General information

Liven calico hens: description, photo


The result of domestic breeding in the XIX century was the Livenian breed of chickens, which meets the basic requirements of farmers. The birds are quite large and carry large eggs. They are hardy and have an unusual color.

Liven breed chickens

Content step by step instructions:

Additional research and breeding findings

Before the restoration of the breed, it was necessary to conduct special studies to determine whether the found chickens really corresponded to this breed. For this, the Department of the TSKA organized an expedition to the farm where they found layers similar to the Livenian breed, as well as to the Oryol region.

Ya ya Shapovalov, who led the expedition, described the main characteristics of these birds:

  • weight from 1.7 kg to 4 kg,
  • the presence of leaf-shaped and rose-like crests in a 1: 1 ratio,
  • red colored lobes,
  • yellow metatarsus in 80% of chickens without plumage,
  • black and yellow are the predominant colors
  • eggs up to 60 mm long and 45 mm wide,
  • more than half of the eggs have a colored shell.

The appearance of the chicken livenskogo breed

Scientists tried to determine how this breed was bred. Initially it was believed that Asian breeds participated in the breeding process. But more detailed research forced scientists to abandon this version. Today it is believed that the Livnian breed is a mixture of local mongrel and Yurlovskaya breed.

Important. The mass of eggs can vary from 60 grams to 100 grams. This difference is due to the food supply.

Livestock breed livestock has a variation of 6%. This means that birds practically do not differ from each other externally and have similar characteristics. The weight of hens is a little over 2 kg, the cocks are about 3.2 kg. Birds are late-ripened. Full maturity and the best results can be achieved after a year.

Features of the appearance of the breed

The main parameters of calico hens were described in detail by modern experts during the research on the authentication of this breed.

Liven calico chickens

  • plumage in birds has an average level of density,
  • body build is quite dense,
  • the body has a horizontally oriented structure,
  • the wings are small, in connection with which the chickens cannot fly, and they also strongly adhere to the body,
  • the tail is set vertically and has plenty of feathers,
  • legs are yellow and black
  • earrings and scarlet color
  • the head is small and neat,
  • in males, the neck is slightly elongated and has an average length, while in females it is short and thick.

Chickens livevenskoy breed

These are the main parameters of this type of poultry.

The main indicators of chickens

  • quite massive body compared to individuals of other egg and meat breeds,
  • weight up to 3.5 kg
  • each feather is colored at once in several colors, which creates a calico shade,
  • the crest is pinkish or leaf-shaped, and in some specimens there is a crest,
  • paws may have plumage.

Character of hens of livensky breed

Unlike individuals of most other breeds, these differ in phlegmatic temperament. They are not active, which makes them convenient to maintain. Even the roosters are silent and do not wake up the owners in the morning during the famine.

Birds easily adapt to a new place of residence and recognize their hosts by voice. However, males are prone to fights. Sometimes they fight with people.

Egg production

The full maturity of the birds of the Livenian breed comes to 9 months of life. But some of them can carry eggs by 6 months. However, this is considered to be a late puppy breed, as a result of which it is rarely used at the initial stage of business development.

The productivity of laying hens is 150 eggs per year. Despite the low rate, the weight of one egg is quite large.

Roosters livenskogo breed

Important. Calico breed is characterized by seasonality of egg production. So, in the period from 3 to 5 months, they bring 50% of the total. Hatching in the spring months also brings the best result: about half of the total livestock.

Scientists have analyzed the quality of eggs. So, in a year it weighs no more than 60 grams. The total weight of the shell is 12%, and the yolk is 30%. The older the layer, the larger the egg it can carry. Size depends on the amount of protein. In older birds, it is dense.

Depending on the chicken, the porosity and size of the shell varies greatly. Taste properties may vary based on the diet of poultry. In spring, the nutritional value of eggs is minimal due to beriberi and relatively poor nutrition. At the end of autumn, the farmer will not be able to get eggs because of the molt.

About what breeds of chickens are the most egg-laying, you can read in our article.

