Climbing roses have flexible stems, the length of which, depending on the variety, can reach several meters.
It is clear that such shoots necessarily need support, which is tied with rose stalks.
A distinctive feature of a climbing rose is that the buds on it are constantly formed, and many varieties are blooming up to frost.
However, in order to properly complete the flowering season, a climbing rose should be prepared for winter at the end of summer.
In fact, the whole care for a climbing rose in the autumn comes down to preparing for winter.
First you need to stop abundantly water the plant, loosen the soil under it and apply fertilizers there, which include nitrogen in their constituents.
It is thanks to nitrogen that the foliage increases, and shoots with buds are formed. This is completely superfluous in the fall.
Therefore, it is possible to fertilize a rose only with phosphorus and potassium, since these components strengthen the roots and stem of a climbing rose.
Health of a climbing rose directly depends on how you will look after it. And one of the main components of rose care is the right pruning.
It is pruning that affects the normal growth of shoots and flowering roses.
Without removing old shoots, you cannot form a beautiful crown of a climbing rose.
In addition, the plant, which is freed from old stems, is simply rejuvenated.
Stalk pruning has its own rules:
- when performing pruning should take into account the growth of developing shoots. The main mass of varieties of climbing roses buds are formed on the shoots of last year, so you need to cut the whips with care,
- it is necessary to use only sharp scissors, so that the edges of the shoots do not crack or break - this leads to the possible formation of infection,
- the shoot cut needs to be done at a 45 degree angle,
- the cut should be located directly above the kidney, the distance from the kidney to the cut should not be less than 5 mm. In this case, runaway enough moisture, otherwise it may just dry out. In addition, shoots, cut much higher buds, die off in winter,
- cuts should be protected from infection in them, treating for this garden pitch.
If it is wrong to trim a climbing rose, it may freeze in winter. Therefore, it is not recommended to cut the shoots short.
If the shoots are not cut at all, the rose will lose its decorative appearance, it will bloom badly and look slovenly.
Autumn Pruning Rules
The most important rule to remember when trimming climbing roses: its buds develop from the buds located on the stems that grow in the upper part of last year's shoots.
And from the lower buds will grow twigs, which next year will not appear flowers.
Therefore, you should not cut the stems of climbing roses too much.
In the autumn it is generally better to simply remove the old dry shoots, and slightly shorten the longest. And on this limit. Spring will be seen.
Autumn pruning should be started only when the temperature at night will steadily remain below zero. This is about the end of October.
If you start pruning earlier, then you will stimulate your rose to the emergence of her new shoots, and they just freeze out in winter.
Shoots just do not have time to wood, freeze. and then, thawed in the spring, will become a source of infection for healthy shoots.
Many novice gardeners are afraid to prune their climbing roses, for fear of damaging them with inept actions.
If you still do not know how to trim your rosette correctly, I advise you to do simply:
- halve the height of a climbing rose bush,
- remove all the dead and old shoots, cutting them at the root.
You can precisely distinguish the old ligneous escape from the young, flexible and green, and you cannot go wrong.
How to cover a climbing rose for the winter
It is necessary to undertake this difficult business only when the frost comes, and there will be no thaw.
Many gardeners ruined their roses due to the fact that they did not take into account one rule: any rose is able to withstand even a fairly strong short frost. However, almost no rose stand the debate.
Therefore, if you cover your rose, and then suddenly a positive temperature comes, you can say goodbye to it right away. The rose will die. The temperature difference and being in the shelter during the thaw, the plant will not survive.
This rule applies to ordinary park and tea roses, and climbing roses.
In order to closely proceed to the shelter, you need to choose a dry cold day. There should be no rain, because no moisture should categorically fall under the covering material.
By the way, it will be quite useful before the shelter to process a bush of climbing roses with an appropriate disinfectant, spraying it from a special device.
Antifungal agents will help you destroy those foci of infection. which can not be seen with the usual visual inspection of the bush.
Of course, it is necessary to cover the rose after that. as it is completely dried from the disinfectant solution, and not immediately after spraying.
