Sarrasenia is a kind of insectivorous plant belonging to the Sarrasenie family. Its Latin name Sarracenia is derived from the name of a French physician and nature scientist Michel Sarrazin. It was he who brought unusual specimens of sarracenia in the 18th century to Quebec in the capital of France. There are about 10 species of this plant that inhabit North America. In addition, there are still many subspecies and hybrids. In nature, the plant is most often found on the marshes and banks of water bodies.
Sarratsenia is a perennial plant. Her appearance is really strange, as are the characteristics. It consists of a leaf rosette, the leaves form oblong, funnel-shaped jugs that form traps for their preys, which are insects. In most species, these funnels rise vertically. Depending on the species, traps can be from 10 to 120 cm tall. Each trap has a lid or hood on top. Most species live for one year, and are reborn after winter.
Sarracenia blooms in the period from March to June. Flowers look like umbrellas, may have a color red, yellow or white. In addition, the flower has 5 petals and 8 or 9 sepals. Flowers weigh on tall stems, insects that fly to pollinate them can fall into a cup-shaped trap.
How does sarratsenia hunt?
It is necessary to clarify that Sarrasenia is actually a predator only conditionally, as it actually has no glands that secrete digestive enzymes. Yes, when catching an insect, a certain amount of substances is released for digestion, but this amount is small. Undigested insect bodies are decomposed by bacteria. It should be added that sarrasenia has a well-developed mechanism for capturing its victims.
Luring the victim is due to the bright color of the jugs and the sweet nectar secreted by them. Slippery liquid around the edges, in the rest of the trap moves the insect more and more down. The walls of the trap are covered with a substance that makes adhesion difficult, so that the insect has no chance to get out. Once on the bottom, the insect splits and the flower absorbs the nutrients it needs.
Care and reproduction
If you decide to grow this unusual flower in the house, you should be aware of its specific requirements. The plant needs a high enough, up to 60% humidity. In addition, like a wet substrate. It is best to cook from peat mixed with sand. You should also provide plenty of sunlight, at least for a few hours a day, so you should think about a place that is optimal for the plant. She also likes the heat. In the summer, it can be from 20 to 35 degrees Celsius, and in the winter in a room in which sarration is grown should be up to 15 degrees, however, the plant will also withstand a slightly lower temperature. While on the street will be less than 0 degrees, the plant is kept in the garden. There he will have something to eat. In winter, we limit watering to 1 time in 2 weeks. Leaves that naturally dry up can be removed. When the plant wakes up from winter rest, it will release new leaves.
Sarratseniyu easiest propagate by leaf cuttings. It is enough to separate the leaves and part of the rhizome, which has roots, and plant in a wet ground, and then install it in a lit place. Sometimes new plants are formed at the base of the plant, which can be separated and planted as seedlings. Of course, sarraseniyu can also propagate by seed, but you need to manually pollinate two genetically different plants for the procedure to bring results.
Sarraseniya pale (Sarracenia alata) is characterized by large leaves growing in dense clumps. They have a height of 75 cm and a slim shape. Painted in green with visible traces of purple streaks. The view is characterized by a pronounced valve located on the jug.
Sarratsenia yellow (Sarracenia flava) plant with large and rigid vertical jugs, I reach up to 1 meter or more. Funnels expand to the top.
White-leaved Sarratsenia (Sarracenia leucophylla) has long, not very wide jugs growing in dense lumps. In the lower part they have a greenish bloom, but higher white with red veins.
Sarracenia small (Sarracenia minor), as the name indicates, has small jugs, grows up to 45 cm long, grows densely. Pitchers are vertical, rigid, devoid of the top sheet. The jug is green, but at the top it can be painted brown or red.
Sarratsenia (Sarracena oreophila) with jugs ranging in size from 20 to 75 centimeters, as well as in most species, they are solid, growing upwards. They have a green color, sometimes yellowish with purple veins.
Sarracenia purpurea (Sarracenia purpurea) the plant was named so because of the color of the flowers. Jugs are green in color. They can be very small, about 5 cm in size, grow up to 45 cm, unlike the other described types of jugs lie, rather, on the ground.
Sarrasenia is not difficult to grow at home, but there are certain requirements that must be strictly followed if the plant should look impressive. If you have a place with good lighting during most of the day, you can visit one of the varieties of insectivorous sarracenium there.
