Most gardeners with the first heat sow beet seeds in open ground, but this method has its drawbacks. So, despite the fact that the beets are sufficiently cold-resistant, germination of seeds at a low soil temperature sometimes lasts up to three weeks (at + 5 ° C).
If the temperature rises to + 10 ° С, the period of sprouting is reduced to one and a half to two weeks, and at + 20-25 ° С the beets germinate in three to four days. It should be borne in mind also that too cold a period of germination can stimulate the arrowhead of plants, and then instead of succulent root crops you will get a bountiful crop of seeds. Based on this, some gardeners practice planting beets in their plots.
As it turned out, beetroot tolerates a transplant at a young age. Therefore, the seedlings should be sown in a greenhouse or seedling box about 30-40 days before planting in open ground.
In this case, the seedlings will have 5-6 true leaves and take root on the garden. Besides, the seedling method of planting beets will make it possible to save seed material. The fact is that one beet seed contains up to 5-6 sprouts, which can not be separated before planting.
Therefore, when thinning the beds, most of the shoots must be removed. If you use the seedling method, the seed will need 3-4 times less than usual.
Sowing seeds in a seedling box
Before sowing seedlings, the seeds must be calibrated, selecting the largest and most viable for planting. It is necessary, in addition, to pickle them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate in order to destroy possible pests and pathogens.
You should know that the beets perfectly transfers the dive, so it can be sown on the seedlings first in a seedling box in a warm room. Sow beets at the rate of 14 grams of dry seeds per square meter of soil.
The term of sowing is rather early: depending on the climatic zone - from the end of March to mid-April. When the plants have thrown out two or three true leaves, they can be dived by planting in a greenhouse.
Diving into the greenhouse
The place for the greenhouse is prepared in advance by digging a ditch about a meter wide and about 40 cm deep. The ditch is filled with organic garbage: last year's grass, fallen leaves, fragments of branches, etc.
2-3 days before planting, garbage is poured abundantly with hot water and covered with a layer of garden soil about 20 cm thick, covered with a film on top. By the time of transplanting, the process of decomposition of organic matter is already in full force, warming the greenhouse from below.
Seedlings dive, choosing strong strong plants, and sit them at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other. Dive beet transfers excellent and quickly goes into growth, throwing out the tops.
Planting beet seedlings in the ground
Grafting is carried out when the cold season ends. The beds for beets are prepared in the fall, adding a sufficient amount of humus or compost to the soil, and, if necessary, producing them out with dolomite flour or a weak solution of lime.
It should be remembered that beets like loose, light soil - this is especially important for those vegetable growers who have heavy clay or black soil predominate on the site. From the greenhouse, seedlings of beets are planted in the soil with a clod of earth, so as not to damage the root system of the plants. Planting is carried out at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other, so that the plants have free space for growth.
Often beets are planted in between rows of cucumber beds or as a border of other ridges and irrigation ditches. In the first days after planting, it is advisable to apply a bed to give the beets the opportunity to adapt to a new place. Caring for beet seedlings is no different from caring for regular plantings.
Be sure to monitor the soil for sufficient moisture and water as it dries. Loosening the inter-row spacing is a very important procedure that allows the root system to provide free access to air, preventing the beds from drying out quickly and destroying weeds.
In addition, we should not forget about feeding the beds of beet mineral or organic fertilizers. With proper care, seedlings allow to receive the first crop 3-4 weeks earlier than with normal cultivation.
How to grow beets in your garden
Growing beets at their summer cottage For nutritional value, beets are following carrots and cabbage; many of your favorite dishes (vinaigrettes, borscht, salads, etc.) cannot be imagined without it. Beets are rich in useful elements and organic acids, its regular use improves the bowels, the cardiovascular system, and has a positive effect on the body as a whole. Growing beets in your garden has certain features, which the following text is devoted to.
- Planting beets (video)
Beets, which we eat, are called canteen, botanists attribute it to the family of marijuhs. This is a biennial plant, the seeds are inside the hard dry fruit, from which it is almost impossible to extract them. The fruits are united in tangles and it is them that the gardeners sow. Each ball gives life to several plants, so thinning is almost obligatory for beets, otherwise the plants will be cramped. Learn how to quickly and quickly make a roof to a country house.
The timing of planting beets
A temperature of + 5 ° is sufficient for germination of beet seeds and after 3 weeks you can see the first shoots, at 10 ° it will go faster and after 10 days sprouts will appear, at 15 ° you will have to wait 5-6 days for shoots, and at a temperature above 20 ° only - 3-4 days. Knowledge of the effect of temperature on germination helps the gardener to better orient with planting dates. The usual planting time for beets is mid-May, but if adverse weather conditions occur (prolonged cold, for example), later planting dates are acceptable, but the seeds should then be used prepared.
In the absence of weeds, late sowed seeds quickly emerge, especially if there is warm weather. The harvest from late plantings will not be worse in quantity and quality. But the periods of cooling in the spring have a very negative effect on shoots and provoke the formation of tsvetushnosti.
Soil for beets
Proper cultivation of beets requires frequent and abundant watering during periods when the first shoots appear and then take root, and water is also needed to increase the leaf mass. A well-established beet will endure a short dry period.
At the same time, an excess of moisture will worsen growth and productivity, therefore, on lands where there is a threat of waterlogging, the cultivation of beets, if they do, is only on ridges. Optimal soils for table beets are medium loamy, slurry and light, which are rich in organic matter. Beetroot is considered the most demanding among root crops in relation to the fertility of the land. The reaction of the environment in which you can hope for a good harvest of beets should be close to neutral. It is recommended to sow beets on humus-rich and loose soil with an arable layer of 20-25 cm.
In the lowlands, on clay soils and in places where the arable layer is less than 15 cm, beets are best grown on ridges of a width of approx. 80-100 cm, and having a height of approx. 20 cm
Between rows do not less than 50 cm. Any summer resident can grow beets. On soils favorable for beets (suspended, sandy) and with other good conditions, it can be grown on even plots, sown in 100 cm wide strips, and providing for a passage of at least 40 see. The main commandment here - you need to dig up the soil to the entire depth of the arable layer, without ever turning out the plow layer (podzol, glybin). It is also important to chop and wrap the soil layer well, so that the weeds invariably turn out to be at the maximum possible depth. The ridges are created during the spring digging process, orienting in the north-south direction. It is important to get a loose soil layer in the ridge, which is achieved by using forks, which break up clods and then level the ridge
How to cook beet seeds for sowing
To check the quality of beet seeds before sowing, they are germinated. On the bottom of a flat small container (saucers, plates) a wet canvas or felt rag laid out in 2 layers is laid out, 50 (possible, 100) seeds are placed on it, which are covered with another moistened rag.
Sprouted seeds are selected, while their number is recorded. By the number of germinated seeds from the hundreds laid out, we can conclude what percentage of germination in this batch.
Germination is checked in this way already in the seeds that have been sorted, i.e. all weak, damaged seeds are pre-removed. First class beet seeds usually have an 80% germination rate, which lasts for 3-5 years. Prepared seeds are a guarantee of a good harvest. Traditional measures can be used to accelerate the rate of emergence of the first seedlings and increase the yield of beets.
One way is to soak the seeds in clean water with a temperature of 15-20 °, the procedure lasts 1-2 days, and it is recommended to change the water every 2-3 hours. It is applied to beet seeds and the germination method by moistening, the procedure is similar to that held for measuring germination, at a temperature of 18-25 ° kept until the vast majority of seeds germinate, which occurs within 3-4 days. Then, germinated beet seeds are sown in a well-moistened soil. Vernalization is considered a more effective method.
Seeds are moistened with water (the ratio is the same for the mass of water per 100 g of seeds). The procedure of vernalization can be carried out by placing the seeds in a glass or enameled container and filling with water (first half of the volume).
The seeds are stirred and left for 32 hours, then pour the remaining water. They are kept for another 2-4 days, after which the swollen seeds are moved for 7-10 days to the refrigerator (or just a cold room), scattering on the bottom of the box with a layer of no more than 3 cm in thickness. Begin vernalization should be 10-14 days before seeding.
Features of sowing beets
The seeding rate for beets is 16-20 g of seeds per 10 square meters. m, between the rows leave 18-20 cm. It is not necessary to embed the seeds much deeper than inexperienced gardeners sin, because with deep planting the chance of germination decreases, or the growth rate slows down due to lack of oxygen at such a depth. But sowing too small will be a mistake, as there will be a risk that the seeds will dry out or be blown away by the wind.
The optimal depth of sowing of beets depends on the type of soil; for heavy ones, close them up 2-3 cm deep down, and light ones 3-4 cm. Sometimes they resort to transverse sowing of seeds. There is a point of view that the transverse rows are easier to care for.
To stimulate the germination of sown seeds in the ridge (soil) make grooves, pressing down their bottom. On such a compacted layer of earth, seeds are sown, on top of which a half-centimeter layer of soil mixed with humus is poured, slightly tamped with the edge of the palm, and another 1-2 cm of humus or peat is poured out to prevent the grooves from drying out.
And of course, peat or humus mulching between the rows is also beneficial. If the sowing is late, then the bottom of the groove must first be plentifully watered from the watering can and, after soaking up the water, sow the seeds and sprinkle with soil.
To get the beet harvest already in April-May, when sowing is just beginning in the open ground, you need a greenhouse or, alternatively, insulated ridges, which will take less time to construct than a greenhouse. Make them easy.
