Daffodils compared to tulips and hyacinths, less whimsical, they can be successfully grown on almost any soil. Therefore, probably, they adorn almost in every garden. And still daffodils perfectly amenable to forcing.
Yet different groups of daffodils have their own preferences. For example, Cyclamen-like are the most demanding of moisture, Zhonklee-shaped like sunny areas, and they grow better on clay soils, varieties from the Triandrus group tolerate shading well and can grow even on northern slopes, Poetic do not like annual transplanting.
The rules of planting daffodils
Daffodils are planted before the other bulbous - around the end of August - early September. At soil temperatures up to + 8-10 ° C, rooting of the bulbs is better. If you have to plant at a later date, then you need to bury the bulbs more strongly, immediately mulch the planting with humus or peat. With late planting and flowering of daffodils delayed by 2-3 weeks.
The first to plant Poetic, then Small and Large Crowned and the last - Tubular.
The bulbs, which were planted in optimal time, form a good root system (up to 20 cm long), and due to this they hibernate well, subsequently bloom well and form more daughter bulbs.
Those bulbs that were planted too late will also take root, but they will have a root system of no more than 5 cm. Accordingly, they will be worse winter and may even die in severe winters.
Fresh manure for daffodils can not be made only under the previous culture.
Before planting, just like any planting material, the bulbs must be inspected, discarded, all soft and damaged. The rest must be disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate or Maxim's preparation.
The depth of planting daffodils is the same as that of tulips and hyacinths - 3 bulb heights, which is about 2-15 cm. Small bulbs and a baby are not buried by more than 10 cm.
At such a depth, the roots of daffodils are provided with moisture and protected from overheating in the summer, which is very important for the prevention of Fusarium. With a tight fit, the bulbs are larger.
Immediately after planting, the daffodils are watered, especially in dry weather.
If, after planting, heavy rains began, it is advisable to feed the plants with a nitroammofosca (30-40 g per 1 m2). With the onset of cold weather daffodils mulch.
Without shelter in too cold winters, they can freeze, it occurs more often on light soils than on loamy soils.
In the spring, after the snow melts, the shelter is removed and immediately fed with nitrogen fertilizer (20-30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2).
With the advent of the first shoots, planting inspect and remove all diseased plants.
Adult daffodils respond well to fertilizing with complex fertilizers with trace elements that are applied every 2 weeks.
If spring has stood arid, then do not forget to water the plants. Especially a lot of moisture they need after flowering (within 4-6 weeks), since it is at this time that the bud of the future flower develops.
Flowers after their wilting are removed with a short part of the peduncle.
The leaves of daffodils do not need to cut, they must dry out naturally. So the bulb restores the supply of nutrients.
Daffodils will bloom better if they are not dug out for 2-4 years.
If you want to get the maximum possible number of bulbs for reproduction, then it is better to dig them out annually.
When the bulbs are left without digging, after drying the leaves are removed and the soil is shallowly loosened, the holes left in the soil after the harvesting of the leaves are filled up, where onion hopper larvae can easily fall. Therefore, the soil should be carefully leveled.
Also make sure that the planting in the future are not overgrown with weeds. And at the end of the summer, watering and feeding continue.
If the bulbs are planning to dig, then you need to wait for the leaves to wither and then dig.
They use pitchforks, immediately wash off the ground with water, remove the remnants of leaves, easily separating old roots, disinfect in a bright pink solution of manganese-acid potassium and place the bulbs in mesh boxes in a single layer to dry.
❀ Dry in a well-ventilated, shaded place for 2-3 weeks. Then separate the kids. After this, the planting material is stored until the next planting at a temperature of + 20 ° C for two weeks, and then at a lower temperature of + 17 ° C and a relative humidity of 70-80%.
Diseases and pests of daffodils
Daffodils suffer from sclerosinosis, Fusarium, Botrytis, mosaic virus. Of pests, as in the cultivation of tulips, should be wary of the onion hoverfly, root onion mite, nematodes.
