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Photo of echinacea flowers and its description

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Echinacea, a medicinal plant whose homeland is the United States, was used in traditional medicine only in the 20th century. Up to this point, it was used by healers and healers in traditional medicine. Today we take a closer look at Echinacea, consider the most popular plant species and talk about the differences.

Echinacea angustifolia

The species differs from its congeners by narrower, entire leaves. Plant height - up to 1 m, the stems can be both straight and slightly branched. Rosette leaves have 5 prominent protruding veins on the underside, long petioles. Stem leaves are alternate, longer at the beginning of the stem and decrease towards the apex; they have 3 distinctly noticeable veins.

For medical use, the buds are harvested in mid-late summer, and the roots are harvested in late autumn.

Echinacea purpurea

Echinacea purpurea has the following description: perennial, which is characterized by a height of 60 to 100 cm, the roots are short and thin, the stems have a reddish color, bare or hard-topped, the leaves are rough, hard. Leaf plates reach a length of 7-20 cm, in shape - longish-ovoid.

The buds are represented by single baskets with a diameter of about 12 cm, which are located on long peduncles. Petals are colored magenta or dirty magenta.

Purple Echinacea bloom begins in June and ends in September. The fruit ripens in September and October. The flower is distributed in the prairies and on the sandy banks of rivers in the eastern United States. In medicine, used inflorescences and roots of a herbaceous plant.

Echinacea is pale

Like the previous species, pale Echinacea grows in the United States. Wild variations have chosen stony prairies with light, slightly alkaline soils.

Flower height - 1.2 m, shoots - upright or slightly branched. Leaves - alternate. In the lower part of the plant - petiole, then - sessile, elongated, with 3-5 visible veins.

Inflorescences are standardly represented by baskets on a thin stem. The diameter of the buds - 10 cm. Color - pink. The receptacle is convex, has a reddish-brown color.

The rhizome, unlike the previous species, is fleshy and pivotal.

The flower is used not only for medicinal purposes, but also for making bouquets. Cut flowers are long and have a spectacular view.

Echinacea paradoxical (strange)

The flower has a yellow color of buds. It is worth noting that this is the only species that has a similar color basket.

Has a height of 80 cm, the leaves are painted in dark green. Flower baskets feature curved petals that visually make the bud smaller. The receptacle is convex, colored in dark brown.

It is grown in gardens as an ornamental plant. Used to create tandems with other flowers that produce buds at the end of summer.

Echinacea Tennessee

The name of the flower was due to the fact that its natural area of ​​growth - the state of Tennessee.

It has a height of 75 cm. The leaves are dark green, lanceolate. Shoots straighter or slightly branched.

The form differs in that it has a small number of petals in the bud. All the petals are at the same distance from each other, because of which the basket from a distance resembles the sun with pink rays and a dark middle.

Reproduction of echinacea

Mainly propagated by seed. Sown in spring in open ground or in greenhouses. Seedlings usually bloom on the 2nd g

The division of the bush (spring or autumn) rarely propagates, because the base of the shoots and the stem lignifies quickly, and rooting is difficult and slow.

Diseases and pests of Echinacea

If the ground is too wet, then Echinacea can be affected by two types of fungi of the genus Septoria and churches, which cause stains on the leaves, weakening, and then death.

Echinacea can be viral infections, they cause deformation of peduncles, yellowing of leaves.

The use of echinacea in medicine

Echinacea has healing properties.

As a medicinal raw materials used flowers, stems, leaves and rhizome with roots. Inside Echinacea is used for colds, flu, ear infections, diseases of the bladder.

Externally, echinacea is used for burns, wounds, abscesses, insect bites, furunculosis, urticaria, herpes, eczema, and other skin diseases.

Echinacea preparations are used for diseases caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, prolonged treatment with antibiotics, ultraviolet rays, and chronic inflammatory processes.

In cases of diabetes mellitus, liver, exposure to pesticides, fungicides, heavy metals, insecticides.

Echinacea not only strengthens the body's immunity, but also causes the death of some fungi, bacteria, viruses.

Echinacea extracts inhibit staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, flu viruses, herpes, stomatitis.

And this means that this is really a powerful plant antibiotic!

Brief description of the medicinal herb

Echinacea officinalis is a perennial herb of the Astrov family. The most studied and widespread variety is Echinacea purpurea. Stems erect, but very branched, reach a height of 1 meter. The root system is well developed, it consists of small and thin roots, going deep into the ground. Elongated leaves are located throughout the shoot. They have a rich green color, and their surface is rough. Closer to the flower leaf size is significantly reduced.