Breed breeding

The first liven calico hens appeared in the Livensky district of the Oryol region, then the Russian Empire. Hence the name of the breed. Sometimes it is called Oryol. Peasants themselves were engaged in breeding breeds suitable for peasant farming. For them it was important that she met several requirements: she rushed well, was a source of meat and, most importantly, was simple and unpretentious to care. The peasant family did not have to particularly choose food even for their children, so the chickens had to be content with the food that was available. The perseverance of the peasants was rewarded, they managed to achieve the goal they had set up — a livenial calico breed of chickens was born.

Appearance of representatives of the breed

Bred by simple peasants, the breed had an attractive appearance. Initially, a certain standard for the definition of pedigree was not formed. It was only in 1990 that specific criteria for the breed of hen Liven calico were obtained. The description of the unique characteristics includes the following features:

  • small leaf-shaped or rose-like comb,
  • chintz color of feathering (each feather has several colors - black, yellow, golden, all together they create a characteristic motley outfit),
  • massive body, elongated horizontally,
  • medium sized head with a small yellowish beak.

Laying hens of this breed may have a crest next to the scallop or feathered shaggy legs. The weight of one individual ranges from 2.5 to 3.5 kilograms. Males are heavier and heavier than chickens, their weight is 4.5 kilograms and more. Each male is decorated with a magnificent tail, which is located perpendicular to the body. The tail is bright, with well-developed braids.

Characteristics of breed productivity

Each owner is trying to get the most out of living creatures in the yard. The benefits of breeding chickens are eggs and meat. Liven calico hens, whose characteristics are beyond praise, will quickly pay for the money invested in their purchase. The breed belongs to the category of meat and egg. In addition to a large number of nutritious eggs, a lot of tender dietary meat is obtained from the breed.

Each layer for the year brings 200 eggs, and sometimes 220. The color of the shell is from cream to light brown. The average weight of one egg is from 50 to 70 grams. Sometimes, the chicken brings the egg and 90 grams. Such eggs are usually with two yolks. But this feature is not considered the cost of the breed, but rather its advantage.

The young grow weight very quickly and reach sexual maturity by the age of six months. At this age, young birds can be allowed for meat. Chicks begin to produce eggs. Chickens can carry the first egg in 5-6 months. At the cost of maintenance, egg-laying time is delayed and occurs at 7-8 months. At first, the eggs are small, but in the framework of the lower norm. After the first rest, the egg mass increases and reaches a maximum. Winter break time for the recovery of the breed is absent. Rest-rest does not last long - two or three weeks.

Behavior features

Equally important for breeding birds have features of behavior. The Liven calico breed of chickens, the description of the productivity of which attracts the attention of poultry farmers, has a peace-loving character. Chickens are calm, their activity level is lowered, so they easily tolerate cellular content. In the summer, it is better to keep chickens on the free pasture. In this case, the owner should take care that they are not scattered. To do this, you must make a higher fence or cut feathers on the wings of the birds.

To other birds, chickens are friendly. People are not afraid, immediately respond to the invitation of the owner to eat and run to the place of feeding. Unlike many breeds, livelings are silent. They will not be early cries at dawn to wake the master, demanding to eat.

Males are not so peaceful as females. The owner of the harem shows aggressiveness to each competitor. If the opponent seems to him in the owner, the rooster can pounce on him. Here it is necessary to show firmness and show who is the boss.

Participation in the education of offspring

Breeding and growing a new generation of chickens is not an easy task. Livnian calico chickens greatly facilitate the work of the poultry farmer in this matter. Chickens have a well-developed maternal instinct. In the summer, it is time to remove the kids. Klusha begins to make peculiar sounds - groan. At this time, she tries to hide and carry eggs in a secluded place. Some sit down to take chicks to a permanent place where all the females of the yard rush. In order to breed, the future mother must be transplanted to a separate place.

Quad will sit on eggs as long as necessary. One hen can take a dozen and a half to two little chicks at a time. She will take care of the offspring for about two months, until a new batch of eggs has matured inside her. Liven calico breed of chickens is responsible for the care of chickens. Not only the hen, but the rooster rises to protect the offspring if he is in danger.

Little showers and care for them

Liveborn chickens from the first hours of their lives show enviable activity and resilience. They appear in the light of three colors: brown, yellow with dark patches on the back or yellow-brown. The plumage of the crumbs is slow; at first, feathers appear, as in other breeds, on the tips of the wings. For daily chicks, it is already possible to determine that these are livenew calico hens. Photo babies, as well as adults, looks very festive.

