To date, the same requirements are imposed on various household structures as on residential buildings. Of course, a pleasant view of a garage or a shed is not the main thing, but if the availability of suitable materials on the market allows you to make a structure with good visual qualities, then you should not neglect this possibility.
One of the most notable buildings on the site, not counting the apartment building, is the garage. Despite its quite utilitarian purpose, the garage can be made in the same architectural style as all the buildings adjacent to it. This article will discuss how to make a dual-slope garage roof with your own hands.
The device and the advantages of dual roof for garage
The dvukhskatnaya roof is a roof structure, in which there are two located under a certain slope of the slope. At the bottom of the construction rests on the walls of the garage, and at the top converges to the ridge girder. From the side of the gable, such a roof has the shape of a triangle with equal hips.
The dual slope roof for a garage is distinguished by the following qualities:
- Ensuring independent precipitation from the roof surface. The presence of two slopes, located under the slope, allows rainwater and snow masses to leave the roof. In addition to the fact that the roof does not have to be cleaned on its own, it also reduces the load on the roof system. Particularly relevant dual roof construction is in regions with high rainfall in winter.
- Small cost. For dvukhskatnoy roof does not require a large amount of materials, so the design is economical. In addition, it is quite possible to find cheap lumber and roofing coverings on the market, which further reduces the cost of roof arrangement.
- Easy installation. This item can be partly combined with the previous one - the dual-slope roof is quite simple to install, so it is quite possible to assemble it with your own hands without attracting professional builders.
- Low heat loss. The roof with two slopes has the highest energy efficiency compared to other types of roofing structures used to overlap the outbuildings. This item is especially important in the event that heating is provided to the garage.
- Expansion of free space. Of course, the main purpose of a garage is to store a car or other equipment, but in most cases various tools or spare parts are stored in it. In order to increase the space that can be used to store such things, a dual-slope roof is quite suitable - the attic is settled under it without problems.
The dual-pitch roof, in addition to the advantages described above, differs from the lean-to structures also by its appearance. A garage with two slopes looks like a full-fledged separate building, which, using the same roofing material as on the main building, allows it to withstand the general architectural style.
Designing a gable roof
You need to start building a garage roof with the creation of its project, for which you need to know three basic parameters:
- The height of the skate,
- The slope of the roof slopes
- Type of roofing.
Having an idea of the shape of the future roof structure, you can begin to calculate the loads that will arise in it. Be sure to calculate the total weight of the roof - it affects the strength and size of the foundation for the garage.
First, the slope of the slopes is selected - it affects all other parameters. The double-slope garage roof is usually mounted with a slope of slopes of about 20-30 degrees, which is quite enough for most roofing. The exception is the metal tile - to arrange the roof using this material, the slopes will have to be placed at an angle of more than 35 degrees.
Next, you need to calculate the height of the ridge. Since the dual roof in the frontal projection has the form of an isosceles triangle, the appropriate formulas are suitable for the calculations.
The formula for calculating the height of the skate is as follows:
where b is the width of the garage
and - the angle of slope of the slopes.
As a rule, the height of the roof at standard slope values is about 1.5 m - this is quite enough for arranging a full-fledged attic room.
The next step is to determine the length of truss legs, for which the following formula is used:
The length of the rafters depends on the type of construction of the truss system to be used. In addition, knowledge of this indicator is required to purchase the required amount of materials. For the formation of eaves overhangs, the estimated length of the rafter legs must be increased by 30-50 cm.
When choosing materials for rafters, you need to take into account the fact that standard beams are 6 meters long. To increase the length of the rafter, it is necessary to splice several parts into one, using nails or glue compositions.
How to make a truss system
An integral element of any pitched roof is the roof system that provides support for the roof structure and evenly distributes all the loads present in it along the walls of the garage. For arranging the truss frame, it is best to use beams from coniferous woods, having previously treated them with antiseptics and fire retardants.
There are two main types of roof systems:
- Hanging. This type has two reference points - at the top of the rafters they rest on the ridge girder, and at the bottom they are attached to the power plate. Hanging rafters are great for arranging a double-sloped roof over a single garage of a small area - in such a building there are usually no internal load-bearing walls, therefore, to mount additional support will not work. When using hanging rafters there is no tearing load, which allows to reduce the number of parts in the frame. To increase the rigidity, additional elements are used - tightening, struts, etc.
- Impulsive. A distinctive feature of this type of truss frames is the presence of a vertical rack that rests on the supporting wall located inside the building. This design allows you to distribute the load on a greater number of supports, reducing the degree of impact on individual elements of the building - that is, it is an excellent answer to the question of how to make the roof of the garage better. In the nylon rafters there is both a bending load and a bursting load. This type of truss framework is suitable for covering spans up to 28 meters wide, but they are much more difficult to design and install.
Before you make rafters on the garage, you need to carefully calculate them. In the process of calculation it is necessary to take into account the own weight of the frame - it also affects the foundation of the garage. That is why it is important to competent selection of beams for rafters - their thickness and number should not be too large.
