Along with potatoes, cabbage is the most common vegetable in Russia and the post of Soviet territory. It is impossible to imagine a farm where the cabbage does not grow in the garden. Its large fruits provide families with a quality vitamin product for the whole year. It is salted, pickled, pickled, harvested salads and so on. But along with the traditional, white cabbage, some advanced gardeners prefer to plant other varieties - kohlrabi, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and of course red cabbage, that's about it, let's talk in more detail today.
This variety, as well as the traditional, mainly grown seedlings. Begin to sow the seeds of early ripe varieties, around mid-March, 15-20 numbers, and varieties that have a later maturity around the tenth of April. In a box with a depth of ten centimeters poured the land for seedlings, which is best to buy, make grooves at a distance of a couple of centimeters, put germinated seeds one centimeter apart, which are also deepened by one centimeter. Next you need to tamp lightly, pour, cover with either glass or plastic wrap and put on a sunny window sill. Every day for five minutes, remove the film, thereby giving a breath of red cabbage.
In a week, the seeds will slip, and in another fifteen days two true leafy plates should appear. As soon as this happens, the time has come for picks. It will be better to arrange red cabbage in disposable half-liter cups for beer. Make a hole at the bottom to remove excess moisture, pour the ground into them, the same, and transplant. After the plants adapt after picking (about a week), the temperature should be lowered to eight degrees. Otherwise, the seedlings will stretch and go to the tops.
Planting seedlings in the ground
As soon as four or five true leaves appear on the seedlings, it is time to plant them in the ground. It will happen approximately May 15-20. Land needs to be prepared in the fall. To compost or humus - a bucket per square meter, nitrophoska according to the instructions, perekapal and shed. In the spring to make urea, as per the instructions on the package.
In the spring the bed should be burst with a rake, form holes, and plant the seedlings at a distance of forty centimeters from each other. Plant without removing roots from earthen lumps. Dig one centimeter from the first leaves. The roots need to be well compressed, so that they fit snugly to the ground. Water well. The first time while the seedlings did not adapt to daylight shade.
Care is the proper watering, loosening the soil, hilling and timely feeding. Red cabbage is poured over the growing season every three days. At the stage of the ovary heads and up to harvest once a week. If the weather is rainy, then do not water it. Overmoistening is fraught with root rot and cracking of the head.
It is necessary to loosen the soil once a week to ensure air circulation in the soil. Spud twenty days after planting. Feeding is carried out twice a season. The first is nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, in mid-June. The second time is phosphate and potash, at the stage of the ovary of the heads. And the rest of the cultivation of red cabbage does not differ from the usual, traditional varieties. Have a good harvest!
Growing red cabbage in the country
Growing red cabbage differs little from growing white cabbage.
The need for growth conditions
Cabbage can not be grown in shady places. Cabbage requires a lot of light, this plant is a long day, i.e. with a long day, she has faster development processes. The lack of light leads, as has already been said, to the accumulation of nitrates, impairing the development of the plant. Lacking light, the lower leaves stop growing, the head is not tied.
Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant, it can tolerate a short-term decrease in temperature to -5 ° C, and lower in the fall. For cabbage growth, cool weather with a temperature of 15–18 ° C is most favorable. Temperatures above 25 ° C adversely affect the formation of heads. In hot, dry weather, an increased accumulation of nitrates begins.
Cabbage is very demanding on moisture, but excessive moisture is harmful to it. When excessive moisture begins to die off the roots, the leaves die and bacteriosis develops.
Cabbage is placed after well-fertilized crops. Early varieties well placed after onions, cucumbers, tomatoes. Late varieties can be placed after potatoes, roots, legumes. At the same place it can not be grown more than once every 3-4 years to avoid diseases. Next to cabbage plants, it is good to grow celery, thyme, sage, coriander and anise to scare away cabbage flies and for the development of entomophagous insects that destroy eggs and larvae of cabbage pests.
Preparing the soil for growing cabbage
Cabbage consumes a lot of nitrogen, potassium and calcium. Under it use high doses of organic fertilizers (manure or compost). But the introduction of large doses of nitrogen contributes to the deterioration of product quality - increases the content of nitrates, reducing the content of sugars and dry matter.
The best effect is obtained when combining organic fertilizers (30-60 kg per 10 sq. M) with mineral. Under the ripened cabbage varieties need to make only greenhouse humus or compost. Fresh manure can be applied only under late and mid-season varieties and only in the fall, scattering on the soil surface. It should not be allowed to mix manure with lime, which is also introduced in the fall.