For the proper maintenance of chickens should not adhere to special rules. Feeding and grooming conditions are the same with the rules for raising chickens of any breed. The temperature in the room must match the age of the children. If the chicks are cold, they huddle together. If they are hot, they open the beak, breathe heavily and lower the wings. Feed brood should be three to four times a day, maintaining a diet of high-protein dishes. (boiled egg, semolina, cottage cheese).

Cells must be kept clean, dishes - washed from the remnants of food. Vitamins and prophylactic drugs against infections are very important for babies. However, if the children grow up with their mother care for them is only in feeding. From two weeks, the hen can be let go with the chickens on the lawn.

Rules for keeping chickens

Liven calico hens bred as unpretentious breed. In the summer, the bird does not require special care, especially if it is kept on free grazing. When the cell content is important to adhere to several rules:

  • to control the air exchange in the house (to prevent the absence of fresh air),
  • twice a year to treat the premises from parasites and infections,
  • in winter, keep the temperature in the hen house below -5 degrees.

Rules feeding chickens

To feed something special chickens is not necessary. Chickens liven calico, reviews of experienced poultry houses confirm this, completely unpretentious birds. On grazing, they can eat weed or spider bug, find tracing paper or pebble, dig out a worm. All that they offer the owner, the chickens are eating. But the duty of the owner is to form a balanced diet for their hooks. It is preferable to offer chickens three types of feed: dry grain (wheat is better), wet mash and combined dishes. In the winter, the layers require vitamin supplements and pebbles. It is not necessary to buy specialized feed, since the breed was bred by the peasants unpretentious in food.

Advantages and disadvantages of the breed

The positive characteristics of the breed include:

  • endurance and unpretentiousness,
  • meat productivity
  • high egg production,
  • excellent maternal instinct.

There are no flaws in the Livensky breed. Livenskaya breed is endowed with excellent resistance to most avian diseases. If the bird house and the birds themselves are treated on time from parasites, disinfection is carried out, then the chickens practically do not get sick. These preventive measures can even be carried out by a beginning poultry farmer.

The aggressiveness of cockerels described above at some points (for example, when defending a brood or guarding a harem) plays a positive role. The only disadvantage is the rarity of purebred chickens. Find them difficult, but possible.

The origin of the breed

A century ago, on the territory of the Oryol province, hens were raised on Livé’s calico. Peasants from the provinces took over breeding work. They wanted to bring a bird unpretentious to the food and temperature fluctuations, giving tasty meat and large eggs. The results surpassed expectations - “young man” pleased not only with beautiful colorful feathering, but also with excellent meatiness and egg production. Breed won more than one award at international exhibitions, enjoyed high demand throughout Europe.

Egg products were exported, especially valued in the UK. Interest was caused not only by large eggs, but also the color of the shell - a light coffee shade. The average egg weight of a young hen reached about 60 grams, and at an older age with balanced feeding - 100 grams.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, breeders have wished to characterize a valuable chicken breed to preserve the thoroughbred poultry. Regarding the research data, it turned out that several species of hens fit the description, but the Livensky breed was not separately identified. Then the representatives of the Yurlovskaya breed, giving a large meat carcass and eggs, were valued. Later it was proved that it was from the crossing of Yurlov hens with a local bird that the Livenskaya breed appeared.

In the postwar period, the calico breed has almost disappeared. Due to the importation of Italian Leggornov, which were massively bred in poultry farms, the “young bear” lost its relevance. By chance, a bird was found in a purebred form in the Poltava region, from which its rebirth began.

Description and characteristics of the breed

For the external characteristics of the breed for a long time there were no standards. Most breeders paid attention only to the size of the bird's carcass and eggs, its productivity. In a different territory, under the name Livenskiy Kura, there were many individuals with a characteristic chintz color of feather. The differences concerned the shape of the scallop, the topknot on the head and the plumage on the paws.

Youngs Liven calico breed

Only three decades ago, specific requirements for the exterior of chickens were developed:

  • strong body with a developed chest
  • the back is wide
  • on a short thick neck an abundance of feathers resembling a mane
  • the head is average in size
  • small comb pressed to head
  • short tail with developed braids
  • medium thick yellowish beak
  • coral earrings are medium in size
  • strong paws

Regarding the color, there are individuals with splashes of white on the black-and-red torso. In cockerels, black with green highlights prevails. The Livenian cocks are distinguished by short tails with kositsyami and a developed mane on the neck. A distinctive feature of males is increased aggressiveness of behavior, therefore the herd is kept in a separate hen house.

