Irga - a genus of plants from the family of pink, which are shrubs or small trees.
The plant is also called cinnamon, which is the second official name. It turns out that irga is a whole genus, which is divided first into species and then into varieties. Today we will discuss one of the 28 existing species - Irgu Lamarck.
Irga Lamarck - This is a large deciduous shrub whose height reaches 5 meters. It has an umbrella crown, which is formed by massive skeletal shoots. Sheet plates have an elongated shape, toothed at the edges, the length is 4-9 cm, width - 2-5 cm. Young leaves are painted in a copper-purple color, which eventually changes to green. In autumn, the leaves again become reddish.
Buds are not attractive. During flowering, small white flowers appear that are odorless. Petals of buds reach a length of 1 cm. Flowering occurs in early summer. In late August, edible round fruits ripen on the tree.
The berries are colored purplish-black, but from a distance they appear blue. All fruits are formed on the hanging brushes.
The plant is most often used for ornamental purposes, however many owners plant it in the garden in order to get a tasty berry at the end of summer. Products are very useful, as it contains a large amount of vitamin C, as well as minerals. Berry is used in traditional medicine, therefore it cannot be said that irga is suitable exclusively for decoration.
Next, we discuss the common varieties of this species that can be grown in our climate."Ballerina". The variety was obtained at the Netherlands Experimental Station. It is a fairly tall tree shrub that has a maximum height of 4.5 to 6 m. This variety is distinguished by its large diameter of buds and berries. Flowers have petals up to 3 cm long. After ripening, berries reach 12 cm in diameter, which is a very good indicator. "Ballerina" has good frost resistance. The variety belongs to the 4th zone of frost resistance, therefore it can withstand a drop in temperature to -34 ° C."Princess Diana". American variety that was bred in Wisconsin (USA). It is a slightly sprawling tree, the height of which is not more than 7 m, and its width is 5 m. Like the previous variety, “Princess Diana” has large flowers, whose diameter is up to 2 cm. The fruits also have a large size (up to 1 cm), it should take into account the high yield of the variety. This variety is cultivated both as an ornamental plant, as it has an interesting yellow color of buds, and as a fruit tree, which gives a considerable amount of production. It is possible to grow “Princess Diana” in our climate, as it can withstand up to -30 ° C inclusively (frost resistance group 4).
Other varieties that were bred on the basis of this species are either not frost resistant or are used exclusively as an ornamental plant.
We proceed to the landing irgi on your site. We will discuss the most important points related to the choice of planting material, place and soil.
Selection of seedlings
Above, we wrote about the fact that this species can be easily confused with the Canadian variety, so you should only buy the seedling on which the leaves are present. Be sure to pay attention to the size of the sheet plates and their color.
You should purchase only those seedlings that are supplied in containers or pots, that is, with a closed root system. In such conditions, planting material retains its viability, its root system does not dry out and does not soak, being exposed to the defeat of the fungus.
It is for this reason that it is worth refusing to purchase young plants in spontaneous markets, where their rhizome is either wrapped in polyethylene or not covered at all, which is why the root system loses all moisture. Also in the selection process, note the presence of damage. Any damage to the bark can lead to disease and pest damage. If there are leaves on the bush, then be sure to check their turgor - the plates should be tight and elastic. The opposite indicates problems related to both the lack of moisture and the problems of the root system.
Site selection for planting
Irga Lamarck is not whimsical, but this applies only to adult plants. Young saplings should create the most comfortable conditions so that they quickly grow and do not get sick.
Start with a relief. It is recommended to plant a shrub on a flat surface, a small elevation is acceptable. If you plant irgu in a lowland, then its root system will rot due to the constant high humidity, and at elevation the plant will constantly lack moisture.
Lighting. In this case, the compromise is inappropriate, and planting planting material is necessary only in open areas. Irga should receive a maximum of sunlight, especially if you live in the northern part of the allowable climate zone. Priming. Practically any neutral or slightly acidic soil is suitable, however, preference should be given to fertile sites with a high content of mineral substances in the substrate. It is not recommended to plant on loams or sandstones, as these extremes will have a bad effect on the plant.