The best ratio of fertilizers for cabbage: 30–60 kg of organic fertilizers plus 90–120 g of mineral nitrogen, 90 g of phosphorus and 60 g of potassium, and 1-2 g of boric fertilizers per 1 sq. Km. m
With spring plowing, all phosphorus, 2/3 of potassium and half of nitrogen are added. The rest of fertilizers - when closing rows and curling heads.
Manganese, boron and copper are the most important microelements for cabbage. Putting them in dressings (preferably foliar) increases the yield of early cabbage by 20-30%, late - by 10%.
The optimum pH value of salt extract of the soil for cabbage is 6.6-7.4. On sod-podzolic soils, liming of the soil is necessary, it prevents many diseases of cabbage and contributes to the proper assimilation of nitrogen fertilizers. On average, on slightly acidic soils, from 1 kg (on sandy soils) to 4 kg (on clayey) lime is introduced, and on strongly acidic, respectively, from 2 to 10 kg per 10 square meters. m. Lime or chalk contribute in the fall, scattering them on the surface of the excavated soil. The introduction of lime not only changes the acidity of the soil, but also improves its structure. Excess calcium cabbage tolerates well.
With optimal soil acidity, the number of bacteria increases significantly, the number of fungi decreases, and the development of pathogenic microorganisms, as a rule, does not acquire a dangerous size.
Growing red cabbage seedlings
Cabbage is grown seedlings to accelerate ripening. Seedlings of the same age, grown in different calendar periods, differ sharply. Improving the temperature and light regimes accelerates the rate of growth, and with earlier sowing the development of seedlings can go slower if the growth conditions are worse. Therefore, calculating the time of sowing cabbage for seedlings, we must bear in mind the possibility of creating good conditions for growing.
For cultivation in open ground without shelter, early varieties of cabbage can be sown from March 10 to 15 with a landing on a permanent place in late April - early May. Seedlings can be grown in a greenhouse with solar heating or a hotbed under the film, prepared for the earliest possible sowing from April 10-20.
Before sowing, the seeds are pickled in a solution of potassium permanganate or disinfected with hot water with a temperature of about 45–50 ° C for 20–30 minutes, followed by rapid cooling in cold water. In order to increase the yield and resistance to diseases and pests, seeds are treated with biological activator of growth and development before sowing - Agat-25, El-1, Albit, Zircon.
The best way to get healthy seedlings is cultivation in cassettes (pots) with a volume of 65 cm3 (4.5x4.5x3 cm). The seedlings grown in cassettes tolerates transplant more easily, they are ill little.
Seeds are sown to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, the crops are immediately watered. For the cultivation of cabbage seedlings, they maintain a temperature of 15–18 ° C during the day and 8–10 ° C at night.
To increase growth, anti-stress activity, as well as resistance to diseases, 10 days after sowing and 5 days before planting at a permanent place, the soil is treated with a 0.015% solution of sodium humate.
Seedlings are fed two times: in the phase of two or three true leaves and 3-5 days before planting in the ground. For dressings, 15 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium chloride are diluted in 10 liters of water. On one plant, use 0.15 liters in the first dressing and 0.5 liters in the second. Spraying cabbage in the phase of 6-8 leaves with Silk leads to an increase in yield, an increase in the content of sugars and vitamin C.
7-10 days before planting in open ground, it is hardened, i.e. maintain in more severe conditions: strengthen ventilation, reduce the temperature, reduce irrigation.
By the time of planting, the seedlings should be hardened, 18–20 cm tall, with 4–5 well-developed leaves (this is 35–45 days old).
In case of violation of the growing mode (poor ventilation, thickening of plants, severe temperature drops and over-wetting of the soil), peronosporosis (downy mildew) may appear. It appears on cotyledons and leaves of the seedlings in the form of gray-yellow oily spots, covered with a powdery underside of the plate. To combat peronospora, cabbage is pollinated with wood ash (50 g per 1 sq. M) with an interval of 5-7 days. But first of all it is necessary to provide optimal conditions for the maintenance of plants.
Cabbage seedlings are often affected by blackleg. The infection persists and accumulates in the soil, develops with excessive air humidity, sharp fluctuations in soil temperature and thickened planting, the absence of ventilation. When the black leg symptoms appear (the root neck and stem turn black, thin) the plants should be watered with a 0.05% potassium permanganate solution (5 g per 10 l of water - crimson). To the treated plants pour calcined sand with a layer up to 2 cm.