Sometimes there may be plumage on the legs of the hens, and on the head a small crest. They are considered excellent chickens due to the development of the incubation instinct and peace-loving nature. Chick fluff is also motley, although black and white or yellowish-red coloring is allowed.

Productivity Liven Chintz

Liven cotton hens enter maturity from 8 months. Eggs in comparison with eggs of other breeds are more rounded in shape, often consisting of two yolks. The property is not considered a disadvantage, rather high productivity, because the breed is bred precisely because of the large eggs with a high content of yolk. The taste qualities of eggs are high, the presence of a dense protein structure is also appreciated.

Chickens Livensky calico breed

  • per year the chicken blows about 200 eggs weighing from 70 grams
  • cockerels weigh up to 4.5 kg., layers - 3.5 - 4, 0 kg

With the onset of cold weather, egg-laying stops. If during the maintenance of laying hens in winter, heaters are installed in the house to maintain the optimum temperature, the bird will not cease to fly even in conditions of short daylight hours.

Young stock gains weight for a long time, the process of plumage is also extended. The taste of chicken meat depends on the diet, the presence of a walking area with an abundance of green fodder. The hostesses have adapted to use the offal of a young bird for the preparation of a delicious filling for pies.

Conditions of detention

Breed unpretentious to the conditions of detention. High rates of productivity shows on balanced feed with the addition of mineral additives.Although it is suitable for breeding, even a novice poultry farmer, providing the economy with large eggs. Even on scanty feeds, the bird will continue to trot, but will not show record numbers of egg production. The breed is bred to be content with poor food, so it will not start to hurt with a lack of vitamins and minerals.

The advantage of calico hens is the possibility of keeping in unheated poultry houses in winter. Only in the northern regions it is desirable to take care of the heating of the room, providing a thick bedding. Chickens start to hurt when kept in a small house, so you should equip a spacious room for it. Also fence the paddock area. Even in winter, the bird should spend some time in the fresh air in search of forage.

For the herd it is better to make a separate cage, there are cases of aggressive behavior of roosters relative to another bird.

Caring for livestock in winter

It should be determined that correctly call hens, but not chickens. When breeding in temperate climates, it is necessary to additionally warm the house to keep getting eggs even in winter. Heating contributes to the early incubation of chicks with chicks, which show maternal instinct with the onset of spring.

Warming the chicken coop

Keeping in poultry houses causes cattle diseases, but it is also important to ensure adequate ventilation. Ammonia vapor will lead to poisoning, and later to the death of chickens.

Insulation materials

With proper insulation of the house, the temperature remains at + 10 ° C. To create a microclimate in the room, with a thick cloth they hammer in the gaps in the door and window openings, the ceiling is hit with roofing material. To keep livestock in winter, the house should be at least 15 cm thick, with concrete or wooden floor.

A wintering option on a deep litter will do:

  • clean the floor of the house from pollution, sprinkled on top for disinfection with a layer of slaked lime
  • lay a thick layer of about 10 cm dry litter of sawdust, peat or straw
  • as the dirt on top is sprinkled with dry material, sometimes you should rake the litter with a rake
  • after use the litter is not thrown away, it is suitable for fertilizing the garden

During operation, heat is generated from the litter, heating the house from the inside.

Artificial heating options

If you wish to install artificial devices for heating choose between stove, gas or electric heating method:

  • It is advantageous to install stove heating, only it is necessary to isolate the heating elements in order to avoid fire. In a small room the stove does not fit, you must also consider the need to install a chimney.
  • Gas boilers are successfully used in large farms, but in a small compound impractical. The design is dimensional, for the acquisition you need to allocate a significant amount.
  • Electrical appliances will incur a significant bill for the electricity used. It is better to install heaters with automatic temperature control.
  • Infrared heaters must be fixed to the ceiling to prevent the bird from getting burned. Will be suitable for heating not only house, but also greenhouses.
  • Infrared lamps warm the room well, make it possible to extend the daylight hours, which contributes to the laying of chickens.