The groundwater. Separately, it should be said that the irga has long roots, so it should be planted in those areas where there is a low occurrence of groundwater, otherwise the rhizome may rot.
How to land
Let's start with the fact that the shrub can be planted both in spring and autumn. It is worth remembering that the planting material, which was sold with an open root system, it is better to plant it in the spring, as it takes more time to acclimatize.
Before planting, the selected area must be dug 12-15 cm deep. In the process of digging close up phosphate and potash fertilizers (40 g each per square). Further actions should be as follows:
- Digging a hole, focusing on the diameter of the root system, as the roots must freely enter the hole. The depth of the pit corresponds to the length of the root system. The bush should be submerged before the root collar, so that it does not rot. Mix the top layer of soil with sand and rotted compost in the proportion of 3: 1: 1. The bottom layer is removed, as it does not differ in value.
- In the resulting mixture of soil, sand and compost, add 1-2 buckets of humus, 150 g of potash and 400 g of phosphate fertilizers, then mix. It is important that the roots do not come into contact with pure fertilizers, otherwise it will cause a burn.
- After preparing the soil mix, we place gravel, broken brick or expanded clay on the bottom of the hole to ensure good drainage.. The thickness of the drainage layer should be about 10 cm.
- From the prepared soil mixture we form a small hill in the center of the hole, on which we will locate the central part of the rhizome. We place a sapling on this hill, then we straighten the roots.
- Slowly fill the hole with soil mixture, slightly tamping it. It is necessary to get rid of emptiness so that the roots are in good contact with the ground. Next, you should pour about 10 liters of water under the bush to saturate the soil with moisture.
- At the final stage, we trim wood. We need to shorten the above-ground part so that no more than 4-5 developed buds remain on each shoot. Such actions are necessary so that the irga will quickly start and grow.
After the correct landing, care should be taken to care for a small shrub. Next, we describe the actions on which depends not only the appearance of the shrub, but also its yield.
Watering and weeding
Irga has long roots that help her get the necessary moisture. For this reason, the culture can withstand drought, but only if it reaches the groundwater. Based on this, we can conclude that it is often necessary to water the plant in the first 5-6 years of life, until the root system reaches the desired mass.
Further watering is carried out exclusively in a strong drought. To do this, use a hose with a spray bar to also moisten the leaf plates.
As for weeding, it is necessary only if you did not carry out mulching of the tree trunk with peat. Then during the rapid growth of weeds, we should regularly weed the square adjacent to the tree.
Fertilizers applied during planting will be enough for a plant for 3-4 years, after which our shrub should be fed annually.
In the autumn, in the near-stem circle, departing about 25 cm from the root collar, the following mineral water is introduced:
- 300 g of superphosphate,
- 200 g of potash fertilizers, which do not contain chlorine.
In spring and early summer, shrubs need large doses of nitrogen, which has a positive effect on the formation of green mass. For this we will use diluted 10% chicken droppings.
Pour about 5 liters after abundant watering. Feed should be done in the evening.
Immediately it is worth clarifying a few points regarding trimming. First, pruning is carried out only for 2-3 years after planting (shortening the branches during planting is not taken into account). Secondly, pruning is carried out only before the start of sap flow, otherwise the tree will not transfer this procedure very well.
Since we have a shrub in front of us, and not a tree, it is common for it to let root shoots grow. For this reason, in the first years of cultivation, we need to remove the so-called null shoots that depart from the rhizome. You should leave only a couple of strong shoots, so that the plant does not turn into a huge thickened ball, occupying a considerable area. Further, when the shrub grows strong enough, we should take care of updating it. For example, if at you 3 escapes depart from a rhizome, then over time they need to be updated, having cut off 3 old, and having left at the same time 3 young.
Of course, you should not cut off all the shoots, after which a few years to wait until new ones grow. This process should be controlled, that is, leave a few young shoots, wait until they grow, and then cut off the old ones.