It is necessary to dig a shallow ditch, not more than 35 cm deep, and 1-1.5 m wide. Put manure (garbage) in it so that this pile rises 15-20 cm above the ground level, top it with a 15-20 cm layer of earth . Heat will be released from the heap for a long time, which will heat the plants.
Additional protection against the cold weather will be provided by such materials as burlap, chemical film, matting, mats, which are laid on bars, which are supported by the harness binding. The heated ridges are used for the device in early April. Sowing usually falls on the period of April 15-30, and the seedlings are planted in the second half of May.
It takes a month to prepare the seedlings. Seedlings are obtained from the warmed ridges, sowing in them the seeds of table beet, referring to early-growing varieties. Seeds must first be soaked or vernalized.
Sowing rate in insulated ridges is about 10-15 g per 1 sq. Km. With the onset of consistently warm weather, seedlings are moved to ridges that should be covered with polyethylene for the night, while the risk of sudden cold weather persists. The usual rate of 1 square. meter is about 40-45 plants in the seedling stage, which already had 3-4 leaves. Growing with seedlings allows you to get a high-quality beet harvest a few weeks earlier.
Caring for beets need careful, it is quite capricious culture, which likes to process took place in its time. One of the main points is to prevent the appearance of a soil crust.
There is a great threat from the weeds, because the beets in the first stage before the formation of 4-6 leaves have a slow growth rate, and weeds in the absence of care can almost suffocate the shoots. So strict weed control, maintaining good soil moisture and optimal gas exchange are urgent tasks for the beet grower. Spray them with a solution of sodium nitrate, which is also useful for plants to destroy weeds.
The proportions of the solution - 2-3 g saltpeter / 1 liter of water, this volume is enough for 1 square. meter. The weeds remaining after such treatment will have to be removed manually. It is important to loosen the soil crust in time (4-6 cm deep), spray with tractor kerosene (approximately 40-50 g of kerosene per 1 square meter) and then the weed problem will be solved with minimal use of manual labor.
Watering and beet fertilizer
If it rains rarely, then the beets may need 2 generous irrigation of 10-20 liters per 1 square. meter, after which it is necessary to loosen the soil. Water obtained by watering, will benefit if it penetrates to the roots of beets, which lie at a depth of 15-20 cm. The first dressing is usually done when young plants begin to form a second pair of leaves.
Dry fertilizers are applied with simultaneous loosening of the aisle. Regarding the amount of fertilizer - 1 square. meter will need approx. 8 g of potassium salt and 7-9 g of ammonium nitrate.
The time of the second feeding comes shortly before the closure of the rows, and without loosening here is not enough. Fertilizer per 1 square. meter goes a little more - potash fertilizer will need 16-20 g and 10-15 g of nitrogen fertilizer.
Like other root crops, beets are sown more densely than is necessary for its normal development. Specially thickened sowing is a measure against poor germination of seedlings, damage and death due to bad weather.
Densely planted plants rob each other of their growth resources, which leads to a poor harvest and a decrease in the overall level of production. The roots of beets grown without thinning will be shallow and crooked. Therefore, thinning beets is a measure of basic necessities.
The first thinning is carried out when the first two full leaves appear on the plant. 2-3 cm in a row between plants. The second thinning should be done when 5-6 leaves have already developed on the plants, the gap between the plants is 4-6 cm.
Finally, the third thinning procedure is carried out until August 15, 6–8 cm of free space between the plants remains. Be sure to keep track of the thinning time, being late with this important procedure faces a significant deterioration in the quantity and quality of the crop. It is best to thin out after recent watering or heavy rain. Wet soil makes it easier to pull out the plants, neighboring plants will be less disturbed, and transplanted specimens easier to take root in an already wet ground.
Planting beets (video)
According to the rules, with the first thinning procedure, the weakest and most unviable plants are removed, and during the second and third thinning, the most developed, large-sized plants that are practically suitable for eating are transplanted, and those specimens with signs of disease are removed. Guided by our manual for growing beets, it will be easier for you to approach this business, we wish you good harvests and be sure to inform us about your garden achievements.
How to grow beets? What, when and how to do in the country, so that the cultivation of beets was simple and ended with a good harvest? Today we are looking for and get answers to these, and not only these questions.Sowing beet seedsWhen to sow beets?
Посев семян свеклы столовой в открытый грунт проводят весной - в мае, летом - в июне и осенью под зиму - в октябре-ноябре семенами сортов, устойчивых к цветушности.В средней полосе посев семян столовой свеклы проводят во второй половине мая, когда температура почвы на глубине 10 см поднимется до +8…+10°С. Схема посева 30-35 х 6-7см.
Норма высева семян при весеннем посеве 1,5—2г/м2. Глубина заделки семян 2—3см.При затяжной холодной весне сроки посева свеклы можно передвинуть, так как, при неблагоприятных погодных условиях всхожесть семян может снизиться на 35-45-%.
In addition, if the sprouts fall under sudden frosts or prolonged cold, the beets will either freeze or start shooting, that is, instead of a root crop, they will pour juice on the seeds. What to do in this case?
It is better to wait a little with sowing, and you can sow beets in two terms with a difference of two weeks. In this case, the second crops, as a rule, have a higher yield.
You can also sow beets in June - it will be better stored in winter. At this time you can do the preparation of seeds for sowing. How to make the preparation of beet seeds for sowing?
- we calibrate the seeds, select larger ones, - we make seeds soaking in water or in a solution of microelements at a temperature of 18-20 degrees, - we germinate seeds, when spitting 2-3% of seeds, we dry them to flowability and sow them in moist soil - we can also apply bubbling, drazhirovanie, grinding, disinfection. How to sow beets in the fall? In the fall, beets are sown on the beds, in grooves made at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other.
Seed consumption — 2-3 g per 1 m2. The seeding depth is 3-4 cm. Subwinter crops mulch with peat or humus. There is one more question: when are the podzimnye crops? Subwinter crops are carried out in late October - early November.
How to grow early beets Young root vegetables of beet, those which are 3-5 cm in diameter and leaves of table beet are rich in vitamin C and carotene. They are also rich in biologically active substances such as betaine, calcium, phosphorus and iron salts.
Young root beetroot and leaves have good taste. Young beets are included in the assortment of early vegetables along with lettuce, radishes, green onions. So, how to grow early beets?
There are two main ways to obtain early production: - a seedling method of growing beetroot - podzymny - very early sowing.Rassadny method of growing beetrootBeetroot at a young age tolerates transplantation well, so the seedling method of growing beets is widely practiced by summer residents.
Using canned beet seedlings allows you to get a good crop in the middle lane, have an early production and save seeds. How to grow beet seedlings? What varieties are used for growing beet seedlings?
For the seedling method, choose the color-resistant beet varieties of the canteen: - Cold-resistant 19, - Polar flat, - K-249. Sowing of table beet seeds for seedlings is carried out in greenhouses or film greenhouses 30-40 days before planting in the open ground. Under favorable conditions, this method allows you to get greens for 15 - 20 days earlier than with wintering and early spring periods with seeds in open ground, and 30-40 days earlier than with ordinary spring sowing. The simplest way is to grow seedlings of beetroot in a greenhouse with cucumbers .
In early spring between the rows of cucumbers, you can sow beet seeds for seedlings. Compatibility and interaction of plants will be quite suitable.
And when the cucumbers grow, you need to transplant the beets in the open ground. Before sowing, a seedbed preparatory of the table beet seeds is needed. How to prepare canteen seeds for sowing?
Disinfection is performed - seeds are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate - this is necessary for pest control, in particular, against the root grass. Additionally, beet seeds are moistened with water and kept in a moist state for 2–3 days before pecking.
How to sow seeds beetroot? Sow the seeds in a greenhouse in rows, with inter-rows 5-7 cm and 2-3 cm in a row.
The yield of seedlings is 600-700 pieces from 1 m2. If, after planting beetroot seedlings, there are cold nights in open ground, then it is advisable to create a temporary film cover: the bed should be covered with plastic wrap before the onset of stable warm weather. It allows you to get beets of excellent quality for 3-4 weeks earlier than during spring sowing with seeds. Planting seedlings in the soil is carried out in mid-May, when the soil at a depth of 8-10 cm warms up to 8-10 ° C.
Since during this period the weather is very unstable, there are cold returns to minus temperatures, it is necessary to use spunbond covers, especially at night. If the cover of planting by non-woven material is not provided, there is no need to hurry with planting seedlings in open ground. Planting seedlings on ridges is thick, 4-5 cm, between rows - 20-25 cm.
40–45 table beet seedlings with 3-4 leaves per 1 m2 of vegetable garden are required. Caring for plants is the same as when sowing seeds in the ground.
Super early sowing beet diningSummer gardeners use top seed, which for organizational reasons cannot use the seedling method. In practice, there are widespread two terms of super early sowing of beets in a canteen - subwinter seeding, - early spring sowing. How to make a subwinter seeding of beet canteen?
Dry beet seeds are sown in late October - early November in the beds to a depth of 3-4 cm with 20 cm row spacing. The seeding rate of 3g / m2.How to do early-spring sowing of beet dining?