In winter, the bird needs to walk, so provide access to the aviary. The Livny breed is considered to be frost-resistant, and with a strong decrease in temperature, the heating devices prudently installed in the poultry house will help to keep warm.

Feeding rules and required diet

"Livenki" eat a variety of food, but you should enter into the diet of calcium, which is responsible for the formation of solid eggshell. The amount of green mass depends on the size of the eggs, so the farmers harvest vegetables, dried nettles, and plant shoots for the winter.

Feeding chicks

Chickens are given crushed leaves of plantain, dandelion and nettle.
Bird needs cereals in the diet. Grain contains an abundance of vitamins, fiber and carbohydrates:

  • crushed corn grains enrich the bird's body with carbohydrates (from eating corn, the bird carries eggs with rich yellow yolks)
  • wheat saturates the body with vitamins and vegetable proteins
  • steamed or crushed oats activates digestion
  • millet, barley, rye and buckwheat bring a feeling of saturation
  • replace the grain oat bran, the amount of which is adjusted to 20% of the total diet

In mixtures of grains, phosphorus, calcium and protein are not enough, therefore, legumes, meals, cake, flax and sunflower seeds are introduced. Of the mineral additives pay attention to the ashes, shells, chalk, salt, crushed shells and gravel.

In summer, livestock eats insects, plant seeds and greens, which will be found on the walking. In winter, boiled carrots, pumpkins or potatoes, waste from the host's table should be handed over.

Some poultry farmers prepare special wet mash of greens, boiled potatoes, soaked crackers, grated carrots and cabbage. In the hot season, this mash is thrown away after 3 hours, and the feeder is rinsed with clean water. The precautionary measure will eliminate the possibility of poisoning the livestock with fermented feed.

Breeding breed

The principle of breeding is no different from other breeds. The hen is prone to hatching eggs and with the first spring warming sits on the nest. During the summer, one “young bear” hatches out two broods, which protects it from predators and weather deterioration.

Enclose a separate place for the hen to ensure privacy, so that she does not worry during the hatching. On the 21st day chicks appear. At first they are too shy, but as they grow older they get used to the owner. If the males have a fighting character, then the chickens manifest peace-loving nature.

  • in the first days they feed them with dry curd with chopped boiled eggs piled on thick sheets of cardboard
  • Next instead of cardboard use trough, nailed to the house wall
  • chickens are gradually accustomed to the greenery, which is replaced by eggs in the feed
  • prepare wet mash on yogurt, if after an hour there is a similar food left, it is thrown away, replacing it with a new portion of fresh
  • for digestion put up separate feeders with fine gravel and sand
  • weekly chicks injected in the feed vitamins and fish oil

Juveniles need constant access to clean water. They are sure to arrange ash baths, so that the bird itself will get rid of parasites. Chickens have a strong immunity to diseases, a high percentage of survival. They are rapidly gaining weight, have a strong constitution. If it is cool outside, the livestock for heating is placed under the infrared lamp.

Hatching Egg

Chicks should be transferred to the chicken coop after reaching 2 months. Arrange a thick layer of bedding from scrap materials, clog the walls from drafts with insulating material. For complete maturity, it will take about 300 days, although with enhanced feeding it can be accelerated up to six months.

Advantages and disadvantages of the breed

Owners of livensky breed note a lot of positive qualities:

  • tasty big eggs sold at a higher price
  • large carcasses with tender meat
  • resistance to common poultry diseases
  • unpretentiousness to the diet, the ability to survive on the "grass" feed, that is, be content with insects and greens
  • tendency to brooding
  • high survival rate of young stock
  • wintering in unheated poultry houses

The disadvantage is later plumage of the young, therefore it is provided with additional heating during the period of maturation. The first eggs have to wait for a long time, when compared with egg-bearing breeds. Young chickens actively rush for the first year, but with each following year they reduce the numbers by 30 eggs. It is advisable to frequently update the herd, replacing the older layers of young hens.

With a deficiency of vitamin feed, the bird is prone to cannibalism. Layers not only pluck feathers from other chickens, but also peck eggs. It is necessary to separate such a hen at a time from the herd, and decompose the gypsum spools into nests. It is recommended to put boxes with rakushnyak or crushed chalk in order to introduce calcium into the diet.