Sarratsenia is the largest predator plant. Her homeland is considered America. Predator perfectly inhabits the swamps of the Northern and Southern continents. The insectivorous flower feeds on flies, small ants or small spiders.
How to care for sarracenia? American predator can not be called a simple plant. This insect lover is a very tender plant that needs special care and certain conditions.
The plant looks very unusual and attractive. In European countries with a mild climate, sarration is grown as a garden plant. In the conditions of cold winters, a unique American woman is settled in apartments, on glazed loggias or in greenhouses. The predator plant has the following differences.
- Leaves . Right from the roots grow leaves, collected in the outlet. Each sheet has the shape of a funnel-shaped jug rising vertically upwards. Depending on the species, they may have "caps" or "hoods" and vary in color. Most often, the leaves-tubes have a soft green color with bright yellow, red or purple streaks.
- Flowers They appear with proper care from a three to five year old plant. Flowers sarratsenii also unusual and very beautiful. They are large, 4-10 cm in diameter, and are located on the bare peduncle. The bud consists of five petals-blades, and in the middle is an umbrella-shaped large pistil. Inflorescences may have a bright red, purple or yellow color.
- Rhizome. The plant has a long and thick root. It can reach 30 cm.
The genus sarratsenii has ten species, most of which have subspecies. Thanks to breeders, there are hybrids, various varieties and garden forms. They differ in the shape of the leaves, the color palette and the uniqueness of the flowers. Popular species are collected in the table.
Table - Types of sarration and their characteristics
Care of sarracenia: what to consider
If you plan to grow sarrasenia at home, then you must fulfill all the requirements of this mysterious and very beautiful sissy. Pay special attention to watering. After all, it was no coincidence that the American predator chose the marshlands as its place of residence.
Sarrasenia loves the light. She must “bathe” in the sun eight to ten hours a day. And this concerns not only the summer period. In winter, the beautiful predator also needs adequate lighting. Consider the following desires of your American guest.
- South windows. The plant can easily withstand direct sunlight. Nor does sarration need shading on a hot afternoon.
- Dosvechivanie lamp. If you can not provide a plant a lot of sunlight, then turn on the lamp above it to compensate for the lack of natural light. This is especially true in winter.
- Fresh air . This is one of the few plants that is not recommended to take out in the summer on the balcony or on the street, because such moves are not “for her”. Although it is necessary to provide a daily inflow of fresh air. But at the same time protect the beautiful American woman from drafts.
Heat-loving culture willingly grows and develops in moderate indoor conditions. However, it can withstand extreme heat. And it will not die from a decrease in temperature to + 5 ° С. However, to expose your predator to such extreme trials are not worth it. For a comfortable stay sarratsenii provide the following conditions.
- Warm period. The plant feels good at a temperature of + 23 ° C ... + 25 ° C. It will be able to withstand an increase in performance up to + 30 ° C ... + 35 ° C.
- Winter period. With the arrival of winter, it is necessary to reduce the temperature of the content of the predator to + 10 ° C ... + 15 ° C. If you do not provide a cold rest, then sarracenia can not fully recover. This will lead to the loss of decoration and rapid death.
Sarratseniya - a big fan of moisture. But she prefers only filtered or distilled water. Tough, chlorinated can very quickly destroy the sissy-sarratseniyu. The plant must provide special watering.
- "Lower" watering. Sarrasenia likes to receive moisture from below. That is why the plant is not watered, but simply put in a basin or a pan with water. But for a long time to keep the pot in a humid environment should not, so as not to provoke root rot. Focus on the ground. The soil should always be hydrated.
- Frequency of watering. It is recommended to water the sarration five times a week in summer. In winter, watering is reduced to three times. But do not let the land dry out.
Reviews of flower growers show that, having provided sufficient watering, you can hardly worry about the humidity of the air. Your predator will successfully take all the necessary water from the pallet. Sarrasenia needs a special approach.
- Optimum humidity. For a comfortable life of an American, a humidity of 50-60% is necessary.
- Spraying - "no." It is not necessary to increase the humidity due to spraying. Such procedures adversely affect the health of the predator. Penetration of droplets in the "jug" provokes the occurrence of brown spots and subsequent decay.
- Valid methods. To increase the humidity in the room you can resort to using water tanks, pallets with moss, wet pebbles. But remember that the root system should not constantly come into contact with water, otherwise it will begin to rot.
