For a long time, parasitic fungi and bacteria have been considered among the causes of the disease of tomatoes, peppers and other solanaceous crops. Detecting on the affected fruits the presence of phytophthora, alternaria and other saprotrophic fungi, vertex rot was attributed to the effects of infection by these pathogens. But everything turned out to be much simpler.
Currently, the main reason for the appearance of top rot on tomatoes is called calcium starvation of the tops of the fruit. In practice, this means that the tomato fruit does not receive enough calcium salts necessary for the growth and division of the cells that make up the pulp and skin of the tomato. Top of the fruit is called the part most distant from the stem. It is most severely nutritionally deficient in its overall deficit. That is why all fruits on the hand are immediately affected by vertex rot, and the gardener loses most of the crop.
Calcium deficiency can occur for several reasons, which in this case are considered risk factors for the occurrence of the disease:
- Not enough moisture. In this case, the trace element simply can not be absorbed from the soil in sufficient quantities.
- Salinity or acidity of the soil on the site. It occurs due to excess and stagnant moisture in low-lying areas, with close occurrence of groundwater, the absence of drainage of the site. At the same time, little calcium is contained in the soil itself.
- Damage to the root system. When caring for plants, the root system can be damaged unnoticed by the host during loosening, weed removal, due to carelessly introduced mineral granulated fertilizers or fresh organic matter. In any case, the ability of the root system to absorb nutrients from the soil decreases, there is a shortage of moisture and minerals.
- Stressful situations. These include watering with cold water in hot weather (the roots temporarily lose their ability to absorb), and sharp temperature drops in the greenhouse (drafts), and changes in weather conditions in the open ground (hail, cooling after a period of heat).
For gardeners who are engaged in collecting exotic varieties, there is another specific risk factor - the cultivation of highly elongated tomatoes (Havanese, Banana, Pink Flamingo) and giant beef tomatoes. In this case, the appearance of apical rot can be a natural consequence of the size of the fruit.
Signs of Vertex Rot
Having determined the onset of the disease in time, you can try to fight it and save at least part of the harvest. Vertex rot affects the fruits of tomatoes, starting with the area of attachment of the flower. In most varieties, this part is out of sight, therefore, with the existing risk factors, it is necessary to systematically inspect the tomatoes, carefully raising the brush.
At the very beginning of the disease, a watery, inconspicuous spot forms on the tip of the fetus. Over time, the skin on it becomes dry and becomes brown. The surface looks a little bit inward in rounded tomatoes, and in the varieties with a “nose,” there is no protrusion.
The size of the external damage to the skin can be relatively small, but under the shell more significant changes occur:
- various fungi and bacteria settle on the affected part of the skin, which penetrate into the fetus,
- the pulp of the tomato darkens, and then rots,
- as the fungus hyphae (phytophtora, peronosporosis, etc.) penetrate into the seed chambers, the seeds are also affected.
The fruit, which develops vertex rot, begins to ripen before neighboring.
How to treat tomatoes from top rot?
If the disease has just begun to appear and struck only 1-2 fetuses on the hand, the situation can be corrected by providing the plants with a normal amount of moisture in a dry and hot summer. It is recommended to irrigate tomatoes in the greenhouse and on the street so that the soil has time to dry only 2-3 cm deep.
To reduce evaporation and overheating, the soil under the bushes is mulched with chips, sawdust, straw or other materials. With a normal balance of substances in the soil of this measure may be sufficient to restore plant health.
If the disease is caused by a violation of the mineral composition of the soil, you must act in two directions at once:
- eliminate the lack of calcium in a short time to save the harvest of the current season,
- to ensure the introduction of the necessary fertilizers for autumn digging for the prevention of top rot for the next year.
Topep Rot Tomatoes
The disease is non-infectious. When not complying with agrotechnics, equally affects plants in the greenhouse and on the open ground. Manifested on fruits and leaf plates. The top of the tomato becomes light green, below the leaves turn yellow. A brown spot is formed on the fruit, which grows as the tomato ripens. Eating vegetables can no longer be, even if you cut the stain.