If daffodils are infected with sclerotinia, small black bodies, sclerotia, can be seen under the covering scales. Heavily infected bulbs usually die during storage, and those that remain spring produce yellowish deformed shoots, which are soon covered with greyish spores of the fungus.
The main means of dealing with the disease - inspection and removal of all diseased plants at the beginning of the growing season of the bulbs.
Planting site is desirable to change or replace the soil fresh.
This is a viral disease. The most susceptible to it are the tubular, coarse and fine crown, terry daffodils.
Signs of the disease appear in early spring. On the leaves appears pale green, sometimes grayish, turning into yellow streaking and mottling over time.
The majority of plants have peduncles crooked, the flowers are often underdeveloped, lose their shape, pale-colored translucent spots and strokes are visible on the petals.
Sick plants are removed.
Be sure to carry out the fight against insects - carriers of the virus and weeds.
Heat treatment of bulbs is necessary before planting in hot (+ 50 ° C) water for 30 minutes.
It is a pleasure to grow in the open field in the country daffodils - unpretentious, compared to other bulbous, flowers. Daffodils are not so demanding on the site of planting, care, light, soil. They can be planted where other bulbous plants will not survive - in low areas of the summer cottage. But be attentive to the level of groundwater, the flowers do not like stagnant water. Daffodils look great on country beds, perfectly refresh landscape design and stand well in water, in bouquets. Flowers are dear to us, as a bright and sunny symbol of spring and a reminder of the approaching summer, when charming peonies will replace them.
Planting daffodil bulbs
Narcissus bulbs are planted in open ground in late summer - early autumn, because they must be rooted to the first frost. If the autumn is warm, daffodils root in a month. They should be planted earlier than tulips, they take root at a warmer soil temperature. It is better to dig up the soil in advance, 2-4 weeks before planting to the depth of a shovel bayonet.
Planting depth - about three diameters of the bulb. Naturally, this depends on the type of soil; if the soil is loose, it is necessary to plant it deeper, and if it is heavy, it is smaller.
Planting of daffodils looks pretty "circle", so they look in spring, when flowering, like a real bouquet. When growing, it is necessary to observe the distance between the bulbs - two diameters, or, on average, you can retreat 10 cm. The less often they sit, the more daughter bulbs they form. If you want to propagate some interesting sort of flowers, plant them in rows, with a distance between plants of 15-20 cm.
Fertilizer soil for growing
In the hole is better to add sand and ash. Covering the top of the bulbs with earth or compost up to half a hole, add fertilizer to the remaining half of the ground, intended for additional feeding in the fall (including potassium and phosphorus). When feeding, follow the instructions, but if you add compost and ash when planting, reduce the fertilizer by half. After all this, daffodils abundantly spill.
Top dressing of narcissuses during cultivation
We carry out in three stages:
1. In the spring, after the appearance of the first shoots, daffodils are fertilized with a mixture of ammonium nitrate (30 g), superphosphate and potassium salt (15 g each).
2. Before flowering, a mixture will suit as a fertilizer: superphosphate - 40 g, ammonium nitrate and potash salt - 20 g each. These ingredients contribute to the beautiful flowering of daffodils and good propagation of the bulbs.
3. During flowering, daffodils are fed for the third time with a mixture of ammonium nitrate (10g), superformed and potash salt (15 gr each).
The mixtures are given in dosage per 1 square meter. Fertilizers should be applied carefully in the grooves between the rows of flowers, making sure that the mixture does not fall on the plants themselves. Remember that daffodils, tulips, and other bulbous do not like fresh manure.
They multiply simply and quickly enough. One year after planting, one onion will produce 3-6 daughter bulbs. Every 2-3 years, daffodils should be thinned out if they are sitting in a flowerbed not in rows, but in a circle. If this is not done, the flowers are crushed, they become worse to bloom because of crowding. Do not wait for this, spread them out in advance. Some of the daughters of the bulbs will bloom next year!