In the wild, beauty sarration is growing in poor soil. Therefore, the predator learned to do without fertilizers. And he perceives any desire to feed her with mineral or organic fertilizers "in hostility" and immediately begins to wither. Therefore, caring for your sissy, completely abandon the introduction of conventional substances. But if you want to pamper your beauty, then provide her the following feeding.
- Catching insects. Sarrasenia is capable of self-feeding itself. Strong and healthy plants can be taken out in the summer on a balcony or in a garden, but remember that the American woman does not like traveling. Open the window or the door to the balcony, providing not only fresh air, but also insects.
- Top dressing. The main supplier of vitamins and minerals for sarration is insects. Therefore, if you want to fertilize sarration at the time of flowering, you must catch a fly, an ant, a midge or a small spider and throw it into the “jug”.
- The frequency of dressings. Do not overdo it with supplements. Predator enough one insect once a month. Therefore, if you brought the plant to fresh air, then completely abandon such an event. Sarracenia will take care of herself.
In order to finally understand how to care for sarracenia after purchase, it is necessary to disassemble, should the plant be transplanted immediately? Experts recommend not to rush with such a procedure.
Gentle predator very hard to take root in the new place. If you test it with a transplant, sarration can simply not withstand such procedures. Therefore, flower growers are advised to postpone the transplant until spring. The most optimal period is the beginning of the exit from the rest mode. In order to properly transplant sarration into another pot, follow these predator requirements.
- Choosing a pot. Pay special attention to this point. Sarrasenia has a developed root system. Therefore, select for the predator bulk vases or special containers with large holes for the outflow of water. Glass or plastic pots are preferred.
- Selection of soil. Sarratsenia grows in nature on depleted soils. Therefore, one should not select a nutrient substrate for it. But it is important that the soil is sufficiently loose, with good water permeability and slightly acidic environment. It is possible to prepare soil from the following components: peat, perlite and peat moss in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
- The transplant process. At the bottom of the pot must be a drainage layer. Sarrazeniyu carefully removed from the old pot. Roots well shake off the old soil. Remove all dried parts. The predator is transplanted into a new flowerpot and sprinkled with the prepared substrate.
- Aftercare. Transplanted sarration needs to be watered every day until the plant fully takes root in the new conditions.
Features Most often this method is used for reproduction of sarration. After all, a sissy does not like when her injured.
- Seeds must be cold quenched or stratified. Without this procedure, they will not sprout.
- Initially, the seeds are soaked in water for a day.
- Then they are planted in the ground (a mixture of quartz sand and sphagnum).
- Moisturize the soil with distilled water.
- The container is covered with film or glass and put in the refrigerator, in the vegetable compartment, for one month.
- Twice a week, the film is lifted and the soil is moistened.
- A month later, the container is removed from the cold and, without removing the film, placed under the fitolampa at a distance of 15-17 cm.
- The soil is constantly moistened and kept warm (+ 23 ° С - + 28 ° С).
- A month later, the first shoots will appear, only now you can remove the film.
- Young sarratenii need plenty of light up to 16 hours a day.
- Young predators grow very slowly, so they can be seated in separate pots only after a year.
Features This method is allowed to apply only for adults and strong plants. It is best tolerated division of the bush yellow sarratseniya.
- During transplantation of a plant, it is necessary to carefully cut it into two or three parts.
- Each of them must contain a growth point and a root system.
- Now you need to prepare pots and plant sarrateniyu.
- At first, provide high-quality and abundant watering.
Problems and Diseases
The plant, which provided proper care, almost no disease. It can become a preventive trap for insect parasites and protect all indoor flowers from pest invasion. But if in the care were made mistakes, then the beautiful sissy will demonstrate all her capriciousness.
The main difficulty in controlling pests or diseases is to prohibit spraying. Inside the jug should not get any substances: neither folk remedies nor insecticides. Therefore, the spraying procedure is replaced by wiping. The table contains descriptions of the main plant diseases.
Table - Sarration problems and predator treatment methods
To care for sarrazenia in the pot is not accompanied by the appearance of problems and diseases, closely monitor the condition of the green predator. Sarrasenia will definitely let you know about errors in the care. Yellowing of the foliage indicates a lack of light or an excess of potassium in the soil. A lack of flowering and drying can signal improper wintering or insufficient watering. But if the roots or leaves begin to rot, it means that watering was excessive. Immediately transplant the sarrhenia and temper the moistening of the soil.