Taking into account our weather conditions in the autumn-winter period, which are characterized by a change of warm weather to cold snaps, spring planting on prepared warm ridges is most effective in the middle lane. When to do early-spring planting of beetroot? The best time is the end of April or the beginning of May, when the soil warms to 8-10 ° C. To speed up the emergence of shoots and growth, I recommend making temporary shelters, make good use of covering materials such as film or spunbond. This time on the website of the Viennese summer house I described in detail to you everything you need to know about how to grow a good beet harvest, including sowing seeds , rassadny method of cultivation, and over-early-podzimny and early-spring sowing of beets.
Seed preparation for sowing
Beet seeds are found in dry fruits of several pieces, therefore, when sowing, they take into account that thinning will be necessary soon. Seeds in some varieties are located 1 less often 2 pieces in the fruit, such varieties are called single-growth. Before sowing, seeds are soaked for a day in a warm nutrient solution, for example, 1 tablespoon of wood ash per 1 liter of water. Then the seeds are transferred to a damp cloth and kept at 20 ° C for two days.
Beets are not demanding on the quality of the soil, but it grows better in rich organic soil and yields are rich. When digging up the soil for every 1 m 2 make 2-3 kg of humus, up to 20 grams of ammonium nitrate, up to 40 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of potassium chloride. When spring planting seeds sown on a flat surface, and in the autumn - it is recommended to sow in the ridge.
The prepared seeds are sown in the heated earth, when the temperature at a depth of 10 cm is not less than 8 o C. The seeds are sown in rows with a distance between them of 45 cm at a depth of 3-4 cm. To preserve moisture, the soil is mulched with peat or humus. When sowing seeds for seedlings, the distance between rows is reduced to 10-15 cm. Shoots appear for 8-20 days depending on air temperature and soil moisture. Beets sown with seeds are grown in open ground, but beet seedlings can also be grown in greenhouses for early harvest.
Thinning and planting seedlings
With a single thinning, the strongest plants are left, keeping the distance between them by 6-18 cm. Often they thin out the beets in three stages throughout the summer. Then, at the first thinning, the plants are left at a distance of 6-8 cm, then after 3-5 weeks - 8-12 cm and at the last thinning in August - about 15-18 cm between each root crop. Pulled beets can be planted in free space, as well as seedlings, and can be used as food. When growing beet seed, seedlings are planted in the soil in the phase of 2-4 true leaves in rows with a distance between plants of 10-18 cm and 30 cm between rows.
Beets are not demanding in planting and care, but in order to obtain high-quality root crops, it is recommended to loosen the soil in order to prevent the formation of a surface peel that is not permeable to water and air. Water the beets by sprinkling from a hose or a watering can. Watering is carried out until the soil at a depth of 8 cm is wet, usually enough 10l per m 2. 3-4 weeks before harvesting watering is reduced. When growing and caring for beets, in addition to watering and loosening, fertilizer is required.
10-14 days after planting or after thinning the beets are fertilized with mineral fertilizers, for example, with a solution of ash. The second feeding is carried out a month after the first. Instead of ash, you can use urea (10g per 1 m 2), as well as ready potash phosphate fertilizers.
When feeding with potash fertilizers, it is better to use their chlorine forms, since it is chlorine that prevents the accumulation of nitrates in beets. To do this, take 10 g of potassium chloride and 8 g of superphosphate for each m 2 of beet plantations.
Harvest beets begin to collect in 70-90 days from emergence and finish before the first frost, usually in mid-September. Beets are beautifully stored until spring. To do this, cut tops from root crops, leaving 2-3 cm, and put their boxes, pouring sand. Store in a cool place at temperatures up to +4 o C.
Growing beets in the country is an easy and affordable way to provide yourself and your loved ones with tasty and healthy root vegetables for the whole winter. Beetroot is easy to plant and care, takes not much space, has a long period of harvest, is suitable for storage, can be used fresh, canned, preparing first and second courses, and a large selection of varieties allows you to grow beets of various shades and shapes.
Beet: Is it possible to plant seedlingsIf you plant this root crop from a seedling, then it can be sown as early as April and even at home. The seedling method is remarkable in that it makes it possible to get the first fruits 3–4 weeks earlier (as early as July) than when grown from seeds. At an early age, this root crop tolerates the transplant quite well and during care it is possible not to thin out the planting, which allows to reduce labor costs.
Did you know?Rassadny way experts recommend growing early varieties rich in carotene, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and other useful elements.
Many believe that they know when to plant beets on seedlings. However, the first thing that needs to be taken into account is that this root crop is extremely negative about frost. For example, in the middle lane, in the Urals or in Siberia, it will have to be transplanted into open ground no earlier than May. It should be remembered that on the windowsill the seedlings are drawn out, and the yield of future plants decreases. Therefore, it is better to sow seeds for seedlings in April.
If you have a greenhouse or greenhouse, the seed can be planted a month earlier - in March, and on the beds - in late April.
Preparation of the substrate and the choice of capacity for planting
The soil for sowing can be either ready from the store or prepared by yourself. For the preparation of soil mixtures are used:
- 2 parts peat,
- 1 part of manure (humus),
- 1 part of turf land,
- 0.5 parts of sand
Since this root crop does not like acidity, wood resin is added to the substrate (0.5 cups for every 5 liters of the mixture). Before planting the substrate should be etched "Fitosporin", "Vitaros" or "Maxim". This is done to prevent the appearance of various diseases (black leg, fomoz, etc.).
Capacity for planting can serve as a not too deep wooden container, as well as individual small containers.
Important!Beets are very demanding to heat and do not tolerate frosts, so planting seedlings is more promising.
Preliminary small grooves are made in the container at a distance of 5 cm. The prepared material is laid out on a wet substrate at a distance of 3 cm and slightly sprinkled with the same soil (layer 1–1.5 cm). After that, water the seedlings, cover with plastic wrap and remove the container in a greenhouse or other place.
In principle, the care of beet seedlings is no different from the care of seedlings of other cultures. The most important thing is to maintain a constant temperature (+ 18–20 ° C), regularly ventilate the room and moisten the soil.If the container was shallow and seeding is rare, the pick can be omitted. However, most varieties of this root from one seed produce several shoots. In this case, the seedlings of beets grown at home, must be thinned. Moreover, remote seedlings can be taken for additional planting. When diving, the same soil is used as when sowing. Only add a tablespoon of nitroammofoski to 5 liters of soil mixture. After diving, seedlings are watered.
Seedlings preferably fed every 14 days. To do this, you can use the "Fertika", "Weave", "Fortress".
For planting beet seedlings in open ground, it is necessary to choose well-lit areas with loose and fertile soil - medium loam, peatlands. Although, if other conditions of care are observed, this root crop can produce good yields even in shaded places. Experts recommend planting this root crop on the places where they used to plant:
Since this root vegetable loves fertile soil, it must be saturated with organic matter. To do this, add 3 kg of humus, manure or fermented compost and 30–40 g of fertilizer containing potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen per square meter.
For growing beet seedlings, the soil must be drained and constantly receive oxygen. For this, the place where it is planned to plant the root crop should be thoroughly dug, loosened with a rake and add dolomite flour to it. Did you know?It is better to plant beets in the drizzle.
The wells must be made in such a depth that the roots do not bend and lie exactly in them. At the same time, the distance between seedlings should be 4–5 cm, and the size of the spacing - 25 cm
Before planting, the sprouts are placed in a clay solution and the central root is shortened by a third. After planting, sprouts must be watered with a solution of humate.
Important!From the density of planting will depend on the size of the root — the greater the distance, the greater will be the root crop.
After planting the beets for 2-3 days, it is desirable to cover the non-woven material so that it is well rooted. After the shoots have taken root and the fruit becomes 1.5–2 cm in diameter, the seedlings can be thinned, and by July the area should be mulched.
By and large, the care of seedlings is reduced to weeding, infrequent loosening and feeding.
On hot days, before full rooting, seedlings are watered daily. After watering will depend on the weather. Do not re-moisten the root crop - this can lead to scab disease and crop loss. As a rule, beets are watered as the upper layer dries. An ideal irrigation method is sprinkling. Irrigation rate - 2–3 buckets per 1 square. m. A month before harvesting the root crops, watering is stopped altogether.
Did you know?If table salt is dissolved in water for irrigation (1 teaspoon per bucket of water), this will increase the sugar content of the beets.
Beetroot loves dressing. Therefore, several times a season the soil is fertilized with such mineral elements:
- ammonium nitrate,
- potassium salt.
The first time is fertilized before tying of root crops, the second time - during the period of their formation.
No special care for the soil is required. Most care is reduced to thinning plants and simultaneous weeding, which is done immediately after watering and in cloudy weather. Loosen the soil to a depth of 4-6 cm to destroy the crust, which prevents the aeration of root crops.
Harvesting depends on the weather. The most important thing is to remove the root crop before frost.
Harvest in sunny, dry weather. At the same time, the root crop should not be cut with a knife - wounds do not heal for a long time and the moisture necessary for long-term storage leaves them. Dig this root with a fork, removed from the soil and cleaned from the ground.
Did you know?Yellowed and dried beet leaves suggest that it is time to harvest.
After harvesting, the beets are dried in a shaded place, put in containers with sand and placed in a cool place.
As you can see, the seedling method of beet cultivation is not only simpler than seed, but also allows you to reduce labor costs and get an earlier and healthier crop.
08.12.2018 admin Comments No Comments
Beetroot is a wonderful vegetable, loved by many people and included in the most popular dishes of national cuisines. It is a storehouse of nutrients that make a person healthy and beautiful. Imagine a delicious, fragrant soup without beets? No, this is not a soup. Many dishes simply leave our tables without such a unique vegetable.