The causes of the development of the disease
The main cause of the disease is calcium deficiency. Calcium deficiency can trigger:
- insufficient or excessive watering. Dry soil does not allow plants to fully absorb nutrients from the soil, including calcium. When excessive watering develops the process of rotting,
- increased alkalinity or acidity of the soil. In acidified or saline soils, reactions are extremely pronounced, which prevent tomatoes from fully developing. Calcium content in these soils is low,
- mechanical damage to the roots. A damaged root system makes it possible to absorb less nutrients from the soil than is necessary, so tomatoes also weaken,
- sudden changes in weather conditions. The change of heat for prolonged rainy weather, watering tomatoes in hot weather with cold water, sudden temperature drops, provoke weakening of the immune system,
- excessive saturation of tomatoes with potassium, magnesium and nitrogen-containing macronutrients.
Signs of Vertex Rot
Vertex rot is treatable if identified in time. Identify the disease in time is not difficult if you monitor the state of the plants from day to day. Fruit rot begins in technical ripeness.
Initially, a small watery spot forms on the tomatoes. After a few days, it begins to grow, become dry and repainted brown or brown. The surface of the nose on the fetus is completely absent, instead of a depressed spot.
Fungal and bacterial diseases start to develop and settle on the affected tomato, which aggravate the situation. Inside the tomato begins to darken and rot. In dry weather, the rot is dry, and in rainy weather - wet.
Infusion based on wood ash
Wood ash contains a large number of macro-and micronutrients, did not become the exception and calcium. To free tomatoes from calcium starvation will allow spraying with ash solution.
Preparation of the mixture: boil one liter of water, and while the water boils, grind to a powdered state three hundred grams of wood ash. Pour ash into a three-liter pot, pour boiling water on it, put it on the stove. Boil the mixture for half an hour. Allow the fluid to cool slightly. After that, dilute the ash extract with a bucket of water.
Spray the affected tomatoes with this solution. Repeat the procedure several times.
Calcium Nitrate Solution
Calcium nitrate spraying shows one of the best results in the fight against peak rot.
Preparation of the solution: in a bucket of warm water (25 ° C) dissolve the matchbox of calcium nitrate. The granules should completely dissolve, so leave the liquid for several hours alone, and then stir again. Treat all affected and healthy tomatoes.
Infusion based on oak bark
Oak bark up to 78% contains calcium, and besides, it has antibacterial effect.
Preparation: take two tablespoons of chopped oak bark, pour 500 ml of boiling water, put on the stove, boil for 15 minutes on low heat. After that, leave the mixture to cool. Then strain through a sieve or cheesecloth. Dilute with 10 liters of water before use.
Spray the plants completely, especially the bottom.
Sodium carbonate solution
Sodium carbonate or soda ash will only help in the first stage of development of top rot.
Preparation: Dissolve two tablespoons in a bucket of water. Then, dilute the resulting liquid again. Ten liters need one glass of the prepared mixture.
Preventive measures against vertex rot
Preventing top rot is possible. The main thing is to comply with agrotechnical measures:
- Moderate watering of plants and the subsequent loosening of topsoil. Do not allow overabundance or lack of moisture. Sharp changes in water balance provoke changes at the cellular level, tomatoes weaken, diseases start to appear more often.
- Before planting, fertilize the holes with wood ash or powdered eggshell, which will saturate the soil with calcium.
- Plant the seedlings on the floor by a meter distance so that the air passes between the lower leaves of the plants and the leaves of the bushes do not intertwine with each other.
- Choose varieties with high immunity to non-infectious diseases. The tomato varieties show resistance: “Benito”, “White filling”, “Pharaoh”, “Raisa”.
- If the soil is alkaline, the improvement of its condition and the normalization of pH will allow the introduction of calcium sulphide (consumption per 1 m² 40 grams). Sour ground is necessary to lime. Slaked lime, dolomite flour, chalk will allow to bring the pH level of the earth. Bring them in the fall, so that by the spring the acidity has decreased. The consumption of one of the substances is 200 grams per 1 m².
Proper and timely care will allow you to avoid tip rot on tomatoes. Do not forget to fertilize tomatoes with calcium fertilizers, and then certainly not have to treat them from top rot.
Reviews and tips gardeners
Vertex rot is a problem experienced and inexperienced gardeners. Even the most careful care will not save from the disease, if the weather is extremely unstable, agronomists say. An accessible means of getting rid of the calcium deficiency of tomatoes is ash from burnt oak bark. It is necessary to make it during transplanting seedlings (a glass of ash per well), as well as spraying during the budding period. Infusion for foliar feeding is prepared on the basis of 200 grams of ash and 10 liters of water. Place ashes in water, bring the solution to a boil, boil for 10 minutes, leave for a day. Then spray the tomatoes.