The choice of dishes or container for planting
The capacity for sarration must be chosen in which it is possible to ensure the moisture and drainage of the substrate. These can be plastic or glass pots with large drainage holes so that excess water can flow freely. Pots made of ceramics or other porous materials are not suitable - they tend to absorb moisture.
Planting, reproduction and transplant sarrasenii
If sarration occurs in favorable conditions, its root system develops quickly enough, and the flower requires regular transplantation - annual or every two years. Replant better after a period of rest in early spring.
- Two days before the procedure it will be useful to treat the plant with Epin in the proportion of 4–5 drops per cup of water.
- In the process of transplanting, dry and damaged leaves are removed and the roots are soaked, removing excess soil from them.
- Putting the drainage layer on the bottom of the container prepared in advance, pour the substrate into it, moisten it and plant the plant in the hole made, deepening it by 3-4 cm.
- Высаженный цветок поливают и ставят на то место, где он будет находиться постоянно.
- Пересаженное растение поливают ежедневно до полного приживания.
Vegetative reproduction is practiced after the plant reaches a certain size, so that it can be divided into a bush without harm to it. If you multiply too young or immature bush, sarraseniya becomes shallow and may even die. In the process of transplanting the bush is divided into two delenki, and each of them is planted in a separate container.
You can propagate this amazing plant with seeds, sowing them in a Petri dish or a similar container, and subsequently diving into a pot.
- Without fail, the seeds must be stratified for one to two months. Without this procedure, they probably will not ascend.
- A day before planting, they are soaked in warm water.
- Seeds are placed in a container with a mixture of quartz sand and peat moss, moistening it with a spray bottle. You can sprinkle them a little on top.
- Crops should be covered with a film or glass and put the container in a place where the temperature is maintained at 23–28 ° C.
- It must be ventilated once every two to three days, maintaining a constant moisture content of the substrate.
- When shoots appear, the glass or film is removed.
- A young sarrasenia needs a 16-hour light day. If it cannot be provided naturally, a phytolamp is required.
Fertilizer and dressing
If your sarratseniya dwells in the fresh air, it does not need to be fed. She is able to take care of herself and get food that will satisfy her nutritional needs. You can offer her a suitable meal once, a maximum of twice a month.
The predator growing in “captivity” requires additional feeding:
- small insects,
- bloodworm and so on.
You need to feed the plant, which formed mature trap leaves. If your flower does not cover the trap with an umbrella, it is necessary to pour distilled water in half to a tubular jug and to stimulate active growth, add ants to the diet, feeding the animal once a month for several live insects.
All types of sarration are required a winter respite, which lasts 3-4 months. Wintering sarratsyeny need for a long existence, as well as for the implementation of its own natural cycle, in particular - the possibility of flowering. The plant should be kept in a cool room with a temperature of 0 to 10 ° C. It can comfortably spend the winter, for example, in the vegetable compartment of a refrigerator. At the same time, the intensity of irrigation is sharply reduced, and the main task for this period is to prevent the substrate from drying out. Weekly moisturizing is enough for this.
Pests and diseases of sarration
Although sarration and carnivorous, it is susceptible to diseases typical of plants:
- gray rot can especially roam in the winter period: it is required to remove the areas affected by it, to eliminate staleness and to treat the plant with a fungicide preparation,
- root rot provokes excessive watering and / or insufficient drainage: it is necessary to transplant the flower urgently and adjust the watering,
- if the place where the plant is located is low humidity and high temperature, you may one day find aphid, mealybug or spider mite: they are washed off with a soap solution, removing the damaged parts of the plant, they are treated with an insecticidal preparation, they regulate the temperature and humidity indicators.
In addition, sarration may suffer from improper care:
- when the flower is dark, its leaves turn yellow, dry - they dry up,
- if the plant overwintering incorrectly, it may not bloom, moreover, begin to shed leaves.
Thus, the overseas guest is easy to grow in a regular city apartment. It is not so difficult to take care of this exotic, incredibly beautiful and very original flower, one has only to learn the simple rules of care and maintenance.
Loves light very much. The plant just needs 8–10 hours a day under bright sunlight. Therefore, it is recommended to place it in a room by the window of western or southern orientation. It is also possible to provide additional illumination with fluorescent lamps.