At the top of the stem is located inflorescence, outwardly it resembles the shape of a ball. The plant begins to bloom in early June, and continues to delight all summer with its beauty. The size of the flower reaches 12 cm. Flowers come in different shades, ranging from white to deep purple. After flowering, small brown seeds appear. They are oblong, their size does not exceed 6 mm. As it looks, this amazing plant can be seen in the photo.

Proper fit and care

Echinacea garden is not a capricious plant, therefore it is successfully grown in any territories. Healing grass loves good sunlight, so you need to choose an appropriate place for planting. It is worth choosing a good fertile soil, which is perfectly penetrated by moisture. Propagate the plant in two ways.

They must be collected or purchased in advance. The finished seeds are sown in early spring, in a box with the ground. Immediately after sowing, the soil is carefully watered. After 14 days, the first shoots will appear, and by the end of the month full-grown seedlings will sprout. The basic rule of cultivation is moderate watering! In May, seedlings planted open ground. After that, the soil is regularly loosened and watered in a timely manner.

Often ready-made seeds are sown immediately in open soil. They need to be watered often and loosened the ground. The first shoots will appear only after 2 weeks.

Dividing bush

In early spring or autumn, a piece is separated from the main bush. He is transplanted to the desired location, but he needs good watering. This method is rarely used, as the root system quickly heats, which slows down the growth and development of the plant.

With proper care, the plant will quickly take root, and will actively develop. In spring, the medicinal herb needs additional feeding; mineral fertilizers (20 g / 10 l of water) are suitable for this. The second dressing is desirable to hold when the buds appear.

Important! In the first year, Echinacea takes root and develops a stem. The first flowers will appear only for 2 years of life of the plant.

Types and varieties

In nature, there are only 10 species of this unique plant. Most of them are cultivated varieties. They are often grown by large plantations for medicinal purposes, also in the territory of suburban areas. Photos of plants of all varieties, clearly show all their beauty. The following are the most common types of medicinal herbs:

  • Echinacea purpurea is the most common variety. It has large flowers, in diameter they reach 12 cm, and in the center there is a convex middle, brown in color. The height of the stem reaches a meter. Plant blooms throughout the summer,
  • Piccolino is Echinacea pink. Compact bush its height does not exceed 25 cm. The stems are straight, along their entire length are oblong leaves. Flowering begins in June and lasts until early September. Flowers are large,
  • Cleopatra is Echinacea yellow. The variety is thermophilic and favors the direct rays of the sun. The plant has erect stems, about 60 cm high. Dark green leaves, rough to the touch, are evenly spaced along its length. Always pleased with abundant flowering, the size of each flower is about 10 cm in diameter,
  • Mozzarella. The plant develops well in the penumbra. It has high erect stems, reaching 60 cm. It blooms from June to September, with magnificent flowers. Echinacea is white, with hanging petals at the edges, and in the middle it is terry.

Medicinal properties of Echinacea

For medicinal purposes, use rhizome, stems with leaves and flowers. The roots retain their beneficial properties for a long time (up to 5 years), but the rest of the plant is not more than 6 months. Echinacea contains many beneficial components necessary for the human body: trace elements, essential oils, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, polysaccharides and mineral components.

Due to the useful composition of the medicinal herb successfully copes with such diseases:

  • infectious diseases (flu, tonsillitis, acute respiratory disease),
  • restores the work of the respiratory system
  • boosts the immune system
  • normalizes blood sugar levels
  • adjusts the urinary system,
  • relieves inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract,
  • with dermatological diseases,
  • restores the microflora after taking antibiotics,
  • improves appetite
  • stimulates the joints,
  • relieves herpes and stomatitis.

Important! Before starting treatment with echinacea, you should consult a doctor. The specialist will evaluate the general condition of the patient and prescribe the best treatment.

Decoction for flu and cold

The root of the plant is thoroughly crushed. Then 1 teaspoon of roots, combine with the same number of leaves and add 3 flowers. Everything is mixed and poured grass 500 ml of boiling water, leave for 40 minutes. During the acute period of the disease take 250 ml of broth, three times a day. For the prevention of enough 1 cup per day.

Contraindications

Echinacea only benefits the body. However, it is important to adhere to an acceptable dosage to avoid complications. In case of overdose, insomnia, irritability, hypertension will be observed.

Important! Echinacea therapy should last no more than 10-14 days.

Medicinal herb is a powerful stimulant of immunity, so it is prohibited to a certain group of people:

  • with various autoimmune disorders,
  • pregnant women
  • during lactation,
  • preschool children
  • if blood pressure is high.

Any treatment requires the advice of a doctor, echinacea is no exception. Before taking medication based on it, you need to get expert advice. Be healthy!

