Diseases of rabbits and their treatment (symptoms, photos)
When organizing your own farm, you will inevitably have to face such a problem as rabbit diseases. Like all living creatures, rabbits are subject to a variety of diseases, and this issue must be taken seriously. Neglecting the problem of rabbit disease can result in a massive animal pestilence, and this is a nightmare for any rabbit breeder.
Rabbit disease symptoms
This is one of the most dangerous diseases of rabbits, as it is quite acute, and usually ends with the death of the animal. The disease has two forms, which are somewhat different symptoms, but both represent a serious danger to the entire population.
The nodular form of myxomatosis causes small tumors on the body of a rabbit, on average the size of a pea. The edematous form of this disease is one continuous tumor that looks like one continuous swelling. Tumors in this disease usually occur in the area of the rabbit's head, sometimes in the paws, anus and genitals of the animal.
At the same time, rabbit eye mucositis occurs, and the ears fall and hang so that one glance at the infected animal is enough to understand that it is not healthy. As a rule, after five to ten days of the disease, the rabbit dies. Myxomatosis is a highly contagious disease, and is transmitted both between rabbits and through blood-sucking parasites and rodents.
As it is not sad, but in order to preserve the whole herd, it is necessary to immediately kill the sick animals - and burn them together with the skin. Sick and survived rabbits remain carriers of the infection, and are also subject to slaughter. In this case, there is no other way out. The cells in which sick animals were kept must be treated with a three percent caustic soda solution and a five percent solution of bleach. Your work clothes may also contain infectious agents, and must be sanitized.
Diseases of rabbits photo
Rabbit diseases and their treatment
This disease, also called pasteurellosis, is classified as an infectious rhinitis, and affects both adult rabbits and young animals. Infected animals appear mucous or purulent discharge from the nose, the animal constantly sneezes, refuses to feed, body temperature increases. Often the appearance of diarrhea.
Infected rabbits should be immediately isolated from the main herd, and their cells should be thoroughly disinfected. It is best to use a twenty percent bleach solution, and also a rather effective way is to burn the cage with a blowtorch fire. The causative agent of infection dies rather quickly, but the prerequisite is the destruction of dead individuals and the removal of manure.
Treatment of isolated rabbits involves daily instillation of four to five drops of a one-percent solution of furatsilin or penicillin into the nostrils, which is complemented by an improved diet. After twenty days, during which the discharge from the nose of the rabbit is absent, the animal is considered recovered. However, the infection persists in the feces of the animal, and experts in the field of rabbit breeding recommend that animals that have survived be slaughtered. The animals that have recovered are fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, you need to get used to the idea that the diseases of rabbits and their treatment do not guarantee the preservation of recovered animals.
Diseases of rabbits photo
Rabbit diseases and their treatment
Mainly young rabbits, aged from twenty to ninety days, are subject to this disease. Characteristic symptoms of infectious stomatitis are reddening of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue and nasal cavity of the animal, which are replaced by white patina and ulcers. Excessive salivation is also present. Frequently infected rabbit dies during the course of the disease.
If you notice the onset of the disease immediately, then baby rabbits can be saved by organizing treatment measures. The oral cavity of the sick rabbit, you need once or twice a day, handle a two-percent solution of copper sulfate. You can also chop half a streptocide tablet, and put the rabbit in your mouth, repeating the procedure after eight to ten hours. As a rule, after one or two days, the rabbit recovers. In addition to treatment, the cell must be disinfected. If within two weeks the symptoms of the disease do not appear, the rabbit is considered healthy.
Diseases of rabbits photo
Rabbit diseases and their treatment
This disease affects lactating females of rabbits. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are hardening and redness of the udder of the female, which is also covered with purulent wounds. Prevention of infectious mastitis is the purity in the cage of the animal. In this case, for treatment, veterinary intervention is required. The meat of diseased rabbits cannot be eaten!
Rabbits aged one and a half to four months are mostly susceptible to this disease. Infected rabbits lose their appetite, lose weight, weaken, diarrhea is observed. Effective means of treating coccidiosis does not exist; therefore, it is necessary to try to observe prophylactic measures that are expressed in cell cleanliness. Sick rabbits remain carriers of the infection, in consequence of which they are recommended to be slaughtered. The meat of recovered rabbits is permissible to eat.