The Liven calico breed was once almost completely destroyed. If you wish to start breeding productive poultry, you should contact the farmers who offer purebred hens for sale. The most reliable option is to attend exhibitions of agricultural poultry, where documents and a certificate of vaccination of chickens are guaranteed. Thus, the cultivation of the Livenskaya breed begins in order to profit from the sale of high quality meat and egg products.

Liven calico chickens on the covered range - on video:

To date, the Livenian breed, though rare, is no longer extinct, and lovers can always find its representatives. Such hens will decorate any house and will delight the host with delicacy and large eggs.

Home Improvement and Climatic Conditions

The housing for liven hens is generally standard for such poultry. This is a closed chicken coop, where the bird spends the night, and the adjacent free area for walking.

The coop can not be heated in winter, because this breed is frost-resistant. But the temperature should be monitored - it should not be below -5 ° C. It is very important to make a good ventilation of the room and provide the birds with a bed of hay or straw.

The litter should be changed regularly. It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the hen house, especially in winter. This will ensure the well-being of the birds and prevent the spread of infections.

Livenki love to fly, so the chicken pen should be surrounded by a high fence, otherwise you will look for your living creatures from the neighbors. Also, do not forget about the love of live roosters for fighting. Best of all, this family should be kept separate from other inhabitants of the bird yard. Between themselves, they live peacefully.

An important aspect of poultry care is to provide it with good nutrition. Of course, we must take into account the age of pets.

If you have chickens, get ready to feed them about 12 hours after birth.

Experts recommend making finely ground corn grits with the first meal, then boiled yolk mixed with dry semolina can be given. Greens will not hurt - for example, nettle, but it must be boiled beforehand. There are also special feeds for chickens of this age (starting).

After a few days, the older chicks need more varied dietwhich may include:

  • cereals (wheat, barley),
  • potatoes and carrots, pre-boiled and grated,
  • finely chopped green onions,
  • fermented milk products - kefir or cottage cheese,
  • feed for chickens, according to age.

Further, the diet does not change much, only introduced new types of cereals, soaked bread, boiled fish. The number of feedings gradually decreases from seven to eight to five times per day.

When the chicks are a month old, they should consume the grain - first, coarse, and after two weeks and whole. At this age, they are already walking in the street with might and main, therefore fresh greens are necessary.

From three months old grown young chicken is transferred to an adult diet, but food is given 4 more times a day.

Adult generation

Adult livenives are not at all demanding of food, but in order for the bird to remain healthy and productive, the diet must be balanced. Chickens should be fed 3 times a day. And since they are valuable both in meat and eggs, it will be very convenient for owners to keep chickens on ready-made feeds. But it is quite expensive. Therefore, you can feed as follows:

  1. In summer, the best food will be the one that the birds will find under their feet. And this is a different green grass, seeds and insects.
  2. In winter, you will have to work hard to provide chickens with good nutrition. You can use a variety of ready-made feed, grain, but be sure to have vitamin supplements - for example, germinated grains of various cereals. You can also prepare delicacies from shredded pumpkin, potatoes, carrots and give meat and vegetable waste, but only in boiled form.

Some experienced poultry farmers prepare wet mash for their poultry farms, which feed the birds both in winter and in summer. They are made from raw and dry foods: potatoes, finely chopped greens, soaked in dried sour milk, ground chalk, shell rock, carrots and fresh cabbage.

Diseases and methods of dealing with them

Nature gave livents a good immunity, so they are not very susceptible to diseases. But this is subject to compliance with all the requirements for care. The prevention of various infectious diseases is very important. The owner must:

  • prevent contact with wild birds such as pigeons and sparrows,
  • regularly disinfect the chicken coop using hydrogen peroxide, iodine and chlorine,
  • daily change water in drinking bowls,
  • examine the plumage of birds every two weeks to identify external parasites,
  • observe the behavior of birds - the slightest change should be alarming.

At the slightest suspicion of a disease in your pets, it is best to consult a veterinarian. He will establish an accurate diagnosis and give recommendations on the use of drugs.

Reviews on breed liven chicken

Now you know a lot about the unusual breed - Liven hens. They appeared over a hundred years ago, and then disappeared. But whether it was possible to recover the lost bird is still unknown.