When concealing a climbing rose, carefully follow these simple rules:
- clean the leaves of old shoots of climbing roses,
- twist them and bend down to the ground, putting spruce branches under them,
- Attach the whip to the ground with curved metal brackets, sticking them on top,
- put covering material on the scourge: spruce branches, cardboard boxes, boards, plywood,
- cover the entire structure with film or other material that is sold in the store.
Another tip - the stems of roses at the onset of cold weather can become fragile, and break. Therefore, some growers twist the scourge earlier, and just put them on the ground. And the rose is covered when it gets cold.
It is highly desirable to provide that in the event of a prolonged thaw it is possible to properly ventilate the sheltered bush of a climbing rose in order to avoid the plant vyprevaniya and death.
In regions with very cold winters, you need to pile up a rose before shelter, and cover the root system with something: ground. sawdust, peat with the ground, needles or compost.
If you carry out all the necessary work correctly and carefully, in the summer a climbing rose will delight you with luxurious blooms.
For clarity and correct understanding of the sequence of actions when sheltering a climbing rose for the winter, you can offer to view the corresponding video.
How to cut roses for the winter.
Pruned and freshly planted bushes are pruned: all dry, diseased, old and weak stems must be removed, the flowers and buds must be cut, the foliage completely removed from the branches. Leave on the bush 3-5 most developed shoots, if possible equidistant from each other, and cut all the rest. All shoots that did not have time to ripen must also be removed, since in the winter they will start to rot under shelter and rot and may destroy the whole shrub. When pruning, follow these rules:
- - choose a sunny, windless day for the procedure,
- - thick stems older than three years with dried bark is better to cut with a hacksaw,
- - cuts and cuts should be oblique, so that the water from them flowed without stagnating,
- - the cut should pass over the swollen, but not germinated, kidney at a distance of half a centimeter from it,
- - pruning done on the outer bud, then the growing shoots will not intersect, and the light and air will penetrate into the middle of the bush,
- - shorten the stems to the white core.
It is also important to know how long to cut the shoots of roses, given the specifics of the species. There are three types of pruning shoots:
- - long pruning - the shoot is shortened slightly, leaving at least 9-10 buds on it,
- - the average pruning, in which the shoot is cut at a height of 35 cm from the surface of the plot, leaving 5 buds on it,
- - short pruning, which is needed only in extreme cases, because the shoots are removed almost to the ground, leaving no more than two buds on them.
Polyanthus, hybrid tea and floribunda prune to four to five lower developed buds. Cascade standard roses are shortly cut only in the first year, leaving shoots 15 cm long, and in subsequent years only faded shoots are cut, and the young ones are slightly shortened. Grandiflora roses, like remontant varieties, are pruned, leaving 5 buds on the shoots. The shoots of old English and shrub roses are shortened by three-quarters or two-thirds. Park roses, the most winter-hardy of all kinds, subject only to sanitary pruning, removing old, damaged and weak branches, and young strong shoots only slightly shortened.
After pruning, remove all the leaves from the shoots by wearing a glove and running your hand over the shoots from the bottom up so as not to damage the buds.
Trimming climbing roses for the winter
In climbing roses for the winter, damaged, dry and weak shoots are removed, flowers and buds, developed strong shoots are only slightly shortened, but one or two old lashes are cut to 35-40 cm - to stimulate the growth of basal replacement shoots.
If you make a full cut, you can provoke the appearance of a large number of non-flowering vegetative shoots next season.
Trimming climbing roses carried out in late September or early October. Do not forget to remove the leaves from the branches after the procedure, and then remove all plant residues from under the bush.
When and how to cover the roses in the middle lane and in the suburbs.
The optimal period for shelter construction in the central regions of Russia is the first or second decade of November. A dry, clear day is selected for this when the temperature is set to between -5-7 ºC. How to cover roses for the winter in Moscow region? Hybrid tea, polyanthus roses and floribunda bend to the ground, pre-spread lapnik under them, and fix them with wooden or metal pins. Spud the base of the bush with dry earth, peat, compost or humus to a height of 35-40 cm, and then cover the lying roses with dry leaves or fir spruce. It is possible to install metal arcs over a lying bush and to stretch covering material on them.