At low boggy ground, cabbages should be planted on ridges 100 cm wide and 18-25 cm high. In areas where there is no danger of waterlogging, cabbages are grown on a flat surface. Cultivation in narrow beds has a positive effect on the quantity and quality of the crop.
Cabbage need to take a very bright place. Even a slight shading will lead to slower development and lower quality - a decrease in the content of vitamins and the accumulation of nitrates.
Terms of planting red cabbage
Cabbage is a cold-resistant plant that can tolerate lower temperatures to
5 ° C, but only very briefly. Therefore, planting cabbage seedlings to a permanent place can be started from mid-April under a film with frost cover with a nonwoven covering material. Shelter planting nonwoven material increases the temperature by 1.2-5.1 ° C, accelerates the production of environmentally valuable products by 7-10 days, increases the yield of 2.3-5.4 times. At the same time, the seedlings are not pulled out, since nonwoven material allows air to pass through more easily. Shelter non-woven material and especially the film must be removed in a timely manner, in May days should not be overheating, which leads to stretching of seedlings, curvature of the stems.
In the field without shelter, seedlings of early and late-ripening cabbage in the middle lane begin to be planted in the second half of April (depending on the position of the plot and on the weather) and end between May 5 and 20. Mid-season varieties can be planted in the same time frame, but if there is not enough time, then seedlings of medium varieties can be planted later.
Early varieties are best grown in narrow beds of 1-2 rows at a distance of 70 cm between rows and 30-35 cm in a row. For mid-season varieties, the distance between the rows is 70–80 cm and in the row 50–70 cm (depending on the size of the head), for late-ripening varieties, the distance between the rows is at least 70 cm, in the row 80–90 cm. decreases the amount of vitamins in the heads. Saving space can result in less quality products and lower yields.
In order to use the area in the first month more rationally, it is possible to plant early vegetables between plants, which will be removed within one month.
The sequence of actions when planting cabbage
Seedlings best planted in the afternoon.
1. 2-3 hours before planting, watering of seedlings is watered in order to minimize damage to the roots. To stimulate rooting, you can pour it with water, and with a solution of heteroauxin (2 tablets per 10 liters of water).
2. The root system of the seedlings taken out of the pot (cassette) is immersed in a clay talker with the addition of 0.3-0.4%, a solution of Fitolavin-300 for protection against the black leg and bacteriosis.
3. In the wells for planting add chalk and a handful of humus, the wells are poured with a suspension of the biological product nemabakt to fight with a cabbage fly.
4. Each plant is planted in the hole to the cotyledon leaves, tightly pressing the roots of the soil. It is necessary to carefully take care of the heart (apical kidney), in no case do not sprinkle it with earth. Care must be taken that the roots do not buckle or clump together, but are distributed more or less evenly so that the seedlings are well compressed by the ground (after planting, with light twitching, the seedlings should not be removed).
5. Under each plant is poured 0.5-1 l of water. When watering, the watering can should be kept as low as possible to the ground, as the water trickles falling from the height destroy soil lumps, after which a crust forms.
6. After an hour or two after watering, the surface of the soil is sprinkled with dry earth. The last operation is important, it can be equated to watering.
7. To scare away a cabbage fly, the next day after the cabbage is planted, sprinkle the soil around the plants within a radius of 4-5 cm with tobacco dust or its mixture with freshly sour lime or ash (1: 1). On 1 square. m spend 20 g of this mixture.
Seedless growing method
Cabbage is frost-resistant, early and medium varieties can be sown directly into the soil 3-6 weeks before the last frost. Off-plant cultivation has the advantage that plants always grow in one place and their root system is never damaged. This method mainly grows early-ripening and mid-season varieties.
Sowing is carried out in a well-dug soil, sowing in the nest of 3-4 seeds at the same distance as the transplanting. Then seed gently
without nitrates, they are covered with earth or a mixture of peat and humus. When growing cabbage, it is advisable to use a non-perforated film, removing it no later than the 2nd true leaf. Microclimate contributes to a more rapid passage of developmental stages in which plants are susceptible to disease. Further cultivation under the film leads to stretching of the seedlings, the curvature of the stems.
When the second and third true leaves appear, they are thinned, leaving two in the nest first, and after repeated thinning, one plant each.