Stage of the disease
Stage 1 - the occurrence of dark green spots closer to the stem. Their size is small, and a cursory examination of the appearance of the disease is not always detected. The success of the struggle in the first stage is quite effective - even without the use of potent means.
Stage 2 - the germination of the affected areas inland. The pulp on the propagation path hardens and turns gray or brownish. Vertex rot of tomatoes in the second stage is very aggressive, and no treatment will save the crop completely, the photo of the disease clearly shows the depression formed at the site of the lesion.
How to process tomatoes in the first and second case will be described in detail below.
Stage 3 - the spread of affected areas throughout the fetus with the appearance of mold. Such tomatoes use is strictly prohibited!
Before giving answers on how to deal with this disease, let's look at the factors that increase the likelihood of top rot on tomatoes:
- lack or excess of calcium in the fruits of tomatoes,
- high nitrogen content in the soil (acidic soils contribute to the development of the disease, slightly alkaline - prevent it),
- cold water (when watering it is better to use water with a temperature of 20-25 °),
- high ambient temperature combined with insufficient moisture,
- unstable weather during ripening,
- the reasons are also related to the “human factor” (the worst variants are unintentional damage to the roots and illiterate care),
- the presence in the soil of harmful bacteria that contribute to the processes of decay,
- choice for planting low-resistant varieties of tomatoes.
Traditional ways of dealing
In the early stages, treatment with folk remedies is quite effective. They are selected depending on the type of soil, the climatic characteristics of the region, the variety of tomatoes, etc.
If vertex rot of tomatoes is detected, the following measures are recommended:
If you are concerned about how to save tomatoes from top rot - there is no better way than to prevent a disease with the help of prophylaxis. The answer to what to do is simple:
- carefully dig up the ground before the cold, not touching the roots,
- choose for planting varieties of resistant tomatoes (Benito, Pharaoh, Glombe master, etc.),
- Always disinfect the seeds before planting in the potassium permanganate solution.
Why do vertex rot develop on tomatoes?
Vertex rot manifests itself in the form of brown spots on the surface of early-ripening tomato, it is a sign of infestation of the fruit, so you should not eat such a vegetable
On hot days under the influence of high temperatures from the leaves begins to liberate moisture. If you do not fill it with watering, the plant will begin to draw moisture from the fruit. Because of this, some of the cells begin to die off. Pathogenic microorganisms easily penetrate through the thinned cells, as a result of which vertex rot begins to develop.
There are other reasons that can lead to the manifestation of this disease:
- Increased acidity of the soil.
- Excess nitrogen.
- Excess or lack of calcium.
- Soil salinity.
- Intense illumination. Inherent to the southern regions.
- The lack of manganese, phosphorus.
- Damage to the roots during weeding or planting.
- Over moistened ground.
The first signs of infection of the fruits of tomatoes with apical rot
The disease quickly spreads not only to tomatoes growing on one plant, but also to nearby fruits from other bushes.
It is noted that this disease is found everywhere in the southern regions, in the middle areas only in greenhouses, and it is still unknown to the residents of the northern regions. The characteristic signs of this disease are depressed liquid spots on the tops of the fruit. Most often they appear on the unripe fruits of the second and third hand.
First, the spots acquire a dark green color, which they then change to brown and then to a black tint. Affected fruits cease to grow, and begin to deform. Over time, the stain begins to dry, the skin in this place cracks, because of which the disease penetrates into the tomatoes. Weakened by the tomatoes become an easy victim for the fungus of the genus Alternaria. They penetrate into the fruit, which at the same time change color to dark, in parallel starting to rot.
Despite the fact that infected tomatoes ripen faster than others, they can not be used as food. Moreover, not only raw, but also processed. It is impossible to collect seeds from them - it is a guarantee that next year all the plants will be sick.
Preventive measures to eliminate the root causes of rot
Vertex rot has a peculiarity of spreading in different ways over the site, therefore, in order to avoid the mass character of its distribution, it is desirable to carry out a number of preventive measures.
In order for the tip rot not to be able to reach the plot or the greenhouse and spread, it is necessary:
- Choose resistant varieties. As noted by gardeners, the disease affects large-fruited and early ripe varieties. The resistant varieties include Benito, Pharaoh, Bolshevik and others.