The shoots of hybrid tea, standard roses and floribunda roses are more fragile and less flexible than the stems of climbing roses, so it is difficult to bend them to the ground. Leave these roses in an upright position, having built metal arcuate supports of the desired height above them, onto which the film can be pulled, but do not forget to spud the base of the bush before the shelter.
Not all roses need shelter. Most of the park varieties and hybrids are so high winter hardiness that they do not require protection from the cold, and the bushes of those park varieties, for which it is worth worrying, spud up and wrap paper for the winter.
Shelter roses for the winter in the Urals.
Shelter for roses in the Urals in the fall can be done at the end of October, when the air temperature will be -5 ºC. Well, if by this time dry snow falls - its natural protection slows down the cooling of the soil. But one cannot count on nature, therefore it is better to cover the roses. In the middle of October, cut the bushes to the height of the shelter, remove undigested shoots, leaves and remove debris and plant residues from the tree circle.
Sometimes rodents settle under the shelter, damaging the bark in the lower part of the shoots, so it is advisable to place poisoned baits under bushes: the sawdust is impregnated with creolin solution at the rate of 1 tablespoon of the drug in a bucket of water and laid out under the bushes. The bush is covered with peat or dry earth at a third of the height, and the upper part is tied with lapnik.
For single short-cut bushes, wooden boxes are used as cover, which are covered with film on top, pressing its edges with boards, bricks or powdered with earth so that a gust of wind does not tear the polyethylene. However, do not press the film completely.leave small vents in several places for air exchange.
If you expect a harsh winter, make a hut over the bush from boards or sheets of plywood, and cover it with a film on top. The height of the air-dry shelter should be such that its “ceiling” is 10 cm above the bush. In such a house roses do not freeze and do not perine.
If you grow a lot of roses on the plot, make a plank frame over the bushes for the width of the flower bed and stretch the film on it, just pressing it along the edges to the ground.
How to hide roses for the winter in Siberia.
Covered for the winter, the roses will not die from frost, but they can melt. To prevent this from happening, it is impossible to cover the roses too early, but in order to determine the necessary dates, you have to carefully monitor the weather forecast - indeed, sometimes the beginning of November is warm in Siberia.
Young, recently planted roses can be covered with five-liter plastic bottles with a carved bottom and covered with dry leaves on top. In order to avoid vyprevaniya roses, you need to remove the cap from the bottle.
Adults who have shortly cut bushes need to spud the ground high and also cover them with dry leaves.
The fact is that in Siberia, the winters are snowy, so the roses need to be allowed to freeze only until the snow has fallen, and then they will safely winter below.
Shelter climbing roses for the winter
The complexity of the shelter of climbing roses is that they can not be strongly cut, otherwise they will not bloom next year - after all, flowering on the plants of this species takes place on last year's shoots. Therefore, climbing scrub need to be bent to the ground in a few steps, like a raspberry, and lay on a bed of spruce branches. Cover the roses when a persistent sub-zero temperature is established. The roses laid on a leaf litter cover the top with the same branch or dry leaves, and then with a film or covering material.
Covering material for roses for the winter
For the shelter of roses for the winter using this material:
- - plastic film,
- - lutrasil
- - Spunbond,
- - geotextiles
- - dry leaves,
- - lapnik,
- - burlap and rags,
- - old blankets and coats,
- - boards and plywood.
What material is better to choose depends on the type of rose and the method of shelter. Large plants with good immunity will be enough to throw leaves or spruce branches, and for sensitive species have to build "houses" of boards and plywood, wrapping them additionally with bags and rags.
Polyethylene film can be used to cover large areas, but geotextile, lutrasil or spunbond are better, which stretch on a metal or wooden frame. These materials not only protect the roses from the cold, but also remove the fumes that cause the plants to dry out.
The density of the material should be at least 200 g / m², and you need to fold the material several times. The nonwoven cover stretched on the frame should be laid on the bottom with long boards and pressed with bricks. If during the shelter of plants with foil it is necessary to leave the duffels, then the spanbond, lutrasil and geotextiles need to be securely fastened around the perimeter so that there are no holes left anywhere through which cold winter air will penetrate.
Using non-woven materials for shelter, you can not remove climbing roses for the winter from the support: they roll up the base to a height of 30 cm, and then wrap the bush securely with several layers of material, securing the structure with staples and a stapler or clothespins.