As soon as the leaves have fallen down and turned yellow, it is necessary to dig out the bulbs (you can fork) and carefully examine. All damaged plants or pests must be burned. Do not even feel sorry for just soft, albeit healthy specimens. Selected healthy specimens are washed in running water and dried indoors (at a temperature of about 17 degrees Celsius).
It is possible to pickle the bulbs either after rinsing or before planting. To do this, a solution of potassium permanganate (2-3 grams per bucket of water) is suitable. If they have been damaged by an onion mite, pickled with any acaricide (for example, 0.3% phosphamide solution, BI-58) for half an hour.
Keep daffodils before planting should be in boxes with good ventilation in a ventilated cool place (for example, in a country barn). Good ventilation helps fight fusarium. Plants growing on soils overfed with nitrogenous fertilizers are subject to this disease. Bulbs are placed in boxes in a single layer, by grade.
Shelter is needed for the bulbs of flowers brought from warmer regions, as well as planted in light, loose soil, otherwise they will freeze. Peat, grass or dry leaves can be used as a shelter. The bulbs are covered with a layer of 5-10 cm after the onset of frosts, when the soil at the cottage freezes to 4-5 cm, but before the snow falls.
Here, it seems, and everything is short about daffodils, maybe it’s time to move on to growing vegetables, berries and fruits and think about the daily bread and tasty for the winter?
Types and features
All varieties of daffodils combined into 13 groups. There are about 60 species in nature, bred by humans, there are 25 species. The most popular ones are:
- Tubular have one large inflorescence, color white or yellow, come in two colors. Bulb about 5 cm, not whimsical for reproduction.
- Krupokoronchatye famous for a variety of colors. On the stem is a single flower, the crown of which is one third the size of the petals. Bulb is not very large.
- Small-crown mainly with a white-cream shade and soft aroma, medium flowers with a reddish crown. This species blooms later than others.
- Terry - one of the beautiful views, on the peduncle is one or more terry flowers. Color varied as well as size. There are more petals than ordinary daffodils, and the middle is not bell-shaped.
- Triandrus is a plant with a low stem at the end of which there are two inflorescences. White bent petals are extremely beautiful and delight long bloom.
- Cyclameniform with early flowering, on the stem of a single flower, which has an apricot crown inside that is longer than the yellow petals.
- Zhonkillillievye - this kind of bloom late. Golden mean at a flower is much less than yellow petals. Without transplantation can grow 7 years.
- Multi-flowered - daffodils of this species easily tolerate winter. On the stem can grow up to 20 flowers. A small orange crown, flowers with a pleasant smell.
- White Narcissus refers to the kind of poetic. He is the only one on the stem, enduring the winter with endurance and not afraid of the shadow. This white flower has a green peephole and a small onion.
- Cut-crown - petals with a fringe and cut a crown like a moth.
Wild flowers have a large variety of flowers and grow in the wild.
Features of cultivation in the Moscow region
The simplicity of these plants makes it possible to plant them in different places. They grow in open sunny areas or in the shade. You can not plant in swampy areas, but tolerate sandy soils. A couple of months before planting daffodils, the soil needs to be plowed, about 30 cm deep.
Daffodils will bloom badly if they are planted in places where the bulbous plants grew.
Processed onions planted in September. Some are planted in October, they must take root before the frost.
Like tulips, daffodils need weeding and removing weeds.
Transplantation can be carried out in the spring, pre-cut the stems, so that the ovary does not exhaust the young shoots. When the leaves dry, the plants need to dig, clean and store in a dry and ventilated room. If everything is ready for transplantation, then you can immediately move from one site to another.
Daffodils are planted in the suburbs from mid-August to mid-September. During this period, the climate is most favorable.
In the store, carefully check your favorite bulbs. They should not be soft or weak. Such material may not sprout. It is desirable to buy when flowering lasts at least three months.