This disease is transmitted when mating with an infected individual, accompanied by reddening of the rabbit's genitals. Rabbits usually do not die as a result of the disease, and after some time they can recover. In general, the presence of the disease has little effect on the general condition of the animal, however, infected females lose their high fertility and also produce weak offspring. Treatment requires specialist intervention. The cells of diseased animals should be treated with a caustic soda disinfectant solution.
This disease is caused by parasitic mites, which is located in the head and ears of animals. There is a characteristic redness and swelling. Rabbits refuse to eat, and as the disease progresses, they may die. As a treatment, the resulting crusts are smeared with turpentine, and after they are soaked, remove the parasites with tweezers. The meat of such rabbits may be used as food.
A similar problem may arise from dirt in the cages, so once again it should be noted that timely cleaning is of great importance for effective rabbit breeding. As a treatment, the rabbit is isolated, and rubbed against the coat with such drugs as: tobacco dust pounded with naphthalene, or DDT. The cell must be disinfected. The meat of such rabbits is used as food.
What are the signs of a sick rabbit?
First of all, a healthy animal leads an active lifestyle. He has no problems with appetite. Nose and ears in healthy rabbits with no discharge. The coat is smooth and even. The signs of the disease can be judged by feces and urine. Usually the rabbit feces are dark, the shape resembles a pea. As a rule, urine also has a dark color. But depending on the feeding, it can vary. For example, after the carrot becomes orange.
As for the sick rabbit, its behavior is different from healthy. He is sluggish, sits with little or no movement, or even lies with his eyes closed, breathing heavily. Depending on the rabbit's disease, excessive hair loss, sores on the skin may be a sign. From the nose and ears are observed discharge, in appearance resembling pus.
In intestinal disorders, the rabbit's belly is often swollen. This is often the case with a large number of fodder beets and leads to death.
Diseases of non-viral etiology
Non-infectious diseases, or, as they are also called, non-communicable diseases of the rabbit, include the following pathologies:
- digestive disorders - in rabbits a weak stomach, quickly and painfully reacting to any product that can cause a violation of the digestive tract and even lead to death,
- mechanical effects (frostbite, shock, draft, dust, injury and others),
Causes and symptoms
Read more about each disease in the table below.
Diseases of rabbits, photos and descriptions of which are presented above, can be treated if treated in a timely manner.
For disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, the following therapeutic measures are used:
- Fasting for 12–20 hours. Then you can give soft feed in small quantities. For example, pour boiled water feed and let it stand.
- For diarrhea, the rabbit needs an enema. For this purpose, castor oil or soapy water of low concentration will do.
- In case of diarrhea, give 0.1 g of syntomycin 1–2 times a day, diluted in a small volume of water.
- When swelling, the rabbit needs to give an ichthyol solution (10%) in the volume of 8 ml.
What to do with frostbite in a rabbit? If they are minor, nothing much needs to be done. It is enough to warm the animal by moving it to a warm place. If frostbite is more significant and its signs are visible to the naked eye, the blister needs to be opened in order for the liquid to come out of it. Then the wound is treated with zinc or iodine ointment. If frostbite resulted in tissue necrosis, you will have to remove them. The wound is smeared with iodine, and a tight bandage is attached to the damaged area.
In the event of heat or sunstroke, the rabbit is transferred to a cool place. It is necessary to apply compresses on the paws and head (moisten a rag in cold water) at intervals of 5 minutes.
If the rabbit is sick as a result of a draft, it will be helped by heat, vitamins and clean air. If dust, harmful gases or other substances get into the respiratory tract, furatsilin is injected into the nose (4 drops in each nostril). When the lesion is strong, an antibacterial drug is used.
Treatment of a rabbit with injuries depends on the type and extent of the lesion. In case of injury, a cold compress is applied to the damaged area. If the wound is open and bleeding has begun, it must first be stopped and then treated with iodine.