Why and when to cover climbing roses
Gardener's actions in sheltering roses for the winter depend on the climatic zone of horticulture and the types of roses grown. Hybrid and varietal climbing roses are in dire need of winter protection from the cold, especially if the air temperature drops below -15 ° C and stays at this level for a long time.
Did you know?In 2002, the Night Sensation dwarf rosebush was brought into space to help scientists investigate the effects of low gravity on a floral scent. The purpose of the study was to improve the flavor for a number of consumer goods.
How to prepare the plant for winter
Stop fertilizing roses with nitrogen from late August until early spring. If the flowers will winter in the ground cover, then they need to be removed from the trellis about six weeks before the onset of frost. Learn more about growing climbing roses; climbing roses also include such varieties as Rosarium Utersen, Mary Rose, Abraham Derby, New Dawn, Pierre de Ronsard.
Russian winters can damage even the most resistant varieties, contribute to this:
- rapid temperature changes
- root injuries from periodic freezing and thawing,
- damage to the bark from mouse teeth,
- injuries from ice crust.
A novice gardener needs to know that all these problems in the flower garden can be avoided if you safely and carefully planted plants.
We take steps to prepare rose bushes for winter:
- Winter protection begins with the cessation of the supply of nitrogen fertilizers to plants from the end of August. Nitrogen encourages the growth of new shoots, which will weaken the plant and will also be less winter-hardy than the older (matured and woody) shoots. If the gardener sees that new shoots begin to grow from the base of the bush in September, they must be removed with a secateur to prevent future winter plant freezing.
- Многие считают, что зимняя выносливость роз увеличится после (хотя бы одной) осенней подкормки калием.
- После 1 октября уже не проводят срезку цветов, позволяют им отцвести и превратиться в плоды. Развитие плодов способствует укреплению древесины кустов.
- С начала сентября постепенно уменьшайте уровень полива. Это также поможет инициировать процесс упрочнения древесины. Continue to monitor the soil moisture, by the end of autumn watering the bushes only as necessary, to avoid drying out of the soil. Completely stop watering the roses when the ground freezes.
- Do not trim during the shelter for the winter, except for the removal of dead, damaged and diseased branches. Wait until the end of April - this time is best suited for spring pruning of roses.
Did you know?From the Middle Ages to the present day in Italy, the expression “under the rose” is used, that is, completely secret. The image of the rose is present on the secret documents of the Illuminati to indicate that they are not subject to disclosure.
As mentioned above, nitrogen fertilizers no longer apply under the rose bushes at the end of the summer. Instead, you can feed the plant with root fertilizers before wintering. Nitrogen fertilizers include ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate, urea. First autumn root dressing:
- 10 liters of water
- 25 g of superphosphate,
- 10 g of potassium sulfate,
- 2.5-3.5 g of borax or boric acid.
This amount is enough to fertilize an area of 4 square meters. Top dressing is made in early September.
Second autumn root dressing:
- 10 liters of water
- 16 g of potassium monophosphate or potassium sulfate,
- 15 g of superphosphate.
Freshly prepared solution should be used within 10-12 hours to keep it from drying out. Usually a bucket of supplemental food is enough for 3-4 adult rose bushes. It is carried out two weeks after the first feeding.
Weed removal and debris removal
Part of the job of sheltering roses for the winter is cleaning the garden of debris, which will help prevent rose diseases in the next year:
- An important task for the grower is the removal of scraps and fragments of branches, fallen flowers and leaves, as well as other plant debris, not only after roses, but also from other plants.
- If there are other flowers in the garden (annual and wilted) that grow next to the roses, you must remove everything.
- All plant residues from the garden are removed using a rake.
- Do not leave faded roses to lie on the ground in the garden. They may contain spores of leaf diseases, such as black spots and fungus. The dead plant material is a winter shelter and dining room for insects and their larvae, as well as pathogenic microbes, which in the future will cause diseases of rose bushes. Remove debris, burn or take it out of the area. In no case do not compost such plant material - it only spreads diseases and harmful insects in the garden.
Did you know?The most expensive pink variety in the world -"Juliet", bred in 2006. Breeding this variety took 15 years and cost five million dollars.