Do not buy planting material of daffodils in the spring! It is better to buy bulbs in the fall before the onset of cold weather.
The bulbs should not be germinated or with flowers. Do not buy if the packaging is one large, and the rest are small. To garden you pleased until the autumn, it is better to choose several varieties of daffodils.
Popular varieties for the Moscow region
- False or yellow daffodil originally from France and Germany. The stems are not high, about 30 cm. On the leg there is only one flower, with petals and a calyx bright yellow. Blossoms in May. Looks nobly on sites near houses with tulips.
- Flowers White Narcissus brought from the Iberian Islands. It is a mountain flower and has a pure white color. It grows in pine forests. Leg 35 cm. Bulbs in the form of a ball. It blooms in May for about 10 days.
- The tender beauty of Pink Daffodil will attract any attention. He comes from Italy. High stem (45 cm) with one flower, the leaves are wide and dark. The pink bell inside the white petals emits a pleasant smell. It blooms in May and surprises everyone around.
- Variety Tet-a-Tet strikes the unusual shape of the flower. Low plant with one downed flower. It is yellow, the petals are curved back, inside is a long middle. Dissolving in May, planted along the roads.
- Terry love moisture, they were brought from America. Long stem with several flowers on it. Petals terry in appearance.
- Gay Challenger variety daffodils - low plants with one inflorescence. The orange crown has the shape of a hexagonal star, around white petals. They serve as a highlight of any bouquet. Color gives in late spring.
- Texas is a terry flower. Different colors: white, yellow and pink. Delivered from Germany. There are no cups inside, instead yellow petals. Unusual for his brothers.
- Ice King inflorescence large lemon-colored, peony-shaped crown inside the snow-white petals.
- Tahiti is not like a single kind of daffodil. Instead of the usual bell yellow-orange petals. Single flower
- The Rip Van Winkle variety looks more like a peony, a fluffy middle ground confuses: is it a narcissus? Loves moisture, a small stalk.
- Nardam's varieties of Obdam are very delicate with a beige tint and spread a heady aroma. In the middle of a lot of petals.
Landing and caring for plants
Planting daffodils can be both in spring and autumn.
Selected bulbs without visible damage should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate to prevent infection. The landing begins after the ground has been poured and holes made. The soil should be fertilized, better with humus or compost. If the soil is alkaline, add dolomite flour (200 g per square meter), wood ash is useful for the acidic environment (1 cup per square meter).
Bonemeal and other fertilizers, rich in minerals, contribute, taking into account the properties of the soil. Manure can harm daffodils.
In addition to fertilizers, clay and sand are added to the soil. Once planted, add sawdust, straw. This will help to deal with weeds.
Large onions are carefully placed in the ground for 15 cm. Between them, 20 cm, this will prolong the durability of the plant. It is enough to feed the flowers only 2 times:
- when the stems are 5 cm, bring in minerals,
- when the buds appear they are fed a solution of a mullein with additives of superphosphate (30 g per 10 l).
A large amount of nitrogen can leave plants without flowers.
Watering is necessary regularly, especially when the ground is dry. Многие производят полив при помощи шланга, но так можно погубить цветы. Температура воды должна быть комнатной.
При обильных осадках лучше нарциссы накрывать, чтобы не сгнили корни.
Осенью в грунт добавляют вместе с компостом торф (5 кг на 1 кв.м), суперфосфаты нужны для цветения. Снова перекапывают и оставляют на некоторое время.
You can plant bulbs in places where cereals grew, but not bulbous. Daffodils side by side with tulips.
Faded buds take away the flowers from the blooming energy, the dead flowers picked up in time, the rest will save. If the inflorescences become smaller, you need to think about their transplant, new bulbs take all the necessary substances.
During the season, one bulb gives about four new ones. Old dry scales should be removed. It is necessary to separate onion bulbs very carefully, so as not to damage, if you nevertheless did not carefully, treat the damaged areas with ash. They should be dried in a warm place not lower than 18 degrees. Spread out, so that each lay separately. With long storage, they lose moisture and may die.