Varieties

Several varieties of echinacea are both excellent ornamental and medicinal plants. These include the series:

Variety with pink-purple baskets,

"Magnus"

"Fancy Frills"

The flowers look like baskets of pink sunflower.

"Fancy Frills"

Echinacea purpurea exceed their healing power of Echinacea narrow-leaved (E. angustifolia) and Echinacea pale (E. pallida).

Echinacea yellow (E. paradoxa)

The variety has large flowers with narrow yellow petals and a chocolate middle. With its healing properties, it resembles pale echinacea.

Echinacea yellow

Breeding

By dividing overgrown bushes in spring or autumn, or by pieces of rhizome. Not bad propagated by seeds, the germination of which can be increased by stratification. To increase the rate of germination of seeds they are subjected to stratification. Mix the seeds with moist sterile sand or vermiculite, pour the mixture into a plastic bag and place it for four weeks in the vegetable container of the refrigerator. Then sow the seeds in pots. When the roots take up the whole pot, transplant the seedlings into the open ground.

Planting and maintenance of echinacea (in brief)

  • Landing: spring or autumn.
  • Bloom: from July to September.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: dryish, nutritious, well-processed, containing a small amount of lime.
  • Watering: frequent and plentiful, in the evening.
  • Top dressing: rotted compost with ash twice a season: in spring and autumn.
  • Reproduction: dividing the bush in April or during the fall of the leaves. Species Echinacea can be propagated by seed.
  • Pests: bedbugs, slobbery pennies and slugs.
  • Diseases: powdery mildew, chalcosporosis, septoriosis, viral infections.

Echinacea flower - description

Echinacea - perennial herbaceous rhizomatous plants with straight, rough stems, reaching a height of 1-1.5 m. Basal wide oval leaves of Echinacea, serrated on the edges, are located on long petioles, and the stem - lanceolate, alternate, sessile or almost sessile. The inflorescences consist of large baskets, which in turn are composed of marginal reed flowers of red, white or pink color and median tubular flowers, red-brown or dark red. Echinacea is a tetrahedral achene.

  • When to plant echinacea.

    Planting echinacea is carried out both in spring and autumn. A process is usually preceded by a procedure such as dividing an echinacea bush. It is possible, of course, to grow a plant from seeds, but the generative method of reproduction is used exclusively for growing species Echinacea, hybrid varieties propagate vegetatively. So, find a brightly lit place for Echinacea with fertile, deeply treated neutral or slightly alkaline soil - too wet or light sandy soils of Echinacea will not work. If the soil is acidic, you will have to add lime to it.

    How to plant Echinacea.

    Echinacea holes are dug 5 cm deep at a distance of 30 cm from each other - this is for planting seedlings, and for delenok, the depth of the fossa should be slightly larger than the root system of the seedling. At the bottom of the dimples, put a little compost, and only then plant echinacea. After planting the site watered. If your planting material is in a container, the hole should be larger, about 40 cm. Fill it with a third with a mixture of sand, compost and garden soil in equal proportions, and then carefully transfer the seedling into the hole along with the earth clod, fixing it at that depth on which he grew up in a container.

    How to care for echinacea.

    Growing echinacea is not at all tedious, but it still requires attention. First, Echinacea needs to be watered often and plentifully, and do it better in the evening. But the most important thing to keep the area clean is to remove the weeds immediately after they appear. From the second year of life, Echinacea needs fertilizing with rotted compost with ashes - this will enable it to bloom more magnificently. Fertilizers are applied twice per season: in spring and after flowering. If you do not need seeds, cut off faded inflorescences with part of the stem to the first green leaf.

    Pests and Diseases of Echinacea.

    Sick plant rarely, and all his troubles usually occur due to improper care. In hot summers with frequent rains and fluctuations in temperature, as well as from too abundant nitrogen supplements, echinacea can get powdery mildew - a dangerous whitish coating appears on the shoots, leaves and flowers. You can kill the fungus by treating echinacea with colloidal sulfur or bordeaux liquid. Echinacea sometimes suffers from fungal diseases of septoria and cercosporosis, which appear as spots on the leaves, weakening the plant and leading it to death. If the disease is detected at an early stage, you can save Echinacea by removing the affected areas, but if the disease entered into force, you will have to resort to treating the plant with fungicides. It happens that echinacea is affected by viral diseases, from which the flower stalks are deformed, the leaves of the plant turn yellow and dry. Patients must urgently be removed from the site and burned, and the place where they grew should be disinfected with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. There is no cure for viral diseases.