Also pruned are all young shoots. In early spring, you need to cut a quarter of last year's growth, so that the tree is updated. It is also necessary to remove the horizontal processes to make it easier to collect products. Places of cuts on young branches can not be processed, but on the old be sure to lubricate the garden pitch.
Transplanting adult shrubs
Experienced gardeners know that it is quite difficult to transplant an adult shrub, even if it has small dimensions. However, sometimes there is such a need, so this point should be discussed.
When transplanting an adult bush, it should be borne in mind that for 15-20 years of life, the roots have not only a length of 2 meters, but also the same diameter of the root system. It is advisable to transplant irga, which has not yet turned 10 years old.
In this case, the earthen clod that should be left on the rhizome should have a diameter of 1.25 m. The length of such a coma should be 70 cm. This is due to the fact that the secondary planting is not complex, but much depends on the correct extraction.
After extraction, the shrub is transplanted to a new place without separating the ground. An appropriate hole in diameter and depth is preliminarily dug, after which an earthen room is immersed in it. Drainage and pre-feeding are not required.
Immediately it should be said that no shelter is required, so there will be no additional costs. The only thing that should not be forgotten is autumn dressing and foliage removal from under the tree.
A healthy shrub can withstand severe frosts, so it is better to worry about the absence of diseases and pests rather than additional protection from the cold.
Diseases and pests
Let's start with the diseases that can hit the plant.
- Tuberculosis. Fungal disease, which manifests itself in the form of death of the tips of the shoots. Also in the spring on shoots appear red tubercles of small diameter. Infection occurs through cracks in the cortex. Exclusively weak shoots are affected by the fungus. To cope with the disease, it is necessary to cut off all the affected branches in a timely manner, and then treat the shrub bordeaux liquid. You can also use a solution of blue vitriol.
- Gray rot. Again, fungal disease, the characteristic symptoms of which are light brown spots that appear on the berries. Then the stain grows, and the berry rots very quickly. Rotten fruit is painted gray and covered with bloom. Plaque may also be present on leaves and young shoots. Gray spots of irregular shape appear, after which the affected part begins to rot. Control measures: you must first remove all affected shoots, leaves and fruits from the shrub, and then treat them with a fungicide. In case the chemical treatment is impossible, resort to using Bordeaux liquid.
- Phylocystic disease. Another fungal disease that manifests itself in the form of dark brown spots on the leaves. Over time, the stain begins to increase, and its color darkens. To get rid of the disease, you should remove and burn all damaged parts of the bush, and then treat with a fungicide or Bordeaux liquid.
We turn to the pests that parasitize on this particular culture.
- Irg Semyaed This is an insect that looks like a rider. It has a brown body color and transparent wings. Laying white larvae that hibernate in damaged fruit. In order to prevent the emergence or destruction of already existing pests, it is necessary to treat the shrub before flowering with chemical preparations (“Karbofos”, “Fufanon”, “Aktellik”).
- Mottled moth. A small butterfly that lays its larvae directly on the leafy plates of the plant. At the end of summer, the larvae begin to destroy the leaves, as a result of which they become covered with dead spots and begin to crumble. To engage in the destruction of caterpillars should be only after harvest. The plant is treated with the same drugs that are used against the seed-eating.
Immediately it is worth clarifying that it is impossible to propagate with seeds of a variety, since you will receive a young plant without varietal characteristics. Only species plants reproduce in a generative way.Seeds. Immediately after harvesting, select over-ripe berries, remove seeds from them, and plant them in open ground to a depth of about 2 cm. It is better to use fertile soil as a substrate in order to get a good percentage of shoots. Sowing is carried out in the fall, after which the mulch is planted with straw or hay. Seeds of irgi If the seeds germinate in the fall, then you should not make additional efforts and replace them in a separate pot. This is quite normal, seedlings will be able to survive the cold.
In spring, sprouted plants should be seated to increase the square of the soil available for each bush. Irga, which is 2 years old, is transplanted to a permanent place. In the process of growing seeds, watering should be carried out, weeds should be removed, and also fed with nitrogen.