Pests and diseases
If properly care for daffodils, the flowers will delight more than one year. However, it should be borne in mind that they are subject to certain diseases:
- Fusarium infects the root system and moves along the stem. White bloom and lethargy vivid confirmation of this. The leaves dry out. Such plants need to be cleaned so as not to infect neighboring flowers.
- A terrible disease caused by gray mold is called botrytis. Gray mold with black specks infects the leaves and kills the plant.
- It happens that some bulbs did not grow. Perhaps they were struck by a fungus. This disease is accompanied by a lot of moisture. For prophylaxis before planting, the bulbs should be placed not for long in Maxim's solution. Sprouts spray with Bordeaux mortar.
Viruses are merciless not only to humans, but also to plants. Various divorces, specks, growth retardation or lack thereof, speaks of the disease in daffodils. Infection occurs through soil, seeds and water. Viruses do not give a chance for plants. They are carried by flies, beetles, mites and whitefly. Disinfection protects flowers from diseases.
Daffodils tolerate winter well. If the landing was late, they could not take root well. In winter there are harsh days, and the bulbs can freeze. Deceptive thaws can wake the plants, and after the next frost they will freeze.
At the onset of cold weather flowers should be covered. Cover need plants with large buds. Suitable dry grass, foliage, shell from nuts. In the spring you need to remove everything.
Technology of growing and caring for flowers daffodils
These flowers can grow well in the shade. On the same illuminated and open areas of the bulbs and flowers have a much better quality. Daffodils have the ability to adapt well to different places. Depending on the landscape design in the country, plants are planted in a flower bed, lawn, lawn, even under the crown of the tree.
As mentioned above, daffodils can grow normally without a transplant of up to five years. Then the plants begin to grow strongly and form large nests for the bulbs. Therefore, they need to be transplanted.
Plants to the soil are not demanding, they grow well in principle on any soil. But loam with sufficient nutrition is considered the best. For the maintenance of essential nutrients in the soil, the soil is fertilized with compost or humus. Manure when growing daffodils do not give, they can not stand it.
If the soil is acidic, it is neutralized by liming. This is done a year before planting the bulbs. To do this, use 200 g of lime fluff for one m 2. This procedure is done 1 time before planting the bulbs. And then if you need to maintain the required pH, then use wood ash at the rate of one cup per m 2.
The soil for daffodils is prepared in the summer, or not earlier than a month before planting. During this time, the earth has time to settle down a bit.
Digging soil do deep to 35cm. Then, peat and compost are introduced, and for heavy soils, coarse-grained river sand and humus are added at the rate of 1 bucket / m 2. Mineral fertilizers are the same as for other bulbous ones, superphosphate (2 tablespoons), potassium sulfate (1 tablespoons) per m 2.
After fertilization, they dig up the earth a second time. And in this form is left to fall, before planting the bulbs.
Planting daffodil bulbs
Planting of bulbs begins in late August and continues throughout the whole of September. Before boarding, carefully inspect the planting material. Immediately remove small bulbs, damaged with various spots. Also, the bulbs are treated with a fungicidal preparation, or with a solution of potassium permanganate (0.1%).
The bulb is planted at a depth of 12-20 cm. It depends on the type of soil. The heavier the soil, the smaller the depth of planting. Kids bulbs planted at a depth of ten centimeters.
In the row, the distance between the bulbs is 10-12 cm. With such a density, large bulbs grow, and with a rare planting more children grow.
After planting, soil mulching is done. To do this, use a layer of peat or humus with a thickness of 4 centimeters. When the soil freezes to 5 cm, the daffodils are covered with a layer of leaves of at least 20 cm. Plants often freeze out when the soil is dry and light than wet and heavy.
In the spring, after the snow has melted, the leaves are removed and the mulch is left. In determining the place for daffodils need to pay attention to the depth of groundwater. It should be at least 60 cm. Otherwise, during the rain seasons, the tips of the roots can die off, and this impairs the growth and development of the plant.