    Sometimes echinacea is harmed by bugs, slugs and slobbering pennitsa. It is better to collect slugs with your hands, and as a preventive measure you can sprinkle a nutshell on the plot, which will prevent the gastropods from moving. Insects are destroyed by insecticides - Aktellik or Karbofos. All these troubles are very easy to avoid if you strictly comply with the agronomic conditions of the plant, especially since planting and caring for echinacea in the open field is not so burdensome.

    How and when to collect echinacea seeds.

    Echinacea seeds are harvested at the end of the season when they ripen on the bushes. However, they do not ripen all at once, so the seeds are collected gradually. Когда вы увидите, что середина цветка потемнела, наденьте на руку перчатку и соберите семена из центра корзинки, потом очистите их от остатков трубчатых цветков и просушите. Семена эхинацеи быстро теряют всхожесть, поэтому сеять их лучше сразу.

    Preparation of echinacea for winter.

    Echinacea is a fairly cold-resistant plant, but it can freeze out in a frosty and snowless winter. Colds are especially dangerous for plants of the first year of life. To prevent Echinacea from dying, at the end of October, cut off all the stems from it, root the back of the neck with compost, and then cover the area with Echinacea with dry leaves or spruce leaves.

    Echinacea Sunset (Echinacea x sunset)

    - A series of hybrids between Echinacea purpurea and paradoxical, derived by Richard Skol. These hybrids combined all the best qualities of both species - large baskets, curved petals, strong branching stems, exquisite colors of mango, mustard, peach, strawberry, amazing aroma. Tubular petals have henna color.

    As a result of intensive breeding work, varieties were bred from purple, white, orange, pink, yellow and reddish inflorescences. We offer you the most popular varieties of Echinacea garden:

    • Yuliya - refers to the “Butterfly Kisses” variety series. This dwarf echinacea, reaching a height of only 45 cm, has bright orange flowers, opening at the beginning of summer and not disappearing until the end of the season,
    • Cleopatra - the variety is named after bright yellow butterflies. This plant with baskets of bright yellow color with a diameter of 7.5 cm with horizontally arranged reed flowers - they look like the sun in a children's drawing,
    • Evann Glow - blooms with baskets with yellow reed flowers with an orange stripe with a pinkish tinge, the middle of tubular flowers protrudes as a dark cone,
    • Cantaloupe - has the color of this particular vegetable: a double row of reed petals looks like a pinkish-orange jabot, and darker tubular flowers form a shaggy hemisphere,
    • Passion Flute - an unusual Echinacea: reed flowers twisted in a tube of golden-yellow color, and a tubular middle of a greenish-mustard shade. This variety belongs to the Letts Buggy variety, it is drought-resistant and unpretentious to care,
    • Double Mean Cranberry - easy-to-care, drought-tolerant beauty of cranberry color, striking and attracting butterflies - it is incredibly good in a bouquet.

    Useful properties of echinacea.

    Echinacea grass contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, hydroxycinnamic and organic acids, phytosterols, resins and essential oils. The rhizome also contains essential and fatty oils, resins, enzymes, macronutrients in the form of potassium and calcium and trace elements selenium, silver, zinc, manganese, molybdenum and cobalt. Preparations of echinacea purpurea have antiviral, antimicrobial, wound healing and antifungal effects, strengthen the immune system, assist in physical and mental fatigue. Drugs include juice, decoctions, tinctures and extracts of Echinacea purpurea. Tincture, for example, has the property to heal burns and increases potency. In traditional medicine, the juice from fresh inflorescences of the plant heals wounds, and the use of the inside accelerates blood coagulation.

    Echinacea purpurea is popular in many countries. In Germany, Echinacin is treated with tonsillitis, tonsillitis, chroniosepsis and other inflammatory diseases. In Russia, Professor S.А. became the popularizer of this valuable plant. Tomilin, who believed that the healing properties of echinacea are not inferior to the properties of ginseng. We offer you recipes of preparations of echinacea, which can be prepared independently.

    Tincture: cut the echinacea flowers, fill them with a half-liter jar under the twist lid, fill them with vodka to the top, spin the jar and place it for 40 days in a dark place, then drain the contents and consume 15 drops per third cup of water or tea half an hour before food for depression, overwork and infectious diseases.

    Broth roots: tablespoon chopped roots pour water in an amount of 300 ml, boil in a water bath for half an hour, leave to brew until completely cooled, strain and take 1-2 tablespoon 3-4 times daily before meals for chronic fatigue, cold and acute infectious diseases.

    Echinacea - contraindications.

    Echinacea preparations in some people can cause allergies. It is not recommended to use them for pregnant and lactating breasts, as well as for those who have leukemia, multiple sclerosis, collagenosis, progressive tuberculosis or individual intolerance to drugs from the plant. For those who do not have such contraindications, we recommend that you consult with your doctor before using medications from Echinacea.

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