- Disinfect seeds before sowing. This procedure is carried out with the help of iron vitriol or potassium permanganate. This is the best way to prevent the development of this disease in the garden. To do this, prepare a 3% solution of potassium permanganate and minutes 25−30 soak the seeds in them. After that, the seed is washed and completely dried. If the dressing is carried out by iron vitriol, 1 gram of this substance is dissolved in a liter of water. Soak the seeds for a day and then dry.
- Preparing the soil. If in the previous season the disease has already affected tomatoes in this area, it is necessary to lime the soil with slaked lime, dolomite flour or chalk. This procedure will reduce the level of acidity of the soil, which will prevent the development of the disease. In addition, you can additionally fill a glass of ash in each well.
- Water regularly. Timely watering is very important when growing tomatoes. If the soil moisture level decreases, the plants will not be able to get calcium in the required amount. But at the same time, it is necessary to take into account one important nuance - plants assimilate calcium better at night, therefore they should be watered in the evening. So that the moisture lasts longer in the soil, the beds are mulched. Для этого можно использовать рубленую крапиву, скошенную газонную траву, компост, солому — все, что есть на участке. Слой мульчи обновляют еженедельно, особенно в том случае, когда хозяева приезжают на участок только на выходные, и поливать томаты часто не имеют возможности.
- Не высаживать томаты на сухих участках. Если выращивание производится в теплице, необходимо к почве добавить торф или дерн, поскольку они способны удерживать влагу.
- When planting seedlings (in the soil or greenhouse) you do not need to apply more fertilizer than indicated in the instructions - too fast growth weakens tomatoes.
- It is unacceptable to plant seedlings too thickly in greenhouses. Unlike open ground, wind and fresh air cannot penetrate here. The created atmosphere represents excellent conditions for the development of top rot, therefore, in hot weather, greenhouses need to be ventilated as often as possible. To prevent the hot sun from damaging the fruit, you can cover the upper part of the greenhouse with white linen or whitewash - the choice of method depends on the material used to make the building.
- When caring for tomatoes, it is necessary to form plants in time and remove the stepsons.
The disease can penetrate the site in different ways, for example, through water, weed vegetation, and soil. To avoid contamination of the site, experts advise to observe crop rotation, alternate crops, remove weeds, pests, collect and destroy infected fruit. If the area of the plot (greenhouse) is small and it is not possible to alternate crops, in the fall or early spring, before planting the seedlings, you must first sow any green manure (oats, rapeseed, mustard), and then embed it in the soil.
Tip # 1. In case of mass destruction, the greenhouse soil needs to be replaced or disinfected.
Peculiarities of the treatment of tomatoes in the manifestation of signs of top rot
Vertex rot is a bactericidal disease. If the first signs of its manifestation were detected, it is impossible to delay the treatment. All actions in the greenhouse and in the open field are almost the same, so they are no different. First, all infected leaves and fruits are removed from plants, and then they are destroyed. This should be done not on the site, but beyond.
Signs of apical rot can occur even in unripe tomatoes, so it is better to get rid of such bushes as early as possible. to prevent the spread of the disease
Then, to prevent the spread of the disease, saturate the plant with calcium. Help in this foliar feedings. Can be used for dressing potassium chloride. It is necessary to dilute 30 g of this substance in 10 liters of water and spray both infected and healthy plants in order to protect them from infection. You can feed the tomatoes and calcium nitrate. For this diluted in 10 l of water 8−10 g of the drug and subjected to the same processing tomatoes.
Experts recommend adding 10 grams of boric acid to a calcium solution - boron deficiency inhibits calcium intake in plants. If this is the reason, the following symptoms will be observed:
- Termination of root growth.
- Dying off the point of growth.
- Weak flowering tomato.
If this is observed, be sure to use both calcium and boron at the same time to increase the effectiveness of both substances. Those who prefer to use only safe substances in their area can use preparations containing in nature both boron and calcium for spraying.
Tip # 2. Processed tomatoes every 10−12 days, they are abundantly watering.
The reasons for the development of apical rot on tomatoes
The lack of moisture and hot air lead to intense evaporation of the liquid from the leaves and the stem. If during this period does not provide access of moisture through the root system, the plant begins to suck it out of the fruit. As a result, a part of the cells of the fruit dies off and the apical rot of the tomatoes develops, the treatment of which is much more complicated and labor-intensive than the prevention of infection.