To improve immunity, cabbage is sprayed with immunocytophyte in the whorling phase and tying a head of cabbage, 300-500 ml (0.01%) of the working solution per 10 sq. M. m, it is possible with the same purpose to apply the Gibbersib solution. They sprinkle cabbage 3 times: in the phase of 6-8 leaves, at the beginning of the formation of the head and 7 days after the second spraying.
Good growth and the formation of a high yield of cabbage are possible only with good water supply. Cabbage is particularly sensitive to the lack of moisture in the first time after transplanting in open ground, as well as in the phase of active growth and heading.
During the rooting of the seedlings it is watered daily, the daily water consumption per plant is approximately 100 ml. In hot weather, plants are covered with a newspaper to reduce the evaporation of moisture.
It is necessary to water the cabbage every 6-7 days, pouring 1-2 liters of water into the hole under the plant, and during the growth of the head, this rate is increased to 3-4 liters of water. Overdrying of soil can lead to cracking of heads, but excessive watering is also harmful. It is better if in the initial period of cabbage growth the soil is saturated with water more or less evenly up to 70% of water capacity. During the formation of a head of cabbage, more is required. And 2-3 weeks before harvesting the cabbage watering is again reduced.
Loosening the soil and hilling
10–15 days after planting, the first loosening of the soil around the plants is carried out.
The first hilling is carried out when large leaves start to form, the second - 20-25 days after the first. Early and middle varieties spud 1-2 times, late varieties with high stumps 2-3 times. Spud better on the second day after the rain. It is important that a loose, moist layer of soil, rather than dry lumps, is attached to the plant. When hilling in dry weather, you must first pry the top layer of dry soil, and then spud cabbage with raw earth.
Окучивание вызывает образование дополнительных корней, усиливает снабжение капусты питательными веществами и водой, а также придает растению необходимую устойчивость. After the formation of 8-10 leaves, the cabbage has a large surface and is swayed by the wind so much that at the base of the stem in the ground a funnel-like expansion is formed. Strong swinging of plants prevents good rooting of cabbage, therefore hilling has a positive effect on the development of plants.
When the tops cover the inter-row spacing, hilling is not carried out, since the soil retains its friability well without that.
Early cabbage is fed 1-2 times during the growing season, mid-season and late-ripening cabbage 3-4 times.
Cabbage needs enhanced nitrogen, potassium and calcium nutrition. At the beginning of growth, cabbage consumes more nitrogen, during the formation of the head - phosphorus and potassium. In general, the higher the ratio of potassium to nitrogen, the better the cabbage is preserved, the lower the lesion of necrosis, and even better if the amount of potassium is 1.5-2 times more than nitrogen.
In the first feeding (usually two weeks after planting) on 1 square. m bring urea 10 g, 20 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride 15 g. Mineral fertilizers are applied dissolved in water into the grooves in the middle of the rows, which are made at a distance of 10–12 cm from the row or well, after fertilization, the wells fall asleep.
The second dressing is used at the beginning of the setting of heads, 2-3 weeks after the first. Fertilizers are introduced in the middle of the rows between the depths of 12–15 cm, the complex contains 10–12 g of urea, 20–30 g of superphosphate and 15–20 g of potassium chloride.
For later varieties grown for storage, the dose of potassium should be increased. Therefore, subsequent feeding for late-ripening cabbage varieties is carried out in two weeks per 1 square meter. m 15 g of potassium chloride. Top dressing bring in the damp earth after a rain or plentiful watering. Nitrogen fertilizers in any form cease to apply to the cabbage a month before the harvest is removed in order to avoid damage by point necrosis and bacteriosis.
If plants of late varieties of cabbage are poorly developed, foliar feeding is needed. To do this, for 4 liters of water take 1 kg of potassium chloride, 70-80 g of double superphosphate and 10 g of molybdenum. The solution before spraying incubated for 24 hours. If the plants grow slowly, then 1% urea is added to the top dressing.
Cabbage pests and diseases control
To scare insects cabbage plants treated with infusion of tops of tomatoes or potatoes, red pepper. Against aphids, you can also use a tobacco solution with the addition of household soap or a solution of wood ash with soap (5 g of soap and 20 g of ash per 1 liter of water).
In order to increase yield and resistance to diseases and pests, three weeks after planting, plants are sprayed with the growth biostimulator Symbiant-Universal. On 1 square. m will require 400 ml of the working solution containing 0.001% of the drug. You can recommend other anti-stress drugs that increase the overall immunity and resistance to diseases - Immunocytophyte, Immunophyte, Gumat sodium.