Where to plant beets in the country - the choice of location
Beets grow best on loamy soil, in which there is a lot of humus, but this does not mean that it will not grow on others. In this case, you just need a slightly different care: for example, if you plant the vegetable on heavy soils with a high clay content, you will need more water. Root crops grown on such soils have a bitter taste, but this does not mean that they can not be grown, just have to carefully monitor the ground, preventing it from drying out.
Beets are not too pretentious to the composition of the soil: it only needs to be nutritious and not too acidic, even slightly acidic will be fine.
Land preparation and composition
А вот в тщательной подготовке почва нуждается — от этого зависит будущий урожай. Еще осенью землю надо перекопать, причем, делать надо это глубоко, а еще лучше поработать с ней дважды: сперва просто продисковать ее, а через пару недель — перекопать. In the spring, when it is already possible to work with the ground, the soil should be loosened and rake should be trimmed. If the soil is heavy, then you may have to dig it again, but not to such significant depth. “If the groundwater comes too close to the ground, it will be necessary to form beds of sufficient height, since the beets do not like dampness, it is much more pleasant to drought.”
The land in which the crop will be planted should be well fertilized. This can be done both in autumn and spring. Per square meter of planting area will be required (in grams):
- ammonium nitrate - 15-20,
- superphosphate - 30-40,
- potassium chloride - 10-15.
Those soils that are not fertile at all require the addition of organic matter, but only this should be done in the fall, and after adding fresh manure, the beets can be planted no earlier than after 2 years. Fresh manure will affect the fruit - they will have a bad taste and an unsightly look.
Another condition that is required by this vegetable: the place should be chosen light, shading only hinders the growth.
How to grow beets from seed
The seeds of this crop are very complex, stuck together in the stems. Many pre-sowing methods are not suitable for them, but if they are not processed at all, they will have to wait too long for seedlings. But there is a solution: well-known seed producers sell them already in a ready-to-plant form. Of course, they are more expensive, but these costs will pay off handsomely afterwards.
If you use ordinary seeds, they are soaked for 2-3 days before sowing, but such seeds should not be sown in too cold soil, and too dry soil will not work.
Sowing can only begin when the soil warms to 8-10 degrees Celsius. This happens usually after the carrot has already been sown. If you sow in a colder ground, the beet will shoot itself.
Rows under the seeds are made at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other with a depth of 2-3 centimeters, the seeds are laid out in them, 6-8 centimeters remain between two neighboring ones. Such sowing will allow not to thin out the seedlings in the future (if single-growth varieties are used).
Someone sows in the winter, but this method is not always justified: in the southern areas of planting can constantly spoil the thaw.
How to grow beet seedlings
There are no special requirements to the soil, the seeds are embedded in it in the same way as in open ground. This should be done in April, in the middle of the month. Then put the box near the window to the seedlings enough light. Sometimes it is necessary to water the planting, it is impossible to allow the soil to dry out. If necessary, seedlings thinned, this is done at the time of appearance on the seedlings of 1-2 true leaves. Fertilizing the plant is not necessary, but you can still do it once, for which a solution of mineral fertilizers is prepared, and it should be done after thinning.
Seedlings are planted in May, when the seedlings have already acquired 3-4 true leaves. It is necessary to take into account the weather conditions, in the Black Earth area, usually beet seedlings are planted before May 10.
Growing beetroot from sowing seeds to harvest
This is done so that some plants do not shade others: several shoots simultaneously appear from one stem:
- The first time thinning is carried out after the first true leaves have appeared at the seedlings: a centimeter or two is left between the neighboring plants.
- The second time the procedure is performed with the appearance of 4-5 leaves, and the distance between the neighbors should already be more significant - 3-4 centimeters.
- And the last time it is necessary to thin out in a month, this time already remains between two adjacent plants of 6-8 centimeters. Taken this time, the seedlings can already be used as food.
It is not required to thin out single-seeded varieties, as a last resort, it can be done only once, if the sowing was carried out too often.
Watering the beets is necessary only during the period of a special drought: the earth should get wet to a considerable depth, up to 5 buckets of water per square meter of sowing.
On chernozem soils, beets can not be fed, but if the vegetable grows on poor lands, then top dressing is carried out 2 times: after thinning and when closing the tops of the tops in the row spacing. If the owner notices that the fruit begins to soften, then the plants should be sprayed with micronutrient containing boron.
Land on the beds where beets grow, you need to regularly loosen and get rid of weeds.
Tags: Garden Vegetable, Vegetables, Beet
Root fruit fruits for two years. However, if the care of the beetroot is of poor quality, it may form a peduncle. The root crop in this case or not grow at all, or will be tiny.
Planting is carried out in loose soil. Varieties that are cultivated, have a round head or a cylindrical elongated shape. Vegetable can be dark red or burgundy. There are varieties of green that bloom with leaves.
Preparatory work before planting a vegetable
Planting beets of any kind made in fertile light soil. It is necessary that her reaction was neutral. Before planting beets, the land for the root crop is prepared from the end of summer. Previous crops, such as cucumbers, tomatoes, or onions, should enrich the soil intended for sowing root vegetables with beneficial substances. It is not necessary to carry out planting of beets at once to the same place.
It is not recommended to plant beets in the place where cruciferous cultures used to grow. Their pests can spoil the seeds.
Before sowing, remove all weeds. Plant beets should be in the ground, pre-treated with lime. In addition to the standard compost with humus, the soil before sowing is fertilized with superphosphate and potassium chloride.
Before planting, do not fertilize the soil with manure. This can increase the level of nitrogen content, which will adversely affect the quality of the crop.
It is necessary that the care of the beets was permanent. It should be loosened before planting the soil. Before planting beets, the furrows are set to be 20-30 cm long. The seeds in them are placed at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other and covered with earth, 2 cm thick. Then, future root vegetables should be watered. The first shoots will appear in 10-15 days.
Root seeds are small nodules in the shell. This shell must be broken so that the seeds germinate faster. To destroy the shell, prepare the ash solution and soak the seeds in it for several days. Seeds absorb moisture, increase in size and due to this they germinate in the soil in less time.
From one nodule on average five shoots sprout. Of these five shoots leave only one, the strongest. In order to properly carry out planting and grow a culture in the open field, careful care and compliance with the following rules is required:
- Plant beets at the right time
- Fertilize a vegetable,
- Observe the watering mode,
- Protect against pests and weeds.
Root crops, intended for sale or storage, are planted with seeds in heated soil. Soil temperature should not be lower than 10? C. When the temperature becomes standard, and the crop will not be threatened by a sharp cooling, you can begin planting crops.
When to start planting culture depends on the region. In the Crimea, beet planting is carried out from the beginning of spring, and in Siberia only in early June.
Planting and growing fruit
There are several subtleties that can help grow a quality plant.
To make the fruits sweeter and more tender, it is fed with a saline solution. Only this culture needs such feeding. This fact is explained by the origin of the root.
He first appeared in the Mediterranean, where there is a large amount of salt in the air. Thus, salt has become an essential element.
After excess sprouts are removed, it is fertilized with necessary substances for the fastest development of the root crop. Feeding beets in the open ground can be any, the main requirement is that it contains enough nitrogen. Most often used tincture with nettle or urea. The required amount of solution is diluted per liter of water.
When the sprouts give several independent leaves, the root crop is fertilized with boron. One liter of water with a solution is applied on top of the plant, but not into the soil. If growth is slowing down, it is necessary to analyze the soil for acidity. It is likely that a negative environment hinders the absorption of nutrients in the soil.
Phomosis is a fairly frequent disease that reduces the yield and its quality. It is presented in the form of black spots on the leaves. The cause of fomoz is most often the lack of elements such as boron in the soil. For prevention, the plant is irrigated with a solution of boric acid at the rate of 0.5 parts per 1 liter of water.
When the root is formed and reaches 10 cm, the period of secondary feeding begins. The choice of fertilizer depends on the development requirements of the vegetable. The exception is nitrogen supplements - they are banned a few days after the formation of the fetus.
Any care with the use of fertilizers is carried out only after irrigation of the plant with water.
Watering the fruit
If watering is uneven, root cultivation will proceed poorly. Excessive soil irrigation can cause root cracks. Plant care includes watering by sprinkling. It takes about a liter of water per square meter. 2 weeks before harvesting should stop watering.
Diseases and pests
Healthy leaves, regardless of the variety, have a smooth surface, free from stains and cracks. Any appearance of non-vegetable-specific traits is a consequence of the disease of the plant. In this case, thorough care and treatment fungicidal solution.
Types of pests that are dangerous for vegetables:
- Common flea. These are small bugs of green or bronze color. They wake up in spring and eat young plants,
- Roundworms and click beetles. These parasites live at a depth of half a meter from the surface of the earth. They can feed on weeds, but when the root is ripe, these pests can cause great damage to the crop. The plant may die if damaged at the beginning of its development. If it is damaged in a later stage of formation, the fetus takes on an ugly shape,
- Winter Nightwoman. Small butterflies of dark color. As a rule, caterpillars of winter scoops eat root stalks and leaves. Appear where there are weeds of any kind, so the prevention of winter shovels is timely weed control.
There are various ways to protect against these pests. These include manual removal of pests from the soil, as well as various chemical methods of protection.
The best prevention is to use on developing sprouts of anti-harmful drugs.
