Alyssums - one of the most favorite cultures for the design of rocky landscapes. Tough and unpretentious, they are equally conquering and attractive appearance, and ease of cultivation. Openwork gray rug and bright flowering of alissums favorably emphasize the beauty of stony ground and large boulders, and the plant itself is quite easily combined with decorative leafy and flowering partners.
Types and grades of alissum
The genus of Alissums unites more than 100 species of undersized semi-woody annuals and perennials originating from the south of Europe and Siberia, but only four European species are actively used in ornamental gardening - Gmelin's Alissums, rocky, Pyrenean and creepy.
Alyssum sea or loburiariya sea, which many attribute to the genus Alissum, today highlighted in a separate plant species.
Alyssum Gmelin is a gray-green perennial up to 20 cm high, with densely pubescent bedding and ascending shoots.
The lower leaves are rounded, originally turning into stalks, the upper leaves being more elongated and lanceolate. Bright yellow miniature flowers are collected in racemes, have decoratively pubescent fruits.
Alyssum Gmelin blooms in April and May.
Similar species of alissum with stellate hairs on the pods — Lensky, Savransky, tortuous, calyx, rough burachki are rarely found in garden culture, but also very attractive.
The rocky alissum forms not a rug, but a hemispherical bush about 25 cm high with a much larger one, up to 40 cm in diameter. Wood shoots at the base of the branches densely branch, creating a very dense texture.
The leaves are gray due to the felt edge, elongated, gathered in fairly thick and lush rosettes. Small flowers of bright yellow color with fancy notches on the petals are collected in short and very dense brush.
Alyssum rock blooms for more than a month at the end of spring, capable of re-blooming in August.
In addition to the basic type, there are cultural forms and varieties:
- "Citrinum" with lemon-tone flowers,
- "Compactum" with a lower and more dense structure,
- "Plenum" height of about 30 cm with a longer golden flowering,
- variegated "Variegata"
- creeping variety "Prokumbens" only up to 8 cm tall
- brownish variety "Dudley Neville".
Alyssum creeping belongs to the ground cover, despite the fact that it creates a rug up to 40, and sometimes 60 cm in height.
The grayish color of the oval or leaf-shaped leaves creates a beautiful lace texture. The leaves are collected in a rosette, stem - less decorative, lanceolate forms. Flowers up to half a centimeter in diameter with a bright yellow color are collected in elongated inflorescences.
Flowering alissum creeping at the very end of spring.
Use in garden design
Alyssums - one of the most "reliable" perennials for decoration of stony landscapes and objects with dumping of soil with rubble or rocky crumbs. They can be used for decoration of small and large rock gardens, flat rockeries, for framing gravel paths or lawns and in the design of compositions in front gardens, which provide for the complete overlapping of the soil with decorative soils.
Alyssums combine well with small pebbles, stones of the middle fraction, but they are not lost against the background of the largest boulders. They can be used in the design of stony hills, and where only one stone is used, and in mixed compositions.
Silvery green of alissum sets off the luxury of stones and fully reveals the texture and edges of stone boulders, emphasizing favorably the cold and heavy character with the contrast of silver lace. From this point of view, Alissums are one of the best ennobling plants on a rocky landscape that bring in harmonizing notes.
The ability to expose arrays of stones in the most favorable light as possible is fully manifested and during landscaping of the supporting walls: Alissums on supporting walls of any size create a feeling of naturalness, softness and nobility of design, integrity and completeness of the ensemble. Hanging out shoots and blocking the soil above the wall, they turn each wall into a real architectural marvel, attracting attention with luxurious silver tints of felt edge.
But not only in rocky objects appropriate to use these charming plants. Alyssums look great and in short flower bedsand even more so in mixed rabatka, where they allow to play with a luxurious and dense texture and even create an ornamental, patterned effect.
Alyssums are plants that can contribute to the flower beds, mixborders and other garden compositions of the nobility of silvery foliage. The harmonious, complementary contrast of gray color of greens and bright yellow inflamation of the inflorescences represents one of the most comfortable look of garden combinations, one of the best combinations for the design of a modern garden with an emphasis on an unusual, challenging design.
From the color point of view, alissums are self-sufficient cultures, but they will not spoil any combination with bright and insufficiently expressive partners.
Partners for alissum
Companions for alissums to find very easy. They are perfectly combined with all kinds of low-growing plants, ground covers and pillow perennials, who prefer similar growing conditions.