Trimming and Hilling
In the middle or end of November, a couple of weeks before the ground freezes, the plants should be covered with 10-12 centimeters of well-drained soil. Such a mound should be spread around the roots of each flower.
This soil should be brought from another place in the garden, and not taken from the rosary. Then cover the earthen mound around the roots with another 12 to 16 centimeters of mulching material, such as straw, pine needles, or wood chips.
Learn what is and how to conduct mulching, how to mulch using sawdust.
Light upper mulch needs to be strengthened in place (from winds and downpours) with spruce or pine branches laid on top of it. You can also pin the mulch to the ground with wire “pins”.
The top layer of mulch will help stabilize the temperature of the root soil and reduce the likelihood of freezing. Additional ground cover brings warmth to the roots and lower branches of the roses, helping them to resist the icy onslaught of winter.
If the root system of the plant remains without freezing, even in case of damage to the aerial part by snow and ice, the rose bush will throw out new branches in the spring.
We carry out trimming bushes:
- Take a pruner with well-pointed blades and remove dead wood on the bushes. It is easy to distinguish it from a lively black color, it is excised until a green stalk appears. The branches are cut from the mother plant at an angle of 45 degrees, about 3 cm above the leaf bud, which faces the outside of the shrub.
- To improve air circulation and illumination inside the bush, remove all the stems that intersect and the branches growing inside the bush. Similarly, any weak and subtle growth is removed.
- The strength of the trim depends on the type of rose. For example, tea roses are cut strongly, and wickers undergo gentle pruning.
Did you know?The age of the oldest rose bush in the world is almost a thousand years. It grows against the wall of a German church in the city of Hildesheim. The mention of an ancient plant is found in the annals from 815 AD. According to the existing legend, the rosebush is a symbol of the prosperity of the native city, as long as the bush grows - the city also exists. During World War II (in 1945) the church was destroyed by bombing, but the plant survived. Its root system remained alive under the ruins of the church, and soon the bush bloomed again.
Ways to cover climbing roses
How to do it correctly and in a timely manner:
- Winter shelter for climbing roses has its own characteristics. In October, the vines are removed from the trellis and trellis. They are lowered to the ground, laid down and pinned to the ground by a “pin” bent from thick wire. If the bush is old and overgrown, it is not so easy to do. Therefore, large bushes need to be lowered from the trellis in stages, gradually drawing them lower and lower to the ground. This can be done by tying a bucket filled with sand to the tops of the whips, which will gradually incline the bush and lay it on the ground.
- It is advisable to spread a layer of roofing material under a bush lying on the ground. (roofing material, polyethylene or wooden shield). This will prevent the frozen soil from contacting the flower stalks.
- Winter protection methods are designed to ensure that wintering plants are not affected by frost, and to prevent the destructive effects of alternating freezing and thawing cycles. Don't start covering the bushes too soon.
- Wait until most of the leaves on the roses freeze and fall off, after which you need to collect all the fallen leaves and other debris around the rose bushes. This will help avoid overwhelming fungal diseases and will be a good prevention of plant diseases next year. Burn plant garbage, do not put it in a compost pile, where in winter the temperature will not be high enough to kill disease spores. The procedure of cleansing the leaves is carried out in several stages, starting from the bottom of the bush. Leaves can be cut off even in case of frost, just before weatheating the plant. Then pin the bush to the ground and wrap it in any material that is not accessible to the mouse teeth.
- In late October or early November, before arranging a rose for the winter, remove the old mulch from the basal layer of all plants and spread out the new organic mulch, such as compost manure or peat. It helps to prevent the occurrence of diseases in the future, preserves the roots from freezing, accelerates the growth of plants in spring.
- Weaving or winding roses best hibernate when they are removed from the trellis, placed on the ground and allow the snow cover to protect them from extreme cold. If your climate zone does not allow you to count on deep snow cover in winter, you can sprinkle the soil or mulch over the lash (long branches) of the plant lying on the ground. It is also possible high shelter stems, without their prior removal from the trellis. They are left in a tied up condition on the trellis; for sheltering from frost, the plant is wrapped in several layers with a sacking and partially with polyethylene. And also, as in the case of the bush varieties, the basal zone is warmed with primer and inedible mulch for mice.