Collection and storage
Medium-sized fruits are valued above all. For this reason, you can not rush to planting seeds. The larger the size of the vegetable, the less quality the fiber in it.
Harvesting is carried out before the first frost. At sub-zero temperatures, the crop will die. This occurs because the top of the crop during the development of the soil protrudes.
The shank of the plant is removed without the help of a knife. He twisted and pulled out.
How to grow beets
The root crop, cut with a knife, loses its juice and becomes non-marketable. Wash the vegetable is not necessary, the dirt disappears itself after drying. At damage of a root crop, its storage will be impossible. Vegetable kept in boxes of sand. It is permissible to store together with potatoes, but only should be separated from each other and between them there should be a small distance.
Cultivation of red beet in open ground
The choice of location. The most suitable for table beet (vegetable) flat fields with a deep cultural layer and with a light texture (but not sandy). Plants do not tolerate acidic soils, the optimal response of the environment - at pH 6.5-7.2. The best predecessors are potatoes, cucumber, solanaceous vegetables, cruciferous root crops, cabbage.
Fertilizer and soil preparation. Despite the relatively less demanding of soil fertility than carrots, beets are very responsive to the introduction of higher doses of fertilizers. On medium and even poorer sites, from 30 to 40-50 tons of semi-mature manure or compost per 1 ha are introduced (3-5 kg per 1 m 2 ridge). To obtain an average yield, it is necessary to add 0.7–0.9 tons (70–90 g per 1 m 2) of potash and 0.6–0.7 tons (70–90 g per 1 m 2) of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, to ensure a high yield - 0.9-1.0 t (60-100 g per 1 m 2) of potash, 0.4-0.5 t each (40-50 g per 1 m 2) of nitrogen and phosphorus, and 15-20 kg (1.5-2 g per 1 m 2) of boron fertilizers per 1 ha. In Western Europe, an average of 1.6-1.9 tons per 1 ha (160-190 g per 1 m 2) of a mixture of mineral fertilizers containing 45-50% of useful substances is applied. Phosphorus and most of the potassium is given under a fall or spring before sowing, 2/3 of nitrogen under spring cultivation. In the Black Earth, soils require liming.
After harvesting the previous crop, the peeling is carried out (except for the plots from under the potatoes and root crops), and then deep autumn plowing. In the spring they are harrowed or treated with a disk cultivator coupled with zigzag harrows. Preseeding plowing to a depth of 15-18 cm with careful cutting of the upper layer and leveling the surface are necessary. To this end, sometimes they plow twice - first deeply, and after disking - to a smaller depth.
Sowing. By the time of the beginning of sowing, the soil should warm up to 6-8 ° C and have a high humidity, necessary for the swelling of seeds. Pre-seeds calibrate. Sow separately large and medium in size. To speed up the emergence of seedlings, it is advisable to soak the seeds for 24 hours.
Growing beets in the country is quick and easy
Sow beets after sowing carrots with the norm of 8-10, sometimes 6 kg per 1 ha. For both summer (beetroot) and autumn crops, they are sown more thickly - with a norm of up to 12-13 kg per 1 ha, so that some plants with small roots are removed for early sale.
In country gardens and backyards should be sown sprouted seeds, and in the northern areas to use seedling method, planting plants in the phase of 1-2 true leaves.
Beets are sown with vegetable drills, in the Non-Black Earth Region - on ridges 3 lines with 33 cm rows, on a flat surface - wide-row with a distance between rows of 45 cm, less often 60 cm (yield is reduced), 2- line tapes with a distance between rows of 20 cm, between tapes 50 cm and in other ways.
The most effective dotted seeding method. The depth of seeding is 3 ^ 4 cm. Simultaneously with the sowing, they slightly roll in the surface of the soil to pull the moisture to the seeds.
Water mode. Beetroot due to relative drought resistance is capable of producing high yields in areas of the Non-Black Earth region without irrigation. But during dry periods, watering significantly increases the productivity of plants, especially with abundant fertilizer. In Central Asia, systematic irrigation is necessary - in 8-10 days (only 8-11 times) with irrigation rates at the beginning 500-600 m 3, then 700-800 m 3, irrigation norms 5100-7000 m 3 per 1 ha. In the less arid zone, water is watered with rates ranging from 250-300 m 3 to 400-500 m 3 at an irrigation rate of 2400-3400 m 3 per 1 ha. After watering loosen the soil between the rows.
Caring for plants. The main methods of care: harrowing before germination or at the beginning of their appearance across the direction of the rows to prevent the formation of soil crust and weed control, loosening between the rows, making 1-2 dressings with nitrogen-rich fertilizers, protecting plants from pests and various diseases.
Small sowing rates eliminate the need for plant thinning. With increased density, the stabbing is first thinned to a distance of 3-5 cm (in the phase of 1-2 true leaves), then to 6-8 cm and finally to 16-18 cm. The distance between the plants regulates the diameter of the root crop, depending on the requirements of the consumer. During the care, deep loosening of the row spacing before the “shedding” of the root is necessary, when the formation and growth of the root crop begins.
Harvesting. Beets can be harvested twice - 2-2.5 months after germination as a beetroot and at the end of the growing season after the root crops are fully formed. Young root vegetables with a diameter of 4-6 cm are also harvested 1-1.5 months before the end of their full growth. For this, the plants are placed at a distance of 5-8 cm. After harvesting parts of the plants for early consumption, the rest form standard root crops by autumn. Basically, the collection is carried out after the termination of the growing season, when the temperature drops, and before the start of frost. At a temperature of minus 2-3 ° C, the roots extracted from the soil are frozen. In beetroot, the leaves are pre-cut, and then the roots are beaten under the beet lifter. But it is better to use a root harvester. The leaves of harvested root crops are cut at a distance of 1 cm from the head of the root. The beet harvest averages 20-25 tons (2-2.5 kg per 1 m 2), maximum 60-70 tons (6-7 kg per 1 m 2) per 1 hectare or more.
Improving the profitability of the cultivation of beets. Основные пути роста рентабельности: снижение затрат ручного труда за счет механизации приемов ухода и сбора урожая, повышение урожая путем подбора плодородных почв и применения удобрений, использование эффективных приемов защиты от сорняков, вредителей и болезней, применение орошения в засушливое время, а также получение ранней продукции (или двух урожаев с участка).
Красная свекла (столовая) не переносит удобрения свежим навозом.
Как вырастить сладкую и яркую свеклу на даче
А с осени хорошо бы место будущей посадки известковать, если почвы кислые, посыпать перегноем, добавив по спичечному коробку на 1 м2 суперфосфата и калийной соли.
Beetroot well on fertile loamy and sandy soils.
The following predecessors are good for her: cauliflower, onions, cucumbers, tomatoes, potatoes. The groove under the red beet is 3 cm deep, the seeds are laid out at the beginning more often - after 3 cm, and 30 cm between the rows.
Beet water does not require much, but in dry weather, you need to water it once a week. And just two dressings - after the first thinning and after 4 weeks. How will the first leaves, you need to thin out. And pay attention, one single large, gnarled beet seed can give two plants each. One must carefully pull out.
Do not throw away the weeded, if the main root is preserved, it can be transplanted. You may have lunges in the rows of beets, and in general you can find a free spot for several root crops on the plot. The sooner you transplant the extra specimens, the more hope for success.
Seedlings can not be planted deeper than she sat, and when planting, firmly squeeze the roots. When two or three true leaves appear, it is necessary to thin out once more, leaving 6-8 cm between plants. It is better to pull out the excess at the level of the soil and not to throw it away - it will fit in the soup or in the salad.
When, as the formation of small roots you will take them for food, choose not in a row, but through one, as if thinning out again, leaving a large area of food for those that you dig up in the fall (you need to make it cold before you freeze!). Do not damage the skin when digging and tops do not cut with a knife, but unscrew by hand.
As for the red beet varieties, they are equally good in the middle lane: Bordeaux-237, Gribovskaya, flat A-473, Red ball.
Beet canteen belongs to the group of heat-loving crops, but it is rather cold-resistant. Sowing it in open ground begins with the establishment of a constant soil temperature in the 10-15 cm layer not lower than +8 .. + 10 ° C. When sowing early with the return of cold, beetroot after germination can go to the arrow and not form a high-quality crop. Root vegetables will be small with a dense woody tissue, tasteless or with a grassy flavor. For the emergence of seedlings, an ambient temperature of +4 .. + 6 ° С is sufficient. Early shoots can withstand short-term frost to -2 ° C, but the roots will be small. Do not rush the sowing of beets, or sow in several periods with a break of 7-10-15 days. One of the crops will fall into optimal conditions and will create the desired crop of the expected quality.
Beet. © woodleywonderworks
Light mode for beetroot
To obtain high-quality high yields of any crop (not only beets), it is necessary to know its biology, including its attitude to the light regime. Beetroot is a typical plant of a long day. Cultivars of beets at the level of genetic memory have fixed this biological feature, and the maximum yield is formed during cultivation with a day length of 13-16 hours. The change in the duration of daylight by 2-3 hours causes mainly the growth of the aerial part, and the development of the root crop slows down.
Remember! The shorter the ripening period of the crop, the less beets react to changes in the length of daylight.