Among other reasons for the development of apical rot of tomatoes are:
- Calcium deficiency or excess
- Excess nitrogen
- High acidity of the soil.
Primary signs of infection
In order to start the treatment of apical rot of tomatoes in time, it is important to know the characteristic signs of this disease. The unripe fruits of the second and third hand are most susceptible to infection. The first symptoms appear on the tips (tops) of the fruit in the form of flat or depressed liquid spots. The color of the spots is at first dark green, and with the development of the disease it changes to gray-brown, up to black.
The first signs of top rot on tomatoes
Infected fruits stop their growth and quickly deform. Over time, the skin on the spot dries and cracks, and the disease penetrates into the fetus. Alternaria mushrooms of the genus Alternaria can lodge on the areas affected by the apical rot, because of which the pulp of the tomatoes darkens and rots.
Fruits affected by apical rot ripen faster than others and fall off the branches. It is impossible to use them fresh or for processing, and also to collect seed material from them.
Tomatoes affected by apical rot are not suitable for consumption.
Preseeding disinfection of seeds
The fight begins with the apical rot of tomatoes with pre-sowing seed treatment. For dressing apply a solution of potassium permanganate or iron sulphate.
Tomato seed dressing - the best prevention of vertex rot
In saturated 3% potassium permanganate, planting material is soaked for about half an hour, then washed with warm running water and dried to a friable state. For seed dressing, iron vitriol is dissolved in the ratio: 1 g of the preparation per 1 l of water. Seeds are soaked for 24 hours and then dried.
Tomato Apical Rot Treatment
If you find signs of rot at the top of the fruit, it is necessary to immediately begin treating the plants. First of all, you need to remove the affected fruits and leaves of tomatoes, and destroy them outside the site.
Vertex rot on tomatoes, the treatment of which in the open field and in the greenhouse is no different, ceases to spread, if you saturate the plant with calcium. To do this, conduct foliar feeding calcium nitrate (7-10 g per 10 liters of water) or potassium chloride (30 g per 10 liters of water).
Treatment of tomato apical rot by spraying calcium nitrate
Strengthen the effect of calcium will help add to the solution of boric acid (10 g per 10 liters of water). You can also use the drug "Brexil Ca", in which calcium and boron are in its natural form. Treatment should be carried out every 10-15 days after abundant watering.
You can fight with the tip rot on tomatoes and folk methods:
- Spray the wood ash with a hood (pour 1 cup of ash with boiling water and leave for 24 hours, then strain and bring the volume to 10 liters with cold water)
- To process the soda solution (dissolve 20 g of soda in 10 liters of warm water).
What is dangerous and where does it come from
The disease is prone to young bushes, which are just beginning to bear fruit. The problem is more of a physiological nature and is often not associated with pests or infections. Sometimes apical rot is also caused by bacteria. The disease does not kill the whole plant. The affected fruits of tomatoes cannot be eaten.
Both tomatoes growing in the open field and greenhouses are susceptible to the disease.
The cause of the disease is often the wrong watering. The fact is that when the fruit is ripening, it is necessary to water the tomatoes regularly. With a lack of moisture in the period of active development and the beginning of fruiting, the plant experiences water stress.
As a result, the leaves begin to draw off moisture to themselves, including taking moisture from the fruit. This causes the appearance of rot. Despite the fact that the tomato - the culture is quite undemanding to moisture, abundant watering during fruit ripening is still needed. The cause of the problem may also be the formation of a crust in the upper layers of the earth.
In this case, the moisture simply does not reach the roots. Frequent watering, but in small portions also leads to the appearance of top rot.
Excess nitrogen in the soil and a lack of calcium also causes the disease. An excess of nitrogen may occur when over-feeding tomatoes, for example, liquid manure. Calcium can no longer be absorbed by the root system of plants at very high temperatures.
Salty or acidic soil also provoke a disease. In such a land, calcium becomes poorly inaccessible to the plant.
Bacterial infection of vertex rot most often occurs due to an oversight of the owners. Called by the bacteria Bacillus mesentericus, Bacterium licopersici, etc., in the case of ripening fruits lying on the ground. Insects can become carriers of the bacterial type of the disease.
Signs of tomato damage
If dark gray or brownish spots appear on the top of the fruit, if they are flattened, it means that the bush is affected by top rot.
A dark putrid spot appears on the fruit at the point where the flower was. Over time, increases in size and dries. Symptoms often appear on the fruit at the beginning of ripening.