How to care for daffodils
If it is rainy in early spring, fertilize daffodils with dry fertilizer: 1 tbsp. ash and 1 tsp. superphosphate, Agricola-7, urea and potassium sulfate per 1 sq.m. Watering in dry weather should be the entire period as needed until the end of the occurrence of the roots (about 30 cm). Feed 2 times: when buds are formed fertilized with a solution: 1 tsp to a bucket of water superphosphate, urea and potassium sulfate, at the rate of 5 liters of solution per 1 sq. m. The second time when flowering begins: 1 tsp. Agricola-7, nitrophoska and Effekton on a bucket of water.
Loosening, weeding and cleaning of weeds is constant.
Daffodil bulbs are attacked by a narcissus fly, an onion hover and a root mite. Of the diseases - various types of rot and fusarium.
From pests can advise spring spraying the drug "Fitoverm" (20 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water per 10 square meters. 1 liter of solution).
For the prevention of fusarium, before planting, the bulbs of daffodils are treated for 20 minutes in a solution of 0.2% of foundationol or topxin.
If the bulbs were damaged by pads, then add 0.2% karate with decis, dry and plant.
It is possible to transplant daffodils painlessly in the spring with a wet clod of earth.
Where better to plant daffodils
These plants are quite unpretentious, so they can grow well in a shaded place. However, with good light, flowers have better quality. They can adapt well to different types of landscape: on a flower bed, lawn or under the crown of a tree.
How to prepare the soil for planting
Daffodils do not require a special type of soil, they can grow in any. In order to saturate the soil with nutrients, you should fertilize the soil with compost or humus. However, it should be remembered that these plants do not tolerate manure. Therefore, it is not worth using it.
To prepare the soil for planting daffodils need in the summer, so she had time to settle down a bit.
Daffodils are transplanted with bulbs. They are usually planted from August to September. Before that, you need to carefully select the bulbs, separating the small and damaged. After that, they must be treated with a solution of manganese.
Daffodils are usually planted at a depth of 12–20 cm. It’s better to plant small bulbs at a depth of 10 cm.
After the bulbs are planted, it is necessary to cover the soil with a protective layer to protect it from the cold weather in winter. For this purpose peat or humus is used, which is laid out 5 cm thick. To avoid soil freezing, cover it with a thick layer of leaves, about 20 cm. With the onset of spring the leaves are removed.
When caring for daffodils, special attention should be paid to watering and feeding.
With the onset of hot weather, daffodils need to be watered when they begin to grow and until the moment when the leaves begin to fade.
Feed these plants need twice. The first time with the formation of buds, the second - during flowering. To do this, use superphosphate, urea, potassium sulfate.
In order to propagate the sort of daffodils you like, you need:
- Make small cuts at the bottom of the bulb, put them on the shelves. In these cuts should appear small onions. After a certain time, they will produce material for planting.
- At the end of the summer, the bulb must be divided so that the parts of the two scales are fixed on one bottom. All this needs to be stored in a bag filled with perlite. After that we land in the ground.
How to save bulbs
Digging bulbs should be done after the leaves and roots start to dry. This is best done in July. If the bulbs are not planned to be dug out, the dried leaves should be cut off and the soil should be raked up. In August, the plants must be watered well to avoid drying out of the root system.
Having dug up the bulbs, they should be dried well and stored first at a temperature of 25 degrees, and later - 18 degrees.
The main diseases of daffodils include bacterial rot. Onion horse mite, lumpy hover and narcissus fly are the main pests of flowers. After the plant has faded, it must be sprayed with copper sulphate (100 g of powder per 10 liters of water).
In some cases, you can use a special drug called "Fitoverm." It is used in the spring before the formation of buds.
Narcissus can be grown not only in the garden, but also in your apartment, at home, for this you only need to try a little and this beautiful flower will delight you on the windowsill too.