potatoes faster and produces higher yields.

The variety Farmer was never included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. It is the result of popular selection - long-term artificial selection.

The considered variety showed itself well in cultivation both in private gardens and in farms on an industrial scale. Another advantage is resistance to degeneration. Seed tubers can be taken from the previous crop for 5–6 years without renewing.

Qualitative characteristics

In a potato farmer, an erect shrub of medium size, its branches are not spreading. Bright green leaves have clearly traced veins and slightly wavy edges. Large white flowers are collected in a compact halo. The plant retains its succulence along with the flowers for a very long time, up to 90 days from the moment of emergence.

Productivity is estimated as high: each hectare will produce from 200 centners of selected tubers with high taste characteristics. Root crops have an oval-elongated shape; they are predominantly large, with a minimum amount of non-commodity fines. On one bush can form from 10 to 15 potatoes weighing 90-110 g.

Each potato bush Farmer produces up to 15 large tubers

Tuber skin light yellow, smooth and thin, uniform color. Eyes small, shallow, close to the surface. The pale yellow flesh contains only 12% starch and a large number of useful substances: protein, amino acids, fiber. Tubers do not crumble when cooked, the pulp retains its shape in fried form, so the Farmer's potatoes are perfect for any dishes, even convenience foods, for example, frozen fries.

Pale yellow potato flesh The farmer contains little starch, so does not crumble during heat treatment

Variety Farmer are not afraid of the disease, characteristic of most nightshade. It is resistant to:

  • golden cyst nematode,
  • potato cancer,
  • fungi,
  • viruses.

Long stay in the soil after full maturity can lead to the formation of late blight, so it is recommended not to postpone the harvest. For the purpose of prophylaxis, it is recommended to water the soil with fungicides before planting and pickle the seed.

Tubers Farmer potatoes are characterized by high keeping quality, although the variety refers to early ripening. For several months they do not lose their presentation, do not shrivel and do not germinate if they are stored at a temperature of + 2 ... + 5 ° C in a dark, well-ventilated room.

Growing potatoes from seed

Potato seed propagation is somewhat more complicated than the traditional planting of tubers from the previous harvest, but it is also possible. Its peculiarity is that the harvest of the first year will be relatively small, but in the second year it will become consistently high.

Farmer potatoes successfully grown and from seeds

Growing potatoes from seed, you will encounter certain difficulties.

  1. Potato seedlings have a weak root system, it is difficult for it to grow through the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a very soft, light soil with high air conductivity. You can use the store soil for seedlings or carry out cultivation on wet sawdust.
  2. Since the potato shoots are small, thin and fragile, they need good lighting. It should be sufficient for the sprouts to harden and begin to grow. Keep in mind that with a remote source of illumination, seedlings can become very stretched and weak. You should also be very careful to pick and transplant, so as not to damage the sprouts and their roots.
  3. At the beginning of growth, potato seedlings are susceptible to black leg disease. To avoid infection, take preventive measures by treating sprouts and soil with black yeast or trichodermin.

Dive seedlings

Sprouts are ready for picking and transplanting from the moment when 2 true leaves appear on them. For Farmer potato varieties, the picking process can be skipped and the bushes should be immediately seated in different pots. In the bottoms of the containers must make a drainage hole.

When transplanting seedlings, carefully pour them with a solution of phytosporin on the edge of the container, so that the liquid does not fall on the shoots (this can lead to black leg disease).

Water the seedlings so that the water does not fall on the leaves, and the soil is always slightly moist.

The potted land should always be slightly damp, but not wet. So the seedlings will grow and take root before transplanting to open ground.

Planting in open ground

When the threat of frost ends (usually this happens towards the end of May), plant seedlings on a permanent bed. By this time, 4–5 adult leaves are already formed on each sprout, and the root system will become quite developed. If in your region during this period there are still sharp cold snaps, the garden bed with potatoes can be covered with a film, creating a greenhouse above it.

  1. Dig holes about 10 cm deep. Observe the distance between them depending on the desired result: 20 cm is enough for a large number of medium-sized tubers, and 50–70 cm is needed for large tubers.
  2. Add humus to each well and pour in plenty of water. When planting seedlings, deepen it so that there are 3 leaves above the soil.
  3. If your site has heavy clay soil, it should be lightened by mixing with sawdust, sand or humus in a 1: 1 ratio. This is necessary for good rooting of the bush and its proper development.

Potatoes grown from seeds do not require special care. Measures are standard: weed in time for planting, carefully loosening the soil, and spud 2-3 times per season.

Pay special attention to the fight against the Colorado potato beetle. Experience shows that he eats plants planted with seedlings in the first place. Over the summer, you will have to process potatoes against a beetle 5–6 times.

Colorado potato beetle is a great danger for seed-grown potatoes.

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