Older, resistant beet varieties are stronger than the young ones attached to the light mode and react negatively to changes in the length of light illumination. In order to obtain high-quality yields, it is more practical to buy modern zoned beet seeds, which are most adapted to the length of the light period of the region and that react little to the duration of illumination. In addition, breeders currently cultivate varieties and hybrids that are practically unresponsive to longitude lighting. Therefore, it is better to buy modern varieties and hybrids (F-1) of beetroot.
The ratio of beets to moisture
Beet is sufficiently capable of self-sufficient moisture. But with insufficient rainfall needs watering. Irrigation rates should be moderate, since the excess moisture with a rarefied standing density forms large root crops often with cracks.
Bed with beets. © Olli Wilkman
Beet requirements for soil conditions
Beetroot - a soil plant with a neutral reaction. On acidified soils, the crop is formed insignificant with low taste qualities of the root crop. Culture prefers floodplain soil, light loam, black soil. It does not tolerate heavy clay, rocky, saline soils with high water content.
Beet requirement to predecessors
The best predecessors are worn out crops, including cucumbers, zucchini, early cabbage, early potatoes, early varieties of eggplant and sweet pepper, early tomatoes. Especially important is the time of harvesting the predecessor during the wintering of table beet. The soil must be fully prepared for sowing.
Selection of beet seeds for sowing
As a botanical plant beet interesting way of forming fruits. The beet fruit is a single-seeded nutlet. When seeds are ripening, the fruit-trees grow together with the perianth and form a pair of balls, which also has the second name “beet seed”. In each ball there are from 2 to 6 fruits with a seed. Therefore, when sprouting, several independent, easily detached sprouts appear. When sowing, seedlings of seedlings of beets need thinning. Reception is usually done manually, which is accompanied by high costs of working time and, accordingly, rising prices of products in the cultivation of large specialized farms.
Breeders withdrawn single-seeded (one-edged) varieties of beetroot. According to their economic characteristics, they do not differ from the varieties forming seed seedlings. Their main difference is the formation of 1 fruit, which eliminates thinning during care. Fruits at home before grinding fray with sand. When grinding, seed heads are divided into individual seeds.
Of the single-seed (single-seed) varieties of beets, the most well-known and used in home cultivation are the single-growth G-1, Bordeaux single seed, Virovskaya single seed, Russian single seed, Timiryazevskaya single seed. The above varieties of beets are middle-ripening, high-yielding. The flesh of root vegetables is tender, juicy. They are characterized by good keeping quality, long storage. Used fresh and for winter harvesting.
It is more convenient to buy beet seeds for sowing in specialized stores of seed companies. In this case, there is no need to prepare the seeds for sowing (dressing, loitering, coating, etc.). When buying beet seeds, be sure to read the recommendations on the package. Sometimes the treated seeds do not need to be soaked beforehand. They are directly sown in moist soil. In other cases, the seeds are germinated in wet wipes, which accelerates the germination.
Dates of sowing beetroot
Beets are sown in spring when the soil warms up in a layer of 10-15 cm to + 10 ° С. Approximately sowing in warm regions and the North Caucasus, carried out after April 15. In the Volga region, other nonchernozem and central regions, in Kazakhstan - sowing beets in open ground is carried out in the first half of May. In the Far East - in the last decade of May-early June. The above sowing dates are more suitable for early varieties of beets. Middle and late beet varieties are sown in warm regions in late May. Part of this crop is laid for winter storage.
In the Urals and in the Northern regions, late beets are usually not sown in open ground. In central Russia, due to the temperate climate, it is possible to grow all varieties of table beets - from early ones with the production of root crops in technical ripeness in mid-July to the latest varieties with harvest in September and the first half of October. In these regions of Russia, including nonchernozem, podzimny sowing of beets (late October – early November, November – December) is widely used by cold-resistant varieties characterized by resistance to strelkovuyu. When podzimnii sowing beets relieve early harvest of root crops in late June.
Seedlings beets. © Andrew Quickcrop
Technology of spring seeding of table beet seeds
Sowing seeds of beets in the spring can be carried out dry and more practical germinated seeds. Seeds are sown in furrows on a flat field surface. Germinated seeds are sown in moist soil. In dry soil, almost all shoots die.
Furrows are cut in 15-30 cm. Sowing on heavy soils is carried out to a depth of 2 cm, on light in composition - 4 cm. It is impossible to deepen sowing. The distance in the row is 2-3 cm, which, when thinning, is increased to 7-10 cm, which ensures the production of standard (10 cm in diameter) root crops. On single-seeded crops of beets, thinning is combined with harvesting the beam harvest, and when sowing with seedlings, carrying out 2 thinning.
Planting technology beet seedlings
Seed-beet seedlings are usually grown in a short summer, combining the initial development in greenhouses and greenhouses with further in the open field. Beets can be cultivated on warm ridges, covering 1-2 layers of spandbond from the early cold weather. Seeds are sown in greenhouses or a greenhouse in the prepared soil for 10-12-15 days before the period of planting in open ground. Sowing private. For more seedlings sowing spend glomeruli. The distance in the row is 12–20 cm, depending on the variety, and between the rows is 30–40 cm. In the 4-5 leaflet phase (approximately 8 cm in height), picks are made, leaving 1-2 plants in the nest. Peaked plants are planted in the ground or in separate peat-humus and other tanks for growing, if the weather is not established. When transplanting beets must be very careful with the central root. Its damage will retard the growth of the transplanted plant. Upon the onset of stable warm weather, young seedlings are planted in open ground. Peat-humus immediately planted in the ground with plants. If the pots are reusable, transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment. With this method, only a small number of non-standard root crops (deformed) are obtained. When transplanting, observe the following rules:
- transplanted on a constant beet seedlings no more than 8 cm in height. The older the seedlings, the more non-standard root crops in the crop,
- for the prevention of marksmanship, it is impossible during repotting to deepen seedlings of beets too deep,
- the distance in the row to leave at least 12-15 cm, and between the rows, in order to reduce shading, to 25-30-40 cm.
Podzimny technology of sowing beets
For sub-winter sowing, the most suitable approach is landing. It provides the spring with a better warming of the soil, and hence obtaining a very early harvest of root crops and early puchkovoy products. Subwinter seeding of beets is carried out in October-November, or rather, when a steady cooling is established, without the return of warm days. At the tops of the crests, the sowing material is sown in the furrows to a depth of 4-6 cm, to save from sudden frosts. The seeds in the furrows sprinkled with 1-2 cm of humus soil, slightly compacted and additionally mulched on top by 2-3 cm for insulation.
Compacted crops beets
If the garden is small in size, and you want to have a large list of vegetable crops, then beets can be grown in compact beds, that is, you can combine several crops in one bed. This technique is especially good in the southern regions, where during a long warm period 2-3 harvests of different early early crops can be harvested from one compacted bed. Spring crops of beets can be combined on the same bed with carrots, onions for greens, radishes, radishes, spinach, salads, including cabbage, leafy, watercress. When harvesting early beets in the first decade of July, you can take the vacated area by repeated sowing of onions on greens, radish, lettuce, and dill. After harvesting greens, you can sow peas or other crops like siderat.
Beet. © rachael gander
Care of the beetroot is:
- in keeping the area clean of weeds, especially in the initial post-emergence period (until the first 2 pairs of leaves appear). At this time, the beet grows very slowly and does not tolerate contamination.
- in keeping inter-rows free of soil crust, to ensure free gas exchange,
- carrying out timely top dressing,
- maintaining the optimum moisture content of the site.
Beet begins to germinate at a soil temperature of +8 .. + 10 ° C and +5 .. + 7 ° C of the environment. However, shoots at this temperature appear late and very uneven. The optimum air temperature is +19 .. + 22 ° C. Shoots appear on days 5-8 and by 10-12 days the culture enters the fork phase. In the next 10 days, there is a powerful development of the above-ground part of the culture (leaf apparatus), and then the development of the root crop begins.
The first loosening is carried out 4-5 days after germination. Loosening is done very carefully, gradually deepening the treated layer from 2-4 to 6-8 cm. They loosen the soil between the rows, in the furrows of the ridge, the sides of the ridges after watering and rain. The timely destruction of young weeds slightly injures beet plants and provides the culture with optimal conditions for growth and development. Loosening is stopped after closing the leaves.
Bed with beets. © aaron_01m
Thinning is carried out when planting beetroot sowing with stems (balls). 3-5 seedlings develop from seedlings. Single-seeded varieties, as a rule, do not need thinning, unless a bunch is provided. Thinning is performed in cloudy weather after pre-irrigation. From moistened soil the plant is easier to pull out without damaging the next. Thinning beets spend twice.
The first time is carried out at the development of 1-2 leaves, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. A gap of 3-4 cm is left between the plants. Beet is more thinned negatively. When thinning multi-seed crops, 1-2 seedlings are left in place. In this case, the thinning is carried out in a phase of 2-3 leaves. Pull-out plants are used as seedlings, planting plants at the edges or in the sidewalls of high ridges.
The second thinning is performed with the development of 4-5 leaves. In this phase 3-5 cm root crop is already formed in the beet. In the second thinning remove the most tall, developed plants. They reach puberty ripeness and are used in food. At the same time, they monitor the condition of the plants and, at the same time, remove diseased and curved plants. The distance in the row for the normal development of the root 6-8-10 cm.
During the growing season, spend at least two dressings of varieties of medium and late beets. Early beets, with good autumn dressing with fertilizers, are usually not fed. Horticulturists, especially beginners, find it difficult to calculate the right amount of fertilizer. Culture is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determine the carcinogenicity of the culture and nitrates.