Cuttings. Cuttings should be cut only from those bushes that are 5-6 years old. To do this, choose the tops of the shoots, and cutting the planting material is carried out in early summer. The length of the cut stalk should be up to 15 cm. It should contain only 2 pairs of upper leaves, the rest should be removed. The lower cut of the cutting is placed for 8-10 hours in the root growth stimulator, then washed under running water, and planted under a slight slope in a fertile substrate.
A soil from a flower shop is used as a substrate, over which a layer of sand is poured. Planted cuttings in a cold greenhouse or a large flower pot. After planting, cover with a "dome", in which you can use a large bottle or a small transparent barrel.
Watering is carried out using a sieve so that the moisture is evenly distributed over the surface. The temperature under the "dome" should not exceed +25 ° C, so you should not place the pot in heated rooms. Reproduction by cuttings After 10-15 days the cutting should root. After that, the "dome" is recommended to shoot during the day so that the young plant can breathe freely. A week later, the shelter is completely removed. In the process of cultivation, the soil should be kept slightly damp, avoiding over-wetting or drying out.
After a month, cuttings can be planted on the garden, if the weather permits. После высадки растениям дают несколько недель прижиться, далее — регулярно подкармливают разбавленной навозной жижей. Через год молодое растение можно пересаживать на постоянное место.
The division of the bush. Этот способ применяется в том случае, если вы запланировали пересаживать уже взрослый куст на новое место. Специально выкапывать корневище, чтобы отделить часть на пересадку, не стоит, так как вы лишний раз травмируете иргу.
Выкапывают куст ранней весной, до сокодвижения. The rhizome is divided into several parts, after which the above-ground part is cut, removing old shoots. The separated segment must have at least 2 healthy shoots. Damaged roots should be removed. Dividing bush
The same applies to damaged branches. Planted in the same way as a young plant. At the same time, do not forget that the soil should be as nutritious as possible, otherwise the separated part may not settle down.
Now you know what Irga Lamarck is, how it differs from other species, and which varieties should be planted in our climatic zone. Remember that the shrub is best propagated by seed or cuttings, as the division of the bush can greatly harm an adult plant. Use our care guidelines to avoid spending money on disease and pest control.
One of the best plants for gardens of natural style with a large set of plants of local forests. Very unpretentious (once planted and just admire), winter-hardy, drought-resistant and wind-resistant, grows on acidic soils, tolerates both bright sun and penumbra.
Add here a very high decorative effect both at the time of flowering and in the fall. Well and the main thing - a plentiful crop of tasty berries. If you do not eat the entire harvest, the birds will only be grateful to you. Of the disadvantages, only one - inadequately high prices for adult seedlings in the garden centers.
This type of shadberry is considered a natural hybrid of shadberry and canadian. It belongs to the shrubs, although it is quite high - an adult plant can reach 5 m in height, scattering the crown about the same diameter. But the game can be formed by a tree on one trunk or in the form of a 2-3-stem bushes. It is better to plant immediately on a permanent place, because shadberry roots can go down to 3 m.
Varieties and types
Irga Canadian the most famous representative of the genus from northeastern North America. It reaches 6 meters in height, and sometimes even turns into a tree up to 10 meters high. Foliage up to 10 cm long, flowing, has a brown-green color, in the fall - crimson-golden.
During the flowering period of 7-10 days, the plant is densely covered with tassels consisting of 5-12 whitish flowers, which look especially nice against the background of young reddish stems. The berries have a rounded shape, a darkish-purple color with a bluish bloom and a pleasant sweet taste.
Irga Lamarck in comparison with other species, it is distinguished by an even greater decorative effect inherent in it during the whole season. It is mainly recommended as gardening for group plantings, and it, along with the previous species, is excellent for the role of stock for pears and apple trees, increasing the frost resistance of the graft, and endowing it with the ability to grow in overmoistened soils.
Cultivated in the European zone of the Russian Federation and the Crimean Peninsula, which is the birthplace of this species. This shrub is characterized by a growth of 0.5-2.5 meters, erect branches and ovate leaves with jagged edges.