Installation of a dual roof on the garage do it yourself
Of course, the wrong choice of materials or design errors can cause premature destruction of the roof, but most errors are made during installation. To prevent them, it is worthwhile to carry out all the work in strict accordance with the project, in which the methods of fastening the various structural elements, their location and dimensions should be displayed.
With his own hands, the dual slope roof of the garage is settled according to the following algorithm:
- First, a mauerlat is installed on the upper belt of the walls with a square cross section of the profile, which is thicker. Mauerlat is needed to create a support that evenly distributes the weight of rafters across all load-bearing walls. Before you fix the roof on the garage, you need to cover the upper part of the wall with a layer of waterproofing, and then fix the power plate with anchor bolts.
- Next begins laying truss pairs. Near the ridge, they are connected by metal plates, and from the bottom - by nails or self-tapping screws. First of all, the extreme pairs are set, between them the cord is stretched, which is necessary for the rest of the rafters to be on the same level.
- Installed and fixed rafters with a stapler fasten strips of waterproofing material. From above, the waterproofing is closed with a counter-grate, which is attached along the rafters.
- A crate is mounted above the counterbribe, on top of the rafters, for the manufacture of which usually used edged boards or moisture-resistant plywood. The installation step of the lathing depends on the chosen roofing coating - a continuous lathing is required for a soft roofing, and for the profiled sheet or metal tile the grid one is quite suitable.
- To the crate with self-tapping screws attached roofing. The technology of mounting different materials may differ, so before you do the roof of the garage with your own hands, you need to select a specific material and study several articles on how to fix it. After the installation of the roof remains to mount the drainage system and sew up the gables.
In the event that the garage will be heated, the slopes and gables must be insulated. Basalt wool or expanded polystyrene plates are best for this.
Double-slope roof on the garage - this is an excellent and quite profitable solution. If you think out the design of the dual-slope roof well and implement it with high quality, you will get a reliable and functional design with good visual characteristics.
The first step in the construction of a two-sided roof for a garage with your own hands is the creation of a project reflecting the basic parameters of the structure. To get to work, you need to define three main characteristics: the height of the ridge, the slope of the slopes and the type of roofing. Calculations when creating a project are carried out taking into account the loads placed on the frame elements. The total weight of the roof is calculated to determine how deep the foundation is required. To sketch a working scheme, you need to correctly make the following calculations:
- Based on the chosen slope of the slopes, calculate the height of the ridge of the roof. For this purpose, geometric formulas are used, since the frontal projection of the dual-slope roof is a triangle. The distance from the base of the roof to the ridge is calculated as the height of an isosceles triangle formed by the slopes and the base of the roof using the formula: h = 0.5 * b / tg (α / 2), where b is the width of the garage, α is the slope of the roof. In most cases, for the organization of attic storage and observance of a slope of 20-30 degrees, the height of the ridge is 1.5 m.
Important! The choice of a suitable roofing material depends on the angle of slope of the slopes. The slope of 20-30 degrees, which is recommended to do for the roof of the garage, most experienced roofers, can be used as a coating of soft tiles, decking, slate or roll materials. But the metal tile, popular in the construction of their own hands, requires the slope of slopes of 35 degrees or more.
The basis of each dual slope roof is the roof frame, a set of elements that ensure the stability and stability of the roof structure. The roof of the garage is built on the basis of rafters made of coniferous wood, impregnated with antiseptic and refractory substances. Depending on the layout of the building, the weight and surface area of the roofing material, 2 different types of roof systems are used:
- Hanging. A characteristic feature of this type of rafters, which distinguishes them from naps, is that they have only two points of support. The upper part of the rafters rests on the ridge girder, and the lower part is attached to the power plate. This option is used to overlap garages for one engine room, where there are no load-bearing walls inside, which can be used as an additional point of support. Hanging rafters do not have a tensile load, they only work on deflection, therefore there are fewer elements in such a system. To stabilize the frame mounted tightening bolts, headstock and struts. With the help of hanging rafters, you can do it yourself to block a garage up to 14 m wide.
Note! When calculating the truss system take into account the weight of its elements, as it increases the load on the foundation. To avoid overload, leading to deformation of the base of the building, it is necessary to observe a balance between the thickness of the section and the number of rafters. The size of lumber is chosen in accordance with the tables, taking into account the length of the rafters and the step between them.
The most crucial moment if you are building a roof with your own hands is installation directly. In order to avoid mistakes, it is better to sketch a schematic drawing reflecting all the dimensions of the frame elements, the distance between them, and also the method of fastening. Works are performed in the following order:
- Lay and fix on the upper zone of the walls, along which will be located slopes, Mauerlat. This term refers to a thick bar with a square cross-section, which evenly distributes the load transmitted from the rafter to the supporting wall. A waterproofing material is placed on the upper part of the wall and the mauerlat is fixed using anchor bolts.