When growing cabbage from the very beginning it is necessary to monitor the appearance of a cabbage fly around the stalks of plants. To scare away the flies themselves, immediately after planting the cabbage, sprinkle the soil around the plants within a radius of 4-5 cm with tobacco dust or its mixture with freshly quenched lime or ash (1: 1). On 1 square. m spend 20 g of this mixture.
To protect against cabbage fly is also used "collars" of plastic film or thick cardboard, which are placed around the stems of young plants.
If you want to lay cabbage for long-term storage, you need as much as possible to keep a large number of outer leaves. Heading must be carefully carried without causing injury, without damaging the leaves.
Red cabbage can be ready for harvest from the beginning of September. Formed heads of cabins must be removed to severe frosts.
Red cabbage is transportable and is well preserved in the storage for 3-5 months in a cool place, protected from frost.
Description of red cabbage
The plant is characterized by frost resistance and heat resistance. Culture is widespread in many regions of Russia. It also differs from white cabbage in late ripeness, higher resistance to diseases and pests, lower yields. In addition, red cabbage is much better stored, without losing useful properties.
Red cabbage varieties are very diverse, some of them are very unusual (for example, Kalibos red cabbage variety, the heads of which have a conical shape.). Varieties can have different ripening terms (early ripening, mid ripening, late, medium late). The best in taste and duration of storage are: Ruby MC, Gako, the aforementioned Kalibos cabbage, among other things, is excellent for canning. Given the main characteristics of each of the varieties, the gardener will be able to choose the most acceptable variety of red cabbage.
Growing red cabbage
Belonging to a particular variety determines the period of heading, which varies from 105 to 200 days. For example, when growing the middle-ripe variety of cabbage Kalibos, it takes 105-120 days from planting to harvest. Planting culture can be done in two ways: seed and seedling.
The first option involves the use of a large number of seeds, as well as providing careful care for the sprouts at the beginning of the growing season. Therefore, the seedling method looks more economical and easier.
In the southern regions, sowing of seeds is carried out in the middle of spring, in areas with a cold climate, the period of planting is shifted to April-June.
It is worth noting! Culture is unpretentious to cultivation.
Do not rush to open the package with seeds. First you should carefully read the landing rules indicated on it. Then, before planting the seeds, they should be disinfected and the hardening procedure carried out. To do this, they need to hold in potassium permanganate or in hot water for twenty minutes, and then cool. Fertile soil is used for planting the treated seeds. Between the holes, the depth of which is 4 cm, the same distance is maintained (60 cm). Four seeds are placed in one well. From above it is recommended to add a small layer of peat with humus and ash. Thanks to this procedure, the likelihood of infection with the cruciferous flea will be reduced. As soon as the shoots rise, and they will have the first leaves, you need to make thinning of weak shoots. When the young cabbage reaches 15 cm in height, weak sprouts must be removed, leaving the strongest. To root system successfully formed, make hilling.
Red Cabbage Seeds
Many novice gardeners are interested in the question of how to plant red cabbage in open ground seedlings. To do this, you must adhere to the following actions and recommendations.
Sprout seedlings in special boxes or in pots. The latter can be located on a windowsill, in a greenhouse or greenhouse, as well as in open nurseries. Seeds are placed in boxes in the same way as in the previous case described above.
A well-loosened fertile soil is recommended, the acid-base balance of which exceeds 7 pH. Land containing a large amount of acid, is absolutely not suitable for red cabbage.
Since the plant is very fond of moisture, the seedlings often need to be watered with a small amount of water by moistening or spraying.
Seedlings need to be fed with mineral fertilizers. The procedure is carried out as follows:
- The first feeding is carried out with the appearance of 2-3 leaves.
- The second - a few days before landing in the ground.
The composition of the fertilizer is as follows:
Sprouts need to be planted with the appearance of five developed leaves. By this time, the average height of young plants is 19 cm. In order to avoid sprouting and damaging the sprouts from the drawers, they should first moisten the seedlings.
Note! You need to grow plants in a well-lit place. Sprouts are placed in the wells, in which the potash fertilizer mixed with the soil is previously poured. Plants are watered in the amount of two liters per sprout.
In order to grow a high-quality crop in large quantities, it is very important to observe the conditions of proper watering, implement the processes of loosening, hilling, feeding, treating and preventing diseases and protecting against pests.