How to deal with top rot on tomatoes
The best option to combat any disease is its prevention. But if it was not possible to prevent the occurrence, then it is necessary to engage in treatment.
The causes of vertex rot in tomatoes have already been examined, we will also analyze the disease control measures.
Prevention and agrotechnology
The top rot of tomatoes can be affected and the seeds used in planting, and such a measure as prevention, can help to combat negative manifestations in the process of ripening the crop.
The primary method of prevention is timely uniform watering of plants.. Try to avoid sudden fluctuations in humidity. The next day after watering, loosen the soil with a flat cutter. Topsoil should remain loose. Try not to damage the roots of the tomatoes when loosening. Coating the soil with a layer of mulch can also be very useful.
Rows of tomatoes must be cleared from weeds.
If tomatoes grow in a greenhouse or greenhouse, watch the temperature. In case of overheating, increase the flow of fresh air. Follow the microclimate. Sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity are undesirable.
Also, do not get involved in overfeeding plants with fertilizers. Observe the dosage indicated on the label and the frequency of application to the soil. If feeding with liquid manure or smoked, watch for the solution. He must be weak. For the season enough to feed two or three times.
Another method of protection is the procedure "Bubbling".
To do this, the seeds are immersed in water and oxygen is passed through it. To do this, you can use a small aquarium compressor. Oxygen bubbles should be small. To achieve this, use a spray or pass gas through gauze. “Bubbling” lasts eighteen hours, after which the seeds are thoroughly dried.
Preparations for protection
- To increase the overall disease resistance, seeds are recommended to be treated with any growth promoter before planting.
- You can process the seeds of a semi-per cent solution of manganese.
- Also for seed treatment, you can use a solution of succinic acid or a one percent solution of zinc sulfate. The solution of succinic acid is prepared at the rate of 17 ml of substance per liter of water. In both cases, the seeds are kept in solution for at least a day.
- For foliar top dressing of tomatoes it is good to use limestone nitrate Ca (NO3) 2. The solution is prepared at the rate of 5–10 g of substance per 10 liters of water. Planting leaves watered plant no more than two times a week.
- During the period of active growth of fruits, spraying the leaves with a solution of calcium chloride CaCl2 will be useful. The solution is prepared at the rate of 3-4 g of substance per 10 l of water. Top dressing is carried out not more than twice a week.
- It is possible to feed with Ca (OH) 2 lime milk. The solution is prepared at the rate of 1 g of substance per 10 liters of water. Top dressing is done by spraying the leaves once or twice a week.
- A good tool is the introduction of universal dressings for nightshade, while respecting the dosages. You can select the drug "Nutrivant PLUS". Its combination with the additive "Fertivant" gives very good results. The solution is prepared at the rate of 25–30 g per 10 l of water.
If the top rot has already appeared on the tomatoes, let's sort in order what to do. First of all, you should get rid of the affected fruit. It is recommended to pick them from the bush and destroy them away from the beds with plants.
Vertex rot of tomatoes - the disease is quite complicated, and the process of its treatment will give positive results only when using special preparations.
- Feed plants with calcium chloride solution at the rate of 1 g of substance per 10 liters of water.
- Use special microbiological preparations, for example, "Fitosporin". The dosage and frequency of spraying with drugs please check with the sales assistants.
- In the case of the bacterial form of apical rot, substances containing copper can be used, for example, Bordeaux liquid. The solution is prepared as follows: 100 g of quicklime is dissolved in 1 liter of water, and 100 g of copper sulfate is diluted in 9 l of water. The solution with lime is added to the solution of vitriol and mix thoroughly.
Do not expect quick results. It is better not to bring the plant to the appearance of signs of the disease.
Vertex rot of tomatoes in the greenhouse - the phenomenon is quite frequent, but many methods of their treatment are successfully applied, including the prevention of the disease by folk remedies.
- First of all, planting tomatoes should be carried out at a sufficient distance (depending on the variety). Branches and leaves should not be intertwined. To each bush, provide sufficient access.
- The most commonly used method, used not only in greenhouses, but also on open ground, is staving.
- Watering tomatoes in the greenhouse is recommended every other day, and at high temperatures it is better to switch to abundant daily watering.
- The plant loves to "breathe" fresh air. Air often in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
- In the wells under the seedlings add eggshells and ashes.