Dissolving, young foliage is trimmed in the lower part, then this specific feature disappears, but there remains another - the tassels, formed by flowers, have a corymboid shape and look especially elegant during flowering in early May. The fruits of black with a bluish tint of color ripen in mid-summer, starting at 5 years of age.
Irga is spiky grows in North America as a deciduous shrub, sometimes a tree up to 5 meters in height. Numerous stalks of a darkish-gray (old) and red-brown (young) colors form a dense oval crown. The foliage in the summer is painted in a dark-green color, and in the autumn - in red-orange. Flowers with fragrant scent can be white or pinkish.
The berries are as tasty as the “relatives”, up to 0.9 cm in diameter, red-black, covered with a bluish bloom. Its decorative qualities, especially noticeable during flowering in the middle of May and fruit ripening in the first days of August, have found application in the arrangement of hedges. Fruits in 4 years.
Also from North America, in our conditions forms a bush up to 4 meters in height. Virtually all parts of this plant, starting with the stems and ending with blooming leaves and buds, are pubescent. The berries are black, slightly oblong, appear from 5 years of age.
In the autumn, the foliage of this irgi is especially good when it is colored in yellow-orange tones. Flowering begins in late spring, and fruit ripening should be expected after mid-summer.
Irga oval also known as “Irga ordinary”Occurs naturally in southern Europe, the Crimea and the Caucasus. Growing up to 2.5 meters in height, the shrub forms a sprawling crown on young silver-colored stems from the pubescence, which later turn out to be bare, shiny, purple-brown. The egg-shaped foliage is dark-green during the summer, and red-orange in the autumn.
The berries are bluish-black with a bluish bloom. The colors ripen in July-August, starting at the age of 5 years. Flowering begins in the first days of May. In addition to showiness during the growing season, the species also has high phytoncidal properties.
Irga Smokey not a particularly common variety with large, tasty and very fragrant berries. Taking into account the spreading of each individual bush, they are planted at a mutual distance of not less than 3 meters from each other. The variety is characterized by relatively weak drought resistance compared to others.
It grows up to 3 meters in height, sometimes becoming a tree. Berries - medium in diameter, fragrant and sweet, ripen in mid-July.
Irga smooth one more species from North America growing 3.5 meters in our climate. Compact crowns are oval. With the onset of the annual flowering period, which lasts more than 2 weeks from the first half of May, the shoots are covered with copper-brownish-pinkish leaves, bringing a high decorative effect, especially on the background green from the surrounding vegetation.
This effect is complemented by racemes that are formed from 7-12 flowers with petals of pale pink color. Flowering shadberry smoothberry combines irresistible beauty with the grace of color and shape.
Do not lag behind other parts of the plant and its berries - 0.5-0.7 cm in diameter, creamy yellowish shade with a pinkish side, with time acquiring a reddish color and no less delightful in taste, when compared with other species. Bears fruit from 4 years. Flowering begins in late spring.
Irga planting and care in the open field
Pre-preparation includes steps that are relevant for currants. Autumn planting is preferred, and, in any case, seedlings should be 1-2 years old.
They are planted 5-8 cm deeper, comparable to the depth in the nursery, according to the 4x2, 5x3 meter scheme or in a checkerboard pattern (for the hedge), observing the distance in rows of 0.5-1.8 meters. Having prepared deep furrows for planting, they are taken for the organization of landing holes 50-80 wide and 30-40 cm deep.
The plant survives well and is practically not demanding to care, elements of which are cutting out old trunks, removing excessively long branches and diseased shoots.
After planting, it is recommended to perform watering in the amount of 8-10 liters of water per pit. Then it is also important to mulch the soil surface with peat or humus and shorten the aerial part to 10 cm, leaving 4-5 good buds above the soil surface.
For the successful planting of irgi you will need to mix the upper soil layer with 1-2 buckets of humus, and also add to it superphosphate (300-500 grams) and potassium salt (150-200 grams). This mixture is then poured into the landing pits.