The first feeding is carried out after the first thinning or rooting of seedlings. You can spend feeding nitroammofoskoy - 30 g square. m or a mixture of mineral tukov at the rate of 5-7 g / sq. m, respectively, sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
On depleted soils, it is better to carry out the first top dressing with a solution of mullein or bird droppings in the ratio of 1 part mullein per 10 parts, and bird droppings - 12 parts of water. In the solution, you can add 5 g of urea. Make a solution at a distance of 6-10 cm from the row of beets in 3-4 cm furrow. Use a bucket of solution for 10 meters. Watering is carried out from the watering can close to the soil, so as not to burn the leaves. After making the solution it is covered with a layer of soil, watered and mulched. Top dressing with liquid organics is carried out only in the initial period of beet development. Later, without having to process the mineral form into an organic one, the plants accumulate nitrates in the root crops. The first sign of accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in the root when overfeeding with nitrogen is the appearance of voids in the root.
The second feeding of beets is carried out in 15-20 days or after the second thinning. For feeding, use superphosphate and potassium magnesia or potassium chloride in a dose of 8-10 g / sq. m (1 tsp with top). Mineral tuki can be replaced with wood ash, consuming 200 g per square meter. m area, followed by sealing in 5-8 cm layer of soil.
Beet. © Leonie
It is better to introduce microfertilizers boron, copper and molybdenum in the form of foliar liquid fertilizers by spraying. Elevated mass. You can buy a ready-made mixture of micronutrients or replace the infusion of ash.
In the phase of 4-5 leaves, well sprinkle the beets with a solution of boric acid. In hot water, dissolve 2 g of boric acid and dilute in 10 l of water. This technique will protect the beets from heart-shaped rot. The finished preparation of micronutrients diluted according to the recommendations and treated plants.
If there are no ready-made micronutrients, they will be successfully replaced by an infusion of wood ash. Infusion of ash can be 2 foliar dressing: in the phase of 4-5 leaves and in the phase of active growth of root crops (August). Infusion of 200 g per 10 liters of water before spraying must be filtered.
Approximately 25-30 days before harvesting beets, it is advisable to sprinkle the plants with a solution of potash fertilizers, which will increase their keeping quality.
Do you want beets to be sweeter? Do not forget to salt it with ordinary table salt. 40 г (2 ложки без верха) не йодированной соли разведите в 10 л воды и полейте свёклу, расходуя ведро раствора на кв. м площади участка. Чтобы уменьшить количество подкормок раствор соли совместите с раствором микроэлементов, и проведите опрыскивания в июне и начале августа.
Сочные корнеплоды с нежной мякотью получают при регулярных поливах, особенно в засушливых регионах. The first watering is carried out at mass shoots. Water culture 3-4 times a month. During the period of intensive development of root crops, watering is increasing. The first sign of delay in watering is the withering of the leaves of the beet. Beet loves watering the leaves. Culture does not tolerate increases in soil temperature. From overheating, constant mulching is necessary before closing the leaves. Watering is stopped for 3-4 weeks before harvest.
Beet. © williambillhall2000
Protection of beets from diseases and pests
The most dangerous diseases of beets are fungal and bacterial damage to the root system and root. The disease is usually affected by weakened plants and mechanically damaged roots and roots. The fight against rot (fusarium, brown, dry) is complicated by the fact that all plant organs are used in food — the root crop, petioles, and leaves. So the use of chemical protection is excluded. The struggle is agrotechnical activities and processing of biological products.
- Sowing is carried out only with healthy seed treated with bioprotectors. It is more expedient to buy ready-to-cultivate seed prepared for sowing.
- All crop residues, weeds, in which mushrooms, bacteria and other sources of diseases overwinter, are harvested from the field.
- Timely lime acidified soil, providing normal conditions for the development of culture.
- They constantly monitor the state of the crop and remove diseased plants from the field.
- They provide culture not only macro but also microelements that protect plants well from diseases.
From biopreparations to fight rot, planriz is used for tillage, and with diseases of the aerial parts of plants - phytosporin, betaprotectin, phytodoctor, agrophil.
The most common pests of table beets are leaf and root aphids, beetroot and mining flies, beetroot shieldchones, beetroot flea, etc.
Dilution of biological products, the dose and period of application are indicated on the packaging or the accompanying recommendations. Biopreparations can be used in tank mixes, after a preliminary compatibility check. Despite their safety when treating plants with biologics, personal protective measures must be observed. Be careful! Biopreparations can cause an allergic reaction (mostly dusting forms - powders).
Beet. © Phil Bartle
A set of activities that allows you to get the maximum amount of useful elements and give a good harvest consists of certain stages:
- selection of seeds and their preparation for planting,
- placement of root vegetables
- sowing and care of seedlings,
- growing root vegetables
- pest control
- harvesting and preservation.
When choosing a place for gardening it is necessary to know that the place should be sunny, the land is loose and fertile. The main condition for obtaining good plants when growing beets in open ground is a rare planting with a distance of at least 25 cm in a row and between roots and not less than 10 cm. The more, the better. In cramped conditions, six acres of such places are few, and if you still consider that the rotation must be respected, the choice of place is difficult. There are two exits, sowing on a narrow ridge along Mitlayder or along the sides of the beds with other cultures.
Beet refers to the crops of soil self-poisoners. Planting beets in the same place next year is impossible; the crop will be significantly lower than other predecessors.
Depending on the time of sowing and the region choose beet varieties. For autumn planting, you can take a variety Podzimnyaya A-474. In order to obtain a cylindrical fruit there is a cylinder. There are successful varieties - Gribovskaya, Egyptian, Pablo and others. When selecting seeds, you need to pay attention to their color. If the seeds have a non-characteristic color, it means that they are already prepared for sowing.
Sowing beets and caring for young plants
Simple seeds represent a combination of several seeds in one package. In this case, it is necessary to process the seed in any growth stimulator and leave it raw for pecking for a day. Sowing seeds produce at a depth of 2 cm with a distance of 5 cm. With the germination of seeds in the nest leave only a strong seedling. In the future, as the beets are grown at the dacha, it is repeatedly thinned out for eating vitamin greens.
Soil preparation for sowing begins in the fall. The future place is well filled with compost, superphosphate and potassium chloride. Compost is brought to the garden bed. It will not be out of place to shed a sowing site in the fall with a 3% solution of blue vitriol. This will destroy the weed spores and at the same time provide the soil with copper, which the beets need.
Subwinter seeding is carried out in November, when the earth has already frozen along pre-prepared furrows. Root vegetables will need to be used as early greens. Storage products under-winter planting is not suitable. For winter storage, beets are sown at the end of May and later. In a heated earth, a root crop develops well and quickly gains leaf mass. Often, gardeners planted beet seedlings at a permanent place. This method allows you to get products earlier.
Particular attention in the cultivation and care of beets is given to the first stage of growth. Thinning seedlings or caring for weak plants planted with seedlings is a crucial period. It is at this point that pests and diseases can attack the plant. Therefore, seedlings should be watered, scattered with ashes or scare powders.
During this period, you can not use microbiological preparations. The root system of cultivated plants is still traumatized and should not be affected by bacteria. Therefore, within two weeks, if necessary, use chemicals. If the cardinal measures are preferable, then the usual insecticides are used against insects during their mass appearance, and against the fungal diseases Oksikh or Fitosporin in the approved doses.
The formation of the outlet and the root
In order for the plant to develop faster, at the very beginning after thinning nitrogen fertilizing is given. A tablespoon of urea is diluted in 10 liters of water and fertilizing fertilizer is made on moist earth. After this, the plants gently loosen and weed, without damaging the root system.
The amount of precipitation will show how often to water the beets in the open field. In any case, the beets need one or two deep waterings during the development. The remaining watering of the soil will maintain moisture. Do not overdry the soil. Root crops can become tough or cracked. But in the last three weeks before harvesting it is not necessary to water and feed the beets.
When forming a plant, it needs several feedings. When the plant is picking up a rosette, foliar feeding with micronutrient fertilizers and boric acid will be beneficial, and the same after two weeks. Twice a season you need to water the plants with salty water, dissolving a teaspoon of salt in a bucket of water. When filling the root with the size of a walnut, apply the fertilizer Agricola-4 or potash and superphosphate fertilizers. Nitrogen accumulates in the beets, impairs its storage and taste, so it is not used when pouring.
Boron and salt are necessary for the development of root vegetables. A native of the Mediterranean, beets like salty crystals brought by the sea air. Salt will add sweets to beets, and boron will save the root crop from black ulcers of fomosis.
The plant rises above the ground during loading. Do I need to spud beets? Unlike carrots and potatoes, the root crop does not accumulate solanine from the action of light, it does not change the taste. Therefore, spud beets do not need. When to harvest beets, depends on the weather. The roots protruding from the ground should be removed before frost or covered on cold nights.
Selection of varieties and seeds
Depending on the purpose, fodder, table, leaf, sugar beet varieties have been developed.
Fodder beet grown for livestock feed. Differs in the big size of root crops of yellow, pink, white color.
Sugar varieties used to make sugar. Root crops have an elongated white color.
Chard (leaf beet) cultivated for its succulent fleshy leaves and petioles. However, in Russia it did not receive wide popularity.
On the garden plots are mainly grown beetroot dining. For any climatic region, you can easily find the right varieties of this vegetable.