During the years of breeding, the solanaceous tomatoes were obtained rather resistant to vertex rot. It should be noted that the 100% effect of tomato immunity to the disease today is not achieved. Nevertheless, varieties such as "Alpatyev 905a", "Astrakhansky", "Moryana", "Volgograd 5/95", "Soil Gribovsky 1180", "Liya", "Lunny", "Rychansky", "Akhtanak" are distinguished by good resistance to tip rot. You can also mention such hybrids as "Benito F1", "Bolshevik F1", "Grand Canyon", "Glombbemaster F1", "Marfa F1", "Prikrasa F1", "Rotor F1", "Toch F1", "Pharaoh F1 ".
Despite the fact that the disease is quite often found on the representatives of the nightshade, methods of dealing with it are quite simple. Often, preventive measures and proper care of the plant help to avoid yield loss and prevent the occurrence of not only top rot, but also many other problems.
Symptoms and causes of vertex rot
If your tomatoes have started to rot, do not rush to run for fungicides against late blight. It is important to calculate the true cause of the plant damage, since this disease is non-infectious. Therefore, its treatment is fundamentally different from the fight against fungal and viral. There are several direct and indirect signs of top rot:
- Fruits begin to rot from the top. This is the opposite of the place where the tomato is attached to the stem.
- Rot is a brown, concentrated and dense spots. They can be either flat or depressed.
- Under the rotting skin, the pulp also becomes rotten and soft.
The only culprit of this disease as a vertex rot - the owner of the site. After all, the main causes of the disease are provoked by care errors:
The resulting rot - dead tissue of tomatoes. This happens because the plant is trying to compensate for its leaves a lack of moisture due to the fruit. Tomatoes will easily fall off and will not give high-quality seeds. Lack of calcium, including due to insufficient watering, will lead to the fact that the tomato will primarily feed the leaves, and the cells of the fruit will be weak. Excessive amount of water for the plant is also destructive - the tissue will die off due to the rupture of cell walls.
Attention! Affected tomato tissue is a favorable environment for the development of fungi. If you start the disease, saprophytes will settle on the fruit (for example, Alternaria). If the spots have darkened or become black, wet - most likely, the plant has become infected through the diseased areas.
The development of top rot in the greenhouse
For tomatoes that are grown in the greenhouse, it is important how air humidity is controlled. The key task of the farmer: to create conditions that require minimal evaporation of moisture by plants. This requires:
- humidity of air at the level of 50-70%,
- air temperature up to + 22 ... 25 ° C,
- low light.
Pinnacle rot may also appear in case of sufficient watering, but if it is produced in small doses, and the soil is not loosened. Then an earthy crust is formed around the plant, which creates the impression of moisture abundance. In fact, water just can not get to the roots. The risk factors of irregular watering and excessive soil saturation with nitrogen fertilizers are especially reinforcing.
Prevention and Control of Top Rot
The main direction in the prevention or treatment of this disease is to prevent the factors of its appearance. Take care of the plants in the garden:
- regularly water,
- loosen the ground regularly,
- feed in optimal doses,
- контролируйте кислотность почв, не допускайте ее засоления,
- в теплицах соблюдайте режим влажности,
- предотвращайте резкие колебания температуры.
Дополнительно проводите опрыскивание растворами удобрений с содержанием кальция. Допускается подкормка рассады за неделю до высадки в грунт кальциевой или калиевой селитрой (половина столовой ложки на 1 ведро воды). The same solution is necessary to spray the plants at the first signs of top rot:
- the interval between treatment is 5-7 days,
- It is necessary to apply even under the root, into carefully moistened soil (1-2 liters per bush).
Council Chalk suspension can also be used for processing. Prepare it like this: 1-2 tbsp. l powder to 1 liter of water. Do not worry that the soil will remain chalky plaque - during the next watering, it gets to the root system.
Recommendations of summer residents to combat tip rot
The best advice after you have determined the infection with non-infectious vertex rot is not to try to treat the plant, but to accept the loss of a certain part of the crop and try to prevent the development of the disease:
A radical measure in the fight against apical rot - remove a couple of upper leaves from a diseased plant. This will help the fruit in competition for moisture, but will certainly lead to loss of the crop. From now on, keep an eye on the balance between the leaves and the fruits on the tomato bush. If there are more fruits or they are too large, then they are more likely to get sick. If we do not allow infection of patients with apical rot of tomatoes by fungus, the infected plants will not bring any consequences for future harvests.