Adult irga transplants with difficulty, since its roots go far into the soil - almost 2 meters. In this regard, for a 7-, 8-year-old bush, the required diameter of a transitional earth clod is 1.25 meters with a depth of about 70 cm. With increasing bush age, this indicator rises.
After transplantation, it is recommended to compact the soil in the pit, water the shrub well and mumble the okolostvolny circle.
Fertilizing irgi first year should be carried out using a solution of ammonium nitrate in the amount of 50 grams per 10 liters of water, bringing it into the near-barrel circles. For these purposes, also suitable solution of bird droppings or slurry.
After 5-6 years, fertilizing is carried out with organic (2-3 buckets per bush) and mineral (500 grams of ammonium nitrate and potash salt plus 1 kg of superphosphate per bush) fertilizers, alternating them over the years.
In the first 2-3 years it is better to leave only strong zero stems, in the future - 2-3 shoots, pruning everything else and forming a bush consisting of 10-15 branches of various ages.
The following pruning procedures involve the removal of accumulated basal stems and weakened, old, sick, broken branches.
If there is a slowdown in the growth of the branches, rejuvenating pruning is needed, which is carried out once in 3-4 years for wood aged 2-4 years. Irga perfectly tolerates pruning, later growing independently with root suckers.
Irga is a very winter-hardy plant capable of withstanding cold down to -52 ℃ and frost in the spring under -7. This makes it possible to use it as a protective culture towards the prevailing winds and, at the same time, to maintain the decorativeness of the front part of the garden.
Irga breeding cuttings
For breeding shadberry root cuttings are cut into 10-15 cm long from root shoots, are planted vertically and produce mulching with humus.
Immediately you need to perform abundant watering, and then ensure that the soil moisture was increased. In autumn, annual analogs of the parent plant are formed from cuttings.
Irga useful properties and contraindications
Many vitamins contained in fruits of irgi, including C, A, B, B2, and trace elements such as iron, iodine and manganese, make the plant very useful in preventing diseases of the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract.
In addition, the fruit reduces blood pressure and strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Accordingly, contraindication to the use of irgi is low blood pressure.
Irrigation tincture on vodka
For preparing tincture of irgi on vodka - the most popular means of traditional medicine - you will need 1 kg of dried irgi berries and 1.5 liters of vodka. Berries in containers are poured with vodka and left to infuse for 24 hours in a dark room.
After the liquid is decanted, the container is filled with fresh berries and poured over the previously decanted liquid. Leave the mixture to infuse for another 2 days, and the drink is ready to drink.
Jar of irgi
On the jam from irgi need 1.5 kg of berries, 200 grams of boiled water and 800 grams of sugar. Berries fall asleep in a saucepan, add water and set on high heat. After 30 minutes, the mixture is stirred and sugar is added. Cook it for another 30 minutes, but now on low heat.
Then it should be cooled to room temperature and, using an immersion blender, it is good to break up the berries to the state of porridge. Spilling all the banks and leaving to cool, we get a uniquely tasty jam in the form of jam.
Wine from irgi
The recipe for wine from rygi is as follows. Ripened fruits are crushed, slightly crushed, heated to 60-70 ° C and squeezed out after one day. After squeezing, the juice is mixed with water in equal proportions and 0.3-0.4 kg of sugar per 1 l of juice is added and poured into a container for fermentation under a water solution.
After 2-3 weeks, the wine is removed from the sediment, poured into the bottle, corked and put for 3-month in a cool room.
It is recommended to store in the cellar room or in the dark and cool, bending the neck down. The resulting wine will have a dark-red color with a purple tinge and slightly tart taste, which lasts for 10-15 years.
Morse from irgi
Morse from irgi in cooking is extremely simple. After washing the irgi berries (250 grams), they are kneaded and squeezed juice. Squeezed fruit is boiled for 10 minutes, then the broth is mixed with squeezed juice, add sugar (100 grams) and water (1 liter). Next, incubated for 10-12 hours and served cold.