The periods when cabbage especially needs moisture include:
- the formation of sheet rosettes,
- active leaf growth
Important! Despite the fact that the plant is a moisture-loving crop, it absolutely does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil. Watering should be moderate and uniform: if the cabbage is not watered for a long time, and then at one moment pour plenty of water, the cabbages may burst.
For red cabbage, an excellent irrigation method such as sprinkling, in which drops of water nourish the soil from the leaves, is perfect.
Loosening and hilling
Hilling is regularly carried out, weeds and aisles are weeded for intensive development and improvement of the root system.
After placing the seedlings in the soil and its rooting in the soil should be added organic fertilizer. During the development of leaves, cabbage is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, and during the formation of heads - with potash and phosphorus mixtures.
The main danger for any cabbage, including red cabbage, is cabbage mole - a caterpillar, ten centimeters long. In the fight against the pest itself, the solution of Karbofos was excellent. Due to the harmfulness of the preparation, the treatment of plants is carried out no later than 1 month before harvesting.
Another dangerous pest is the cabbage scoop, which is a caterpillar of a light green, sometimes brown color. The harm from it is that the insect gnaws moves in the head. To get rid of the uninvited guest, use insecticides that are sprayed with the plant.
A root threat is a cabbage fly. To protect against white larvae, basudin solution is added to the soil. Do it as early as possible - during the period of growing seedlings.
Methionic solution helps against cabbage aphid, which lives in whole colonies on the lower part of the leaves.
Yellow-green larvae of cabbage cabbage (otherwise - cabbage soup) are dangerous due to the fact that leaves are eating. To protect against them, use the tool Dipel.
The last kind of cabbage pests are ground fleas, which gnaw holes in the leaves. The number of insects increases in hot and dry weather. In the fight against parasites helps plant treatment with insecticides.
An excellent option for planting on the garden or suburban area is red cabbage - cultivation and care in the open field for this crop does not require much time and effort. In addition to gastronomic properties (the product is present in many recipes for preparing dishes), red cabbage is valued for its non-standard appearance, thanks to which the summer cottage looks especially beautiful. Purple, purple or lilac cabbage leaves emphasize the green background of the garden. Also, the product serves as a magnificent decoration of the dining table and any summer dishes. The product contains a huge amount of vitamins and trace elements, can be stored for a year (including winter) and does not lose its beneficial qualities.
Care for red cabbage in open ground
Care for red cabbage in the process of its cultivation is primarily reduced to frequent watering. You should know that this vegetable is very fond of water. There will be little water - do not expect a rich and good harvest. If possible, watering cabbage is better with a hose. Vegetable in no case should not lack of moisture, and therefore it is necessary to water it completely, while avoiding stagnation of water in the beds. Useful for cabbage and procedures such as hilling, loosening the soil and fertilizing with fertilizer.
What vegetables to plant red cabbage with?
Joint planting with cabbage of other vegetable crops is possible when such a neighborhood is not to the detriment of one or the other inhabitants of the beds in the garden. Tomatoes, fennel, celery and carrots will be bad neighbors for red cabbage. These crops only harm their presence to this vegetable.
With red cabbage get along well:
- other varieties of this vegetable (Beijing, Brussels, white),
- greens, aromatic and spicy herbs (basil, dill, sage).
Healthy food is the key to good health and good immunity. Therefore, the cultivation of such nutritious vegetables as red cabbage will make an invaluable contribution to your life. This treasure trove of vitamins and nutrients should be on every site. Planting and the subsequent stages of its cultivation will be under the force of any gardener.
Red Cabbage Seedlings
A distinctive feature of this cabbage is a bright purple color. Also the head of this culture has a higher density. It is because of the density of the head that this species is better preserved until spring.
The sooner you plant this type of cabbage, the better for her. The fact is that it is much slower formed plugs. Seeds of this species will not disappear, and will give their growth even at a temperature of 2-3 degrees. But if you choose such a temperature regime for planting this species, then note that the seeds will not grow as fast as they would, for example, at 20 degrees of heat. At 20 degrees of heat, the first shoots can be waited after 4-5 days.
If the sprouts are already more than two weeks old, then the seedlings of red cabbage will calmly transfer non-durable frosts, up to about 6 degrees cold. But the best temperature for growing seedlings will be 15-18 degrees Celsius.
Red cabbage seedlings, like white cabbage, are very fond of moisture. But the former has more developed roots, due to which it can survive a drought for a longer time.
If you want to get a rich harvest of this type of crop, then try to plant the seedlings in loamy soil. In such a soil moisture retains the most.