In terms of ripening beet happens:
• early ripe (ripens in 50-80 days,
• mid-season (vegetation from 80 to 100 days),
• late (grows more than 100 days).
Among the early varieties of the most popular:
- Gribovskaya flat - root crops are flat or flat-rounded with pink-red flesh. Resistant to bolting. It has good keeping quality (94%). The crop reaches 3-6,2 kg / m2.
- Detroit - cold-resistant variety with spherical shape of root crops. Well preserved, suitable for conservation, resistant to bolting, high yielding.
- Crimson ball differs in high productivity. The shape of the root is round, the flesh is sweet bright red.
- Bordeaux 237 resistant to drought. Productivity can reach 4.5-8 kg / m2. The shape of the root crops is rounded or rounded flat, dense juicy flesh has a dark red color. Highly adaptable to cultivation in the northern regions. Well kept.
The best varieties of late beets:
- Monofilament - has a high yield. Its seeds are single-fruited, therefore there is no need for thinning crops. Maroon root vegetables have a dense texture. Productivity reaches 7-8 kg / m2. Greater resistance to varietalism.
- Mona - cylindrical roots have a smooth skin, the flesh is dark red with slightly pronounced rings.
Growing beets: sowing and planting
Areas for growing beets are chosen well-lit, given the crop rotation. In the shade this vegetable will develop poorly. In addition, if the groundwater level in the garden is high, then you need to take care of drainage.
Light and medium loams and sandy loams are optimal for growing beets. If the land is dominated by sandy soil, then it is compacted with sod land, humus or compost (1 bucket / m2). In addition to organic matter, heavy soils are enriched with sand and peat to increase aeration. On low-fertility lands in the spring, ammonium nitrate (30-40 g / m2) is introduced, and in the fall, double superphosphate (40-50 g / m2) and potash salt (60-70g / m2). On soils prone to waterlogging, beets can be grown only on high beds with an additional drainage device. Beetroot grows well on soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction (pH 6.5-7.2). Strongly acidic soils are lime (500-600g of lime / m2) in two steps - in the fall and spring.
Seed preparation for planting
When purchasing seeds, it should be remembered that they cannot be stored at low temperatures. Otherwise, the plants obtained from them quickly begin to bloom at the expense of the formation of root crops.
Beet seeds (collected independently or purchased) must be calibrated before planting and processed to destroy the pathogens. To do this, they are soaked for 30 minutes in a solution of ash (1 tablespoon per liter of hot water) or potassium permanganate and left in clear water for 1–2 days to swell.
To improve the germination of seeds 10-14 days prior to sowing, their vernalization is carried out:
- seeds with a layer of 3-4 cm in a deep plate are poured with water at a temperature of + 15-20 ° C for 2-4 days in a 1: 1 ratio and covered with a damp cloth,
- after the seeds swell, they are taken out for 7-10 days in a cool room or put in a refrigerator
The harvest of beets from the vernalized seeds can be harvested 1.5-2 weeks earlier than the agrotechnical period.
Germination of beet seeds depends on air temperature. At + 5 ° C, shoots are delayed up to 3 weeks, at +10 ° C they appear for 10 days, at +15 ° C for 5-6 days, at + 20-25 ° C - in 3-4 days. In the central regions of Russia, beetroots are usually sown after the bird cherry blossoms - May 10-15. Mid-season and late storage varieties are sown at the end of May. If sowing is postponed for any reason (cold, inconsistency of soil, rains, etc.), then it can be sown later, but the seeds should be prepared as described above.
Seeds are planted on the beds of ribbon or lowercase.
With belt landing make long longitudinal rows at a distance of at least 0.5 m from each other.
String method implies sowing in the grooves across the beds. Between such rows they observe 25-30 cm. Sowing is done in previously watered grooves to a depth of 2-3 cm on heavy soils, 3-4 cm on light ones.
Growing beet seedlings
In the northern regions, the most reliable is the method of growing beet seedlings. This allows:
• shorten the growing season of beets in the open field,
• harvest 3–4 weeks earlier than during seed planting,
• eliminates the need for thinning landings,
• reduces arrowhead beet,
• saves seed.
Pre-soaked or vernalized seeds are sown, starting from the last days of March up to the second decade of April, on warmed beds or in a greenhouse. Varieties used early ripening. Planted seedlings in open ground as usual, starting from May 15. If there are threats of night frosts, then landing is better to cover with plastic wrap.
It is better to plant beets after such predecessors as pumpkin (cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin), potatoes, onions, legumes.
Growing beets: care, feeding
It is simple to care for beetroot: regular watering, periodic loosening of row-spacings together with weeding, thinning, feeding.
Beet moisture-loving culture. Increased need for watering it arises during the period of active growth and during the filling of root crops. In hot sunny weather, young beets are watered three times a week, in the morning or in the evening. Adult plants need only one abundant watering a week, and then only moisten the soil. 2 weeks before harvesting, watering is completed, otherwise the keeping quality of root crops during storage will be low.
2-3 days after sowing, they start to loosen the aisles, so that the soil crust does not interfere with the germination of beets. Also, loosening is necessary after each watering or heavy rain.
Seeds of beet are plentiful. Therefore, from each seed grows several plants. And no matter how carefully you measure the seeds when sowing, there is a need for thinning.
The first time it is made when the beets have two true leaves. At the same time pull out weaker seedlings and transplanted to empty places. Re-manipulation is carried out when the beets have 4-5 leaves. Until mid-August, a third thinning should be carried out, in which suitable edible specimens are selected, and the sick and ugly are removed. The distance in the row is left 6-8 cm, so that the roots will not grow. The procedure is carried out after watering or rain: the plants are pulled out more easily.
After the first thinning, 20-30 g of mineral fertilizers per 10 liters of water are applied to the beds. Before closing the rows, make a second feeding of ammonium nitrate and potassium salt (20-25 g and 40-50 g per bucket of water). In addition to the basic fertilizers, it is also necessary to introduce trace elements, especially boron and manganese, with a lack of which the core of the roots "softens." After any feeding crops need to be watered abundantly.
Beets are prone to accumulation of nitrates, therefore, it is not possible to add fresh manure to it.
Growing beets: harvesting and storage
Harvesting beets depends on the time of sowing, weather, variety, cultivation region. It is desirable to remove the beets before the onset of the first frost, to prevent its freezing, cracking and decay.
Signs by which you can determine the readiness of root vegetables for harvesting are:
• ripe beets have reached their varietal size,
• small side roots appeared on the roots,
• Lower leaves wither and turn yellow.
Mid-season beets are harvested at the end of August, late ripening - in the first decade of September.
It is necessary to dig beets in dry weather, trying not to damage the skin of root crops. Pour the ground from them must be cleaned or washed off. The tops are cut 1-2 cm from the root of the root. Well-dried vegetables are stored in bulk on floorings or in sandboxes in cellars or cellars.
Major pests and diseases. Ways to deal with them
• Cornet (black leg) caused by various parasitic soil fungi. The disease is most dangerous for young shoots. The root and stem rot, a black constriction is formed on them. Shoots wither and die. Excessive moisture with low soil aeration contributes to the development of the root. The disease is spread with infected seeds. Therefore, for prophylaxis before sowing, they are calibrated and disinfected with fungicides. It is also necessary to destroy weeds, observe crop rotation.
• Brown rot caused by fungus. In the roots grows mycelium brown. Most often, the defeat of root crops occurs in areas where groundwater is close to the surface. To combat the disease, it is necessary to sort the vegetables during storage, loosen the aisles, feed them with boric fertilizers, lime the acidic soil, observe crop rotation.
• Perinosporosis (downy mildew) mainly affects young plants in the phase of closure. The leaves of the leaves curl downwards. A gray-violet mycelium grows on them from the lower side. The fungus spreads by air currents, water droplets, winters in plant debris.Therefore, they must be collected and burned after cleaning. Seeds before planting are disinfected, plants are sprayed with preparations containing copper (for example, Bordeaux mixture).
• Cercosporosis - a fungal disease, affects the ground part of the beet: on the leaves appear a lot of bright spots with a red-brown border. With increased humidity on these spots grows a grayish patina of mycelium. Leaves dry up with a strong lesion. At the first signs of infection, plants are sprayed with preparations containing copper. After harvesting the plant residues are burned, the soil is dug up.
• Fomoz appears on leaves with light brown spots with black sporangia in the center. At root starts dry rot. For the prevention of the disease should be observed alternating crops.
• Beet flea - small jumping bugs in black. On the cotyledons, they eat the flesh, on the leaves are characterized by translucent "windows". When dry weather damaged seedlings die. Adult insects overwinter on the soil surface in plant debris. Weed control is necessary to control flea weeds, which are intermediate feed bases for pests. With a large number of pests can use karbofos. It is effective to dust the crops 2-3 times with a mixture of tobacco dust and lime fluff (or ash) (1: 1) with an interval of 4-5 days.
• Beet nematode: the larvae of this pest harm, parasitizing inside the beet roots. The leaves wither, acquire a yellowish-green color. Beets are not planted in the infected area for 4-5 years.
• Beetroot bug and its larvae suck the juice from the plants. Damaged leaves become pale, shrink, then turn brown and die. Females lay wintering eggs on beet seed plants and weeds near beets. In this regard, weeds should be destroyed, in the fall, rake and burn plant residues. The larvae and the imago are destroyed by spraying insecticides.