Ground cover styloid phloxes, rezuha and obriet are considered to be the best partners for alissum, revealing their beauty most favorably.
On rock gardens and in other “stony” objects, the little burachka is perfectly combined with gentian, liverwort, low and bulbous irises, alpine forget-me-not, primroses, cloves of feathery and grassy grass, Carpathian bell, beautiful little melonpark, beautiful stone-clad, aragonian, and a carnival, Carpathian bell.
In mixborders, alissums can be combined with geyher, geraniums, immortelles, sage, thyme, they will favorably emphasize the yellowish shade of the color of the cuff, and in the background they can perfectly complement the bright badan.
In mixed rabatka, contrasting plants are well combined - creeping shrubs, in particular, blueberries, blueberries and cotoneaster, as well as representatives of heathers and ericas.
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Alyssum varieties and types
Alissum marine, orsea lobula(A. maritium, or Lobularia maritime). Homeland - the Mediterranean. Perennial. In Central Russia, it is grown as an alissum annual. Height is 20-25 cm. Stems form undersized compact sockets. The length of the stem to 40 cm. The plant does not overwinter in open ground. Flowers of alissum navy blue, pink and white. Blossom begins in May and pleases the eye before the onset of frost. Actively growing and tolerates a haircut.
It has several garden varieties:
Bentham (var. Benthamii (Voss) Bailey) — plant 30-40 cm tall, white flowers. Its most famous varieties: 'Weiss Risen' - a plant up to 35 cm tall with large white flowers, can also be used for cutting, 'Schneeshturm' - a plant up to 25 cm tall, white flowers, large,
Compact (var. Compactum hort.) - plant 12-15 cm tall, white flowers. Known variety: 'Violetkenigin' ('Violetkonigin') - bush 10-15 cm tall, compact, densely branched, purple flowers, 'Capet of Snow' ('Carpet of Snow') - Allissum ‘Snow carpet’, a variety with large white flowers. Stems creeping, form a dense carpet, bush height of 11-15 cm, the aroma is very strong.
Prostrate (var. Procumbens (Bailey) Boom). The most famous varieties: 'Schneeteppich' ('Schneeteppich') - bush 8-10 cm tall, compact, densely branched, white flowers, gathered in short brushes, 'Rosie O'Day' - bush 8-10 cm tall, flowers dense pink, 'Konigsteppih' - A plant up to 10 cm tall, the flowers are purple-violet.
Variegated (var. Variegatum hort.) - plant up to 12-15 cm tall with yellowish-white-bonded leaves and small white or light purple flowers, as well as tetraploid variety - 'Tetra Schneetreiben' - Bush up to 25 cm tall, richly and continuously blooming, large flowers, white.
Of the relatively new varieties worth noting:'
'Easter Deep Rose' - one of the youngest varieties of marine lobularia. It is distinguished by its short stature and intensive flowering. The corollas are bright pink in color. This group of varieties also includes 'Easter Bonnet Pink' - coloring of small flowers lilac-pink.
Inflorescences of plant varieties 'New Apricot' seem pure white. Only upon closer examination can a pale apricot shade be noticed on the corolla.
For grade 'Paletta'characteristic rich color palette - corollas can be pink in several shades, crimson, lilac, red, brownish, and white. Small plants only about 10 cm tall look cozy and old-fashioned, although 'Paletta' appeared only in 1997
Petals of lobularia 'Salmon ' painted in the most fashionable color at the present time - pink gray. The height of the bushes is also about 10 cm.
Plant varieties 'Tiny Tim' even smaller, their height is only 8 cm. This is a real dwarf variety. Since this lobularia has creeping shoots, it has a high ground cover ability. In the summer, the bushes are almost entirely hidden under the boiled-white caps of the inflorescences.
‘Easter Bonnet White’ - variety with white flowers.
‘Klein Dorrit’ - variety with white flowers. Height 15 cm.
‘Lilac Queen’ - variety with dark lilac flowers.
‘Little Dorrit’ - variety with white flowers and straight stems. Height 15 cm.
‘MorningMist’ - variety with flowers of several shades.
‘Oriental Night’ - variety with dark lilac flowers. Height 10 cm.
‘Royal Carpet’ - variety with purple flowers.
‘Snow Krystals’ - Burachek with white large flowers. Height 25-30 cm. Good for growing in hanging baskets.
‘Wonderland’ - Alissum with flowers of bright pink color. Height is 5-10 cm.