In order for the cultivation of red cabbage seedlings to occur as well as possible, it must be watered every day with warm water during the first week. And after a week and a half, cultivation needs to be supplemented with top dressing. As a top dressing add 10 grams of urea under each bush. After another week and a half, you can make this fertilizer: 15-20 grams of nitroammofoski under each bush. And a couple of weeks before harvesting red cabbage, you need to throw a nitrogen feed. As a result, such feeding will help the cabbage to survive as long as possible. The ripening period of this crop begins around August, and the harvest can be expected somewhere in the middle of October. This species is remarkably preserved until spring, retaining all its useful qualities.
If you want this seedling to end up with an even more lush harvest and turn red as it should be, then know that she loves various top dressing. Top-dressings from manure, compost fertilizers, mineral fertilizers will do. Well, if the mineral fertilizers will contain potassium chloride, ammonium sulphate, superphosphate.
Use manure as fertilizer
In this case, wood ash can also be substituted for mineral fertilizers. Wood ash must be added to the soil when you dig it back in the fall. Each square meter of land will require about two kilograms of ash. If you do not have time to add ash to the soil in the fall, then this can be done in the spring. Approximately 50 grams of ash will go to each well. However, please note that nitrogen fertilizers must be applied to the soil, following clear instructions. If you overdo it in this issue, then the cabbage's immunity will go down, it will be easier to affect diseases and pests.
Observing all these conditions, you get a beautiful crop of culture, as in the photo.
Red cabbage is not a very popular plant that is not often grown for industrial purposes. Consider how are called and how they differ The most popular varieties and hybrids of this type of cabbage:
- The anthracite variety is mid-season, has large purple leaves, a characteristic feature of which is a wax coating. A dense head has a mass of up to 2.5 kg.
- Variety avant-garde - mid-season, has a vertical rosette of leaves. For large blue-green leaves characteristic strong wax coating.
Heads are oval and strong in density. The weight of the head of this variety does not exceed 2.5 kg.
- The autoro hybrid is mid-season, the growing season of which is no more than 140 days. It is characterized by small, rather dense heads, weighing up to 1.5 kg. The color of the leaves is light purple. A characteristic feature of the hybrid is that it is resistant to cracking heads.
- Variety boxer - precocious, has a purple-red color and is designed to be eaten fresh. The rounded and dense cabbage weighing up to 1.6 kg consists of a set of leaves that are covered with silver patina.
- Gako variety - medium late, the growing season of which is not more than 150 days. Имеет плотные, округлые немного приплюснутые кочаны, весом до 3 кг, они считаются устойчивыми к растрескиванию и отличаются длительным сроком хранения. Выражен горьковатый привкус, который со временем исчезает. Имеют сизо-фиолетовую окраску листьев с налетом.
- Гибрид ворокс – среднеранний, период вегетации которого составляет не более 120 дней. It has a small sheet rosette and raised leaves. Cobs with a dense structure, weighing up to 3 kg. Suitable for both fresh and processed. The leaves are anthocyanin in color.
- Drumond variety - early, has a dense and compact outlet, head of a round shape weighs up to 2 kg.
- Variety Kalos - mid-season, has good taste - cabbage is juicy and not hard. Heads cone-shaped, red-purple, weighing up to 2.5 kg. A feature of the variety is that it tolerates periods of high humidity and a decrease in temperature.
- Intro variety - early ripe, has a raised rosette of leaves. The heads of cabbages consist of leaves that are not very tightly gathered together. The leaves themselves have a purple color, covered with bloom. The weight of the head is not more than 2 kg.
- Mars variety - medium late, the growing season of which is not more than 160 days. It has rounded, slightly flat heads of cabbages, medium in density, dark purple in color. Heads weigh no more than 1.5 kg. The variety is resistant to cracking.
Choosing a place
To make the cabbage grow well and grow, you need to choose a sufficiently lit place. When growing seedlings in greenhouses, lighting plays an important role, because with a lack of light the seedlings are strongly drawn out, which negatively affects the further development of the plant. When planting seedlings in open ground, where it will experience a lack of light, will begin to slow down the development and growth, the formation of more loose head, and the leaves may become a greenish tint.
Red cabbage should be grown on loose and light, slightly acidic or neutral soil. The soil must contain the required amount of nutrients for the plant.
It is better to plant red cabbage in the area where cucumbers, onions, legumes, green manures, potatoes or carrots grew before.
In order to plant cabbage with the help of seeds, it is necessary to consider some subtleties of sowing:
- To harden the seeds. To do this, the seeds must be kept in hot water up to 50 ° C for 20 minutes. After that, they are immediately transferred to cold water for 2 minutes.
- To stimulate seedlings seedlings hardened seeds are placed in a nutrient solution for 12 hours. To prepare a nutrient solution, take 1 liter of boiled water and a teaspoon of nitrophoska. After stimulation, rinse the seeds in running water and place in the fridge for a day.
For planting red cabbage on seedlings, seeds are prepared as well as for direct sowing.
When the seedlings appear, the temperature in the room should be lowered to 8 ° C and the seedlings should be kept in such conditions for a week. Then provide 15 ° C for further growth of seedlings. Water the seeds should be regularly, before the first shoots appeared. After this, watering should be slightly reduced, and watered when the soil dries out slightly.
Depending on which variety you plan to grow - early or late, the planting should take place in May-June.
When the plant will form 5 leaves, then you can start planting in open ground. To do this, you need to make potash fertilizer in each well, mix it with the soil and pour it with water, then plant the seedlings. Soil the soil around the plant and produce watering with warm water.
For red cabbage, it is important not only to make the right fit, but also to ensure proper care in the open field for the normal development of the plant.
Red cabbage prefers regular and abundant watering. If she feels a lack of watering, it will affect the quality of the crop. Abundant watering should be carried out when forming the outlet and the ovary of the head. During this period, it is recommended to water from the hose so that the water gets to the whole plant. But the cabbage tolerates an excess of moisture and stagnation of water is bad, so you need not to overdo it.
Hilling and loosening
The first time to break through the soil should be within 7 days after the transplanting occurred, and continue to loosen the soil after each watering to ensure good air permeability for the root system. Hilling cabbage contributes to improving the resistance of the heads to emergence and the formation of a strong root system. Spud plant is necessary when the cabbage goes into growth and the formation of heads begins, at this time you need to pour the ground to the level of the first leaves.
After the first earthing up, it is necessary to re-manipulate in two weeks.
In order for the seedlings turned into a rich harvest, it is necessary to carry out regular plant feedings. Well suited for dressing liquid organic fertilizer or a solution of complex (mineral) fertilizers.
Major Diseases and Pests
The main pests and diseases of red cabbage:
- Cabbage moth is a caterpillar of yellow color, which gnaws cabbage leaves and leaves untouched upper fabric. To combat this pest, it is recommended to spray it with a solution of Karbofos, using 60 g of product per 10 liters of water. It is considered poisonous, so before harvesting for 1 month you need to stop processing plants.
- Cabbage fly - appears in the form of white larvae that damage the roots and root collar. With the defeat of the pest plant dries. In order to prevent the appearance of cabbage flies, it is recommended to add 20 g of "Bazudin" per 10 square meters to the soil. m. soil.
- Cabbage aphid - appears in the form of green colonies on the back of the leaf. Leaves, if damaged by these pests, become discolored and curled. To combat cabbage aphids, a decoction of tomato leaves is used: pour 10 kg of leaves and stems with water to cover the plants and boil over low heat for 20 minutes. After that, dilute 3 liters of broth with 10 liters of water and add 20 g of soap. Spray cabbage with this agent in the evening.
- Dry rot is a fungal disease that often affects cabbages. The stem of cabbage becomes gray, rotten and soon dries out. If a seedling is affected by a fungus, then it is almost impossible to save it. Dry rot develops well in warm and humid conditions, as well as in places where cabbage is damaged. It is necessary to fight gray mold with a 0.5% Tigam solution, treating the seeds before sowing and in time removing weed vegetation.
- Black spot is a fungal disease that is characterized by the appearance of black spots and streaks on the leaves of a plant. The fungus develops due to cabbage planting density, strong humidity and warm temperatures. To avoid the development of fungus, it is necessary to monitor the ventilation of plants and not plant them very close.
It is also important not to overmoisten the plants. If the fungus does appear, then carry out the treatment with a solution of potassium permanganate: for 10 liters of water, 5 g of the product.
- Kila - a disease that is triggered by a fungus. This disease affects the root system of the plant. It manifests itself in the form of tumors on the roots, which leads to the death of the plant. In order for the keel not to appear on the cabbage, it is necessary to remove weeds from the plot and plant it on the affected part of the crop, which contribute to the destruction of the fungus: potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, beets, garlic, onions.