- After the mulch is frozen at the base of the bush - you need to spend the winter treatment of roses (treatment with special chemicals) to prevent the development of future fungal diseases.
- To hold the snow on the structure, you can make shields and strengthen the entire structure laid over the bricks. Spruce and pine branches are designed not only for warming, but also to prevent the appearance of rodents that do not tolerate the smell of pine needles. Along the perimeter of the rose garden, the grower can spread out poisonous baits for rodents.
- Shelter over tall rose bushes should be erected gradually, its side openings should remain open until severe frosts. They are completely sealed only after the temperature has decreased to -5 ... -10 ° C.
Important!If there are mice in the garden, then it is better not to lay the upper mulch layer of sawdust or straw, as the mice happily spend the winter in the shelter provided to them, damaging the roots and trunk of the rose bushes along the way.
With the construction of the frame
Building shelters for strolling roses is especially important in areas where it is freezing in winter, but there is little snow. It is possible to build a wooden frame on which a heat-insulating coating is subsequently put. For example, you can put fir branches on the frame, and on top of them - plastic film to protect against moisture.
What materials can be used as a heater:
- wooden shields
- wooden and plastic boxes,
- plastic flower pots,
- carton boxes,
- spruce or pine branches.
Did you know?The world's largest rosebush is the white Lady Banksia growing in Arizona (USA). The rose bush has grown over a gazebo that is over nine thousand square feet.
Wintering roses require special attention. Experienced rose growers recommend to be sure to remove them from poles, lay them on the ground and cover them with heat-storage materials, but this is not very convenient for most home gardens.
Instead, you can collect the tips of the long branches of the woven rose and wrap them in burlap (several layers), using twine to secure the insulation. Be sure to fill the soil at the base of the plant and this securely cover the roots with mulch.
If the gardener cannot keep track of the roses all the time (due to living elsewhere), then tall bushes from October are laid on the ground, and the root zone is generously mulched with compost. Enough three buckets of land to fully protect the bush from frost. It is better to prepare the soil for warming the bush in advance and store it under cover in a dry form so that it does not get wet and therefore does not freeze (which will make its use as a root shelter impossible).
The soil is perfect for sheltering the roots, since, for example, sand does not retain heat and the roots will freeze, and basal shelter with sawdust is dangerously possible development of fungal diseases and mold.
If deep snow has fallen and the temperature outside is very low, there is no cause for concern, because the snow layer reliably protects the plants from freezing.
Important!Check the grille or other supporting structure, standing side by side, for stability to ensure its strength. If snow or wind blows a trellis in winter, it can easily break the woven rose lying on the ground and damage it.
When and how to remove shelter
With the onset of spring, the gardener should not rush to remove the winter shelter from the rose bushes:
- if the air temperature has risen, the sun is shining in the sky, but the ground has not yet warmed up, then the buds that are early in the growth do not find the necessary moisture. In addition to everything, the bush has lost the habitat of the sun for many months, and young leaves that have started growing can suffer from “physiological drought”,
- However, it is also impossible to overtighten with the removal of the winter shelter from the plant. As soon as the positive temperatures become constant, and spring will establish itself in its rights, the radical mounds artificially filled in the fall from the soil and mulch scrape to the sides, allowing the roots to become saturated with oxygen. Also during this period, reveal the upper part of the shelter of weaving roses,
- remove the mulch and feed the bushes with a good fertilizer for the pink family. These flowers are very sensitive to regular fertilization, so spring dressing is obligatory,
- during the "February window" (thaw) flowers can bloom. The same trouble threatens the bushes too early at the beginning of winter, as there is always the likelihood of temperature fluctuations from frost to thaw. In addition, the chances of survival of flowers in winter will increase if their young wood hardens in the air (without shelter) before the onset of frost.
Sheltering roses for the winter looks quite challenging, but if the rosary is not too large, it will not take long.
Fortunately, roses only look quivering and delicate - their fragrance and beautiful flowers hide a strong and durable bush. Most of the roses, covered with the gardener's careful hands, will survive in the winter with minimal losses.