Alissum Rock (A. saxatile, or Aurinia saxatilis). Homeland - Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Western Black Sea, Asia Minor. Perennial. The height of the stems is up to 30 cm, this alissum has a lot of interesting leaf shape, with a juicy gray tint. The leaves of this species can be stored on the stems even in winter. Flowers clustered in panicles, yellow. The plant blooms early and shortly, only from April to May. We know several varieties of rocky alissum:
‘Compactum’ - undersized variety, height up to 18 cm.
‘Plenum’ - rock cape with golden-yellow double flowers, plant height up to 30 cm. Flowering is longer than that of the main species.
‘Procumbes’ - dwarf creeping variety, height up to 8 cm.
‘Dudley Neville’ - with yellowish-brown flowers.
‘Citrinum’ - with lemon yellow flowers.
"Golden Wave" - quite lush plant with yellow flowers, which reaches a height of 20 cm. It blooms only from the age of two.
Alyssum Pyrenean(A. pyrenaicum, or Ptilotrichum pyrenaicum). Homeland - the Pyrenees. Long-term alissum. Height 15-20 cm. The leaves are oval, fleshy, silvery, pubescent. The color of the flowers is white. It blooms in summer.
Alissum creeping(A. repens, or A. transsilvanicum, or A. trichostachyum, or A. virescens). In its natural environment it grows in the steppes and mountains of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Western Asia. Perennial. Height 40-60 cm. Basal leaves are oval, collected in the outlet. Stem leaves of lanceolate form. The color of the flowers is bright yellow. It blooms in late spring.
Alissum silver(A. argenteum). Long-term alissum. Height up to 80 cm. The stems form a silver-green outlet. The leaves are small, silver-gray below, green above. Coloring lemon-yellow flowers. It blooms in May and July.
Alpine alpine (Alyssum alpestre). Homeland - Mountains of Europe. Perennial up to 6cm tall. Short, bunched, stem. Grayish small elliptical leaves. Yellow four-petal flowers, collected in spherical apical inflorescences.
Alyssum borage (Alyssum alyssoides). Homeland - Scandinavia, Central Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor. Sucker in North America, Australia, Africa. Perennial with woody roots up to 40 cm tall and woody at the base of gray-pubescent, straight or ascending stems. Lower leaves from obovoid to lanceolate, upper leaves already. Flowers 0.2-0.4 cm long, spaced. Sepals 0.2-0.3 cm long, long-lasting. Fruits are rounded 0.3-0.4 cm in diameter, densely pubescent, fruit flaps bulging with thickened edges. Seeds are 0.1-0.2 cm in diameter, narrowly winged. Shine. Seed propagation.
Alyssum Borzi (Alyssum borzeanum). Perennial with woody roots. Stems numerous, covered with white hairs. Stem leaves, narrowed to the base, grow old during flowering. Inflorescences are simple or complex plates with small yellow flowers.
Alyssum calycin (Alyssum calycinum). Annual, gray-green herb 20-30 cm tall with a pale fusiform root. Stem erect and ascending, often branching from below. Leaves are short, elongated, obovate, gray, star-pubescent. Flowers are collected in the final brush, on short legs. Sepals - except for stellate - are covered at the top and with simple bristles, which after flowering remain near the ripening fruit. Okolovenchikovye leaflets narrow, 3-4 mm long, slightly incised in front, sulfur-yellow, later almost colorless, stamen threads simple. The pods are round, pressed-stellate-pubescent. It blooms from June to September.
Alyssum cuneiform (Alyssum cuneifolium). It is a small herbaceous, pubescent perennial 5-15 cm tall. The leaves are oblong-spatulate, oblong-linear, 0.7-1.5 cm long and 0.2-0.4 cm wide, narrowed at the base, the edges are solid, blunt or sharp at the top. Flowers with oblong sepals about 0.3 cm long, with yellow petals up to 0.6 cm long, collected in the final, ciliated brush. Fruits are elliptical about 0.6 cm long and up to 0.4 cm wide.
Alyssum Dagestan (Alyssum daghestanicum). Perennial, forming turf, gray scales. Stems 4-23 cm tall, simple, densely leafy. Leaves narrow linear spatulate. Brushes few-flowered, almost umbrella-shaped. Peduncles and calyx gray from stellate hairs. Sepals about 0.3 cm long. Petals of fawn color, up to 0.55 cm long. The pods are oval, up to 0.4 cm long and 0.45 cm wide.