- Install the truss pair, connecting at the top of the metal plate, and at the bottom - with nails or screws. First, install the extreme legs, stretch the cord between them, and then fix the rest, checking the location and angle between them using the building level.
Note! If the premises of the garage will be heated, thermal insulation of slopes and roof gables are performed. To do this, use non-combustible fibrous insulation, for example, basalt wool or polystyrene foam.
A timber intended for the manufacture of a mauerlat is fixed on the upper part of the wall on which the rafters will be laid.
For garages of brick or porous material, the mauerlat is mounted across the entire upper part of the wall.
Installation of timber
The timber is attached to the top of the wall. Do it in two ways:
- Offset to the side
- In the middle of the wall.
Recommendation! Mauerlat can not be placed on the edge of the wall, you must retreat at least 5 cm.
To protect the timber from dampness, before installing the waterproofing layer of ordinary roofing material on the wall surface. Since the structure is under severe wind stress, the power plate must be securely fixed to the top of the wall.
- Anchor bolts. Great for monolithic concrete walls.
- Wooden pins Apply when fastening to wooden walls, but they need to be strengthened with additional fastening.
- Studs or staples. Suitable if the walls are made of porous materials.
- Hinge mount. The installation of the mauerlat by this method provides the necessary displacement of the rafters with a possible shrinkage of the building.
- Soft wire. Used as a reinforcing mount.
Truss construction can be made in 2 ways:
- Installation of rafters directly on the roof. This work is rarely done because it is difficult to measure, trim and other work at height. But this allows you to perform all actions without assistants (with a small amount of roof trusses),
- The connection of all the elements on earth. In this case, large parts of the structure (pairs or triangles) are collected on the surface of the earth, after which they are lifted to the top. This method speeds up work at height. But the mass of parts of the truss structure requires lifting equipment or attracting assistants.
Installation of rafters
The prepared trusses are raised on the walls and fastened to the power plate. At the bottom of the rafters in advance prepare gash.
Attention! Since the saw cuts on the Mauerlate will significantly reduce its strength, gash is prepared only on rafters. To make the same cuts exactly the size, use a plywood template.
Methods for mounting truss structures are shown in the figure.
The first trusses are placed on opposite sides of the roof.
Recommendation! For accurate installation of rafters, it is advisable to temporarily reinforce them with braces and struts.
Between the extreme pairs of rafters stretch the cord - it will make it easier to install the truss pair, and at the same time designate where the ridge should be located. After that place the remaining rafters on the space marked for them.
The knot of the skate is fitted by joining truss legs at the top.
This is done in several ways:
- Without support bar,
- With a rafter bar. So create a roof on the garage of a large area. Subsequently, the timber can be used as a support for the rack,
- Way lining the beam. The modern method of device ridge node
When the rafters are installed, all parts of the structure must be securely fastened.
It is necessary to make the sheathing, the roofing material is attached to it, and it helps to move around the roof during work.
The pitch of the batten is chosen taking into account the roofing material used:
- For laying metal - 350 mm,
- For laying slate and sheeting - 440 mm,
- For a soft roof, you need a continuous crate.
После крепления обрешётки на неё укладывают кровельное покрытие. Его размещают внахлёст, чтобы швы получились герметичными. В конце монтажа покрытия крепят водосток, утепляют и обшивают фронтоны.
Remember! If you are building a heated garage, then you need to insulate the gables and roofs of the roof. For this fit fibrous non-combustible insulating materials - for example, you can use polystyrene foam or basalt wool.
Features of care and operation
It is necessary to carry out annual cleaning and thorough inspection of the roof.. Constant monitoring will allow time to notice the threat to prevent subsequent destruction.
The roof made of corrugated board is functional and serves for a very long time thanks to a reliable polymer layer - it protects the roof covering from corrosion. Constant exposure to moisture and low temperature, UV radiation, various contaminants cause the destruction of the polymer coating. For this reason, roof cleaning is a necessary job for longer life. Cleaning is convenient to perform a jet of water, directing it along the slope from top to bottom.
Snow rarely collects on the polymer coating, and the matte surface does not allow it to slide down. Roof cleaning is performed using tools that cannot damage the material. For this fit a wooden scraper with a pad of soft rubber.
Soft roofs are subject to the same effects as other coatings. Timely preventive examinations will allow time to detect defects in the roofing carpet and quickly eliminate the shortcomings.
Behind the roof, covered with natural tiles, almost no maintenance is required. Cleaning the snow cover from the snow is done with scrapers, a spatula and a soft whisk that will not damage or move the tiles. Seasonal inspection includes monitoring hook strength and leak detection. Work carried out in soft shoes every 4 years.
The construction of a double-slope roof on the garage requires compliance with safety requirements, as well as any work at height, and it is necessary to follow the rules of electrical and fire safety. Only this way the roof will serve you for a long time and at no extra cost.