In case of plantar dermatitis, rabbit's feet are smeared with zinc or lead ointment. Wounds are treated with iodine. If foci with pus are formed, Vishnevsky ointment is applied.
Diseases of viral etiology
If diseases of non-viral etiology can be prevented (in fact, the person himself is to blame), then no one is immune from the infection.
To date, vaccinations have been developed against dangerous infectious diseases that occur in rabbits.
The following rabbit diseases are known (photo and description below), which are capable of being transmitted from one individual to another:
- myxomatosis (diseases of the eyes and other parts of the body),
- rabbit hemorrhagic disease,
Prevention and cleanliness always brings good results and minimum costs: both financial and physical. It is desirable that the farm rabbits was clean. For this, regular cleaning of cages, territory and inventory is done. Drinkers, feeders and queen cells are disinfected by special means.
Be sure to inspect all rabbits. If the pet's behavior is alarming, it should be isolated from the rest of the individuals, and take appropriate measures.
Danger of skin diseases
Loss of hair in rabbits is a completely natural phenomenon, indicating the beginning of seasonal molting. However, if the animal begins to lose hair heavily, noticeable patches of baldness, peeling and redness appear on the skin, this may indicate the development of serious health problems.
The danger of skin diseases is great for both the animals and breeders, as some of the diseases can be transmitted to humans. With similar illnesses, rabbits due to high intoxication can lose weight, they do not eat well, they behave sluggishly. They have reduced immunity, as a result of which their health is being attacked by new viruses and infections. Skin diseases can not be ignored, because they quickly spread to healthy individuals and can cause intoxication, depletion of the body and even the death of a whole herd of rabbits.
Rabbit skin diseases: photo and description
Unfortunately, rabbits are prone to frequent diseases, including skin ones. Therefore, the task of each breeder is to regularly conduct a visual inspection of the animal and pay attention to the slightest changes in the behavior of pets. Among all skin ailments, the most common are several. Let's look at the types of diseases, their symptoms and effective treatment methods.
Eczema is an inflammation that develops on the skin of a rabbit. The disease is non-infectious and occurs as a result of a reaction to chemical exposure, disorders of the digestive system, diseases of internal organs, the presence of worms and parasites or against the background of an allergic reaction to food or by rubbing the skin on the cell rods. Symptoms eczema is quite characteristic:
- scales, papules, vesicles or pustules appear on the skin,
- redness and inflammation of the skin,
- severe itching and scabies in places of redness.
There are five stages of eczema, where from the first to the last runs from two to four weeks:
- erythematous: redness and slight swelling appear on the animal's skin,
- papular: characterized by the formation of papules in the form of seals, which so far do not bring any concern,
- vesicular: papules fill with fluid, start to ache when pressed,
- erosive: bubbles of liquid gradually begin to erupt, while forming erosion - wounds that cause severe itching,
- crusted: purulent wounds begin to heal, forming crusts from above, which subsequently fall off. This is followed by a pet's recovery.
Tangible discomfort to the rabbit can bring such a disease as dermatitis - inflammation of the skin without the formation of rash, papules, vesicles, etc. The appearance of the disease is associated with poor conditions of animals, violation of sanitary standards. In addition, the reasons for the appearance can be:
- mechanical stimuli - abrasions, wounds, worn,
- exposure to chemicals: feces, urine, lime, various medications,
- thermal factors: burns, frostbite,
- infectious factors.
However, timely treatment will help to quickly cope with the disease and save the life of a pet.
Treatment based on the use of special preparations and lotions. First, wounds on the skin are cleaned of pus and disinfected with iodine or hydrogen peroxide. Next, apply dressings with Vishnevsky's ointment or special vetsrams, and also make lotions from decoctions of medicinal herbs. Prophylaxis the disease serves, first of all, the elimination of the cause, regular disinfection of the dwelling housing, cleaning of feces and debris causing the development of pathogenic microorganisms.
Furunculosis is the most common disease in rabbits. It affects hairless skin. Most often, the disease is caused by skin lesions as a result of metabolic disorders or an excess of vitamins in the body.
Treatment. It is very important to start in due time, since during severe stages it is almost impossible to cope with the disease. Boils that occur on the skin in the form of purulent-necrotic cone-like rather large swellings are removed by surgery, and then the affected areas are treated with disinfectants, dressings with ointments. If during the illness the inflammatory process has developed, then antibacterial agents and vitamin complexes are prescribed.
For prophylaxis ailments use various multivitamin preparations, and also treat wounds with disinfectants, for example, tar soap.
As a result of acute inflammations that are caused by various pathogenic organisms - staphylococci, streptococci, pyogenic microbes, an abscess may occur in rabbits.
Symptoms The onset of the disease can be recognized by the occurrence of hemispherical hot-to-touch edema, limited to a testa-like consistency. Under the arms, the formation oscillates and shakes, while the animal behaves sluggishly, its body temperature rises. As a rule, external abscesses appear after damage to mucous membranes as a result of bruises, friction, injury or bites.However, as noted by breeders, the greatest number of purulent cavities occurs due to the action of staphylococcal colonies.
In the initial stages treatment use warm compresses, lotions, hot-water bottles.
Subsequent therapy consists in the use of antibiotics, which are prescribed after surgical opening of abscesses. The affected cavity is treated with antiseptics, for example, a solution of potassium permanganate or furatsilina.
Video: Rabbit abscess treatment
Cellulitis is a pervasive, acute purulent, sometimes putrid inflammation of friable fiber, in which necrotic phenomena are observed over suppuratives. Causes of the disease are infections of abscesses, boils, or other purulent lesions in the tissue.
The most favorable factor in the development of the disease is tissue damage or the presence of bruises.
Symptoms phlegmon are:
- extensive swelling in the area of suppuration,
- strong pain,
- increase in body temperature up to 40 degrees
- animal deterioration: loss of appetite, depressed behavior.
Often, as a result of high temperatures, various chemical agents, current or radiation energy, animals may experience burns of varying degrees:
- I degree: small swelling of the skin, shallow superficial burns of the upper layer of the skin,
- II degree: damage to the entire layer of the epidermis with the formation of bubbles, in which there is a transparent, slightly yellowish liquid,
- III degree: damage to the entire thickness of the skin, along with sweat, sebaceous glands. During this period, the skin becomes cold, and in places of burns - very dense,
- IV degree: affected areas are charred and transformed into a dark mass.
With the defeat of more than 10% of the skin, a burn disease occurs.
Treatment. Thermal burns are treated by imposing on the wounds of a tissue bandage, moistened with a solution of special coagulating agents, Vishnevsky ointments, “Levomekol”, antibiotic creams. Treatment of burns resulting from exposure to chemicals is carried out with various acids, depending on the type:
- the action of acids is neutralized with ordinary raw milk or 5% sodium bicarbonate solution,
- alkalis are amenable to neutralization with 2% acetic acid solution,
- Cyano compounds are treated with potassium permanganate solution.
As a result of the contact of the rabbit with the electrical wires, electric shock may occur, which is characterized by a rather serious condition of the animal: the pet is constantly lying, there is a rare pulse and weak, intermittent breathing. In such cases, the life of the animal is saved with the help of cardiac stimulant drugs, anticonvulsant drugs and means to reduce intracranial pressure.
If the animal stays for a long time in adverse conditions with low air temperature or prolonged contact with cold surfaces (for example, sex), the animal may develop a serious illness - frostbite. Most often exposed areas are exposed to freezing: nose, ears, limbs, tail.
Symptoms At the first signs of frostbite (I degree) there is a pale tissue, loss of sensitivity, and a slight swelling of the skin. II degree of frostbite is characterized by the formation of blisters, in the middle of which there is a pink-reddish liquid. Subsequently, the skin becomes painful, cold and hard, gradually dying off (Grade III). Treatment frostbite lasts a long time. It is aimed at restoring the microcirculation of the blood, conducting a warming massage, rubbing the affected areas with camphor alcohol, fat, etc. Next, the wounds are treated with green or iododerin, top dressings with camphor or zinc ointment are applied.
Bubbles, which appeared as a result of frostbite, gently open and inject a solution of antibiotics into them.