Alyssum Dagestan f. rocky (Alyssum daghestanicum f. saxatilis). Strongly branched perennial up to 25 cm tall, forming a hemispherical bush 30-40 cm in diameter. Stems branched, woody at the base. The leaves are elongated or obovate, sulfurous, collected in thick rosettes. The flowers are small, yellow, with notched petals, in short, dense racemes.
Alyssum deserted (Alyssum desertorum). Annual 8-20 cm tall. Stems branched from the base, gray from stellate hairs. Leaves linear-oblong, narrowed to the base. The flowers are collected in a brush, elongated when ripe fruits. Peduncles obliquely upward protruding, 2-3.5 mm long. Petals linear-oblong, notched, rarely dull, pale yellow, later almost white, 2.5-3 mm long. It dwells in steppes, on limestone and chalk slopes, along roadsides. General distribution: Siberia, the southern part of Europe.
Alyssum diversicaule (Alyssum diversicaule). Perennial 5-30 cm tall. Stems numerous, ascending, woody at the base, together with leaves gray from stellate hairs. Leaves linear or spatulate. Flowers numerous, small (3-5 mm in diameter), yellow, racemes branched inflorescence dense. It lives on chalk and calcareous slopes. General distribution: southern Europe. It blooms in the first half of May with bright yellow hemispherical pillows with a diameter of 20-35 cm in rarefied communities, very effectively.
Alyssum cannibal (Alyssum flexicaule). Motherland - Europe. Perennial up to 6cm tall. Short thin weak stem. Grayish green small elliptical leaves. Yellow fragrant chetyrehlepestkovye flowers, collected in apical inflorescences.
Alyssum Gmelin (Alyssum gmelinii). Perennial gray-green plant with a height from 5 to 20 cm, densely covered with stellate hairs, with a thin velenenayuschim root. Stem ascending or lying, branched, with sterile, rosette-like shortened shoots. The lower leaves are short branch, obovate, upper sessile, longitudinally and obversely-lanceolate, entire, covered with sparse stellate hairs from above, gray filamentous from below. The flowers are bright yellow, about 6 mm in diameter, collected in simple brushes up to 3 cm in diameter. Sepals densely covered with adherent stellate hairs. The pods are round and obovate, 4–5 mm long, the sashes are covered with stellate hairs, and the stigma is 2-3 mm long. Seeds ovoid, narrowly winged, two in a nest. It blooms from April to June. It dwells in steppes, dry pine forests, outcrops of carbonate rocks. Europe.
Alyssum holonogy (Alyssum gymnopodium). Perennial herb 15-30 cm tall, lignified at the base and branchy shoots. Leaves obovate, small, gray from stellate pubescence. Inflorescence is corymbose, friable. The flowers are small, yellow. The fruit is an oval pod 0.3-0.4 cm long, star-pubescent.
Alyssum rough (Alyssum hirsutum). Europe. Annual plant with long, stubby pubescence. Stems are straight, branched, 6-36 cm tall. Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Sepals 2-3.5 cm long. Petals are fawn, 2-incised, 0.3-0.5 cm long. The pods are round, about 0.7 cm long. Цветение в апреле-мае.
Алиссум обыкновенный ( Alyssum idaeum ). Европа. Многолетник до 10см высотой. Ползучий стебель. Серовато-зеленые эллиптические листья. Желтые четырехлепестковые цветки, собранные в густые верхушечные соцветия.
Alyssum Lena (Alyssum lenense). Peachy perennials with woody stems bases up to 20 cm tall. Stems erect, branched. Leaves up to 2 cm long and 3 mm wide. Flowers up to 6 mm in diameter, yellow in short multicolored racemes. They live on steppe stony and sandy slopes. General distribution: Eastern Europe, Mongolia, North China.
Alyssum long tiger (Alyssum longistylum). Motherland - Europe. Perennial up to 12 cm tall. Creeping weak stem. Silvery elliptical leaves. Yellow four-petal flowers, collected in long dense apical inflorescences.
Alyssum mountain (Alyssum montanum). A perennial gray-green plant with a height of 5 to 30 cm, densely covered with stellate hairs, with a thin, woody root. Stem ascending, branched, with sterile, rosette-like shortened shoots. The lower leaves are short branch, obovate, upper sessile, longitudinally and obversely-lanceolate, entire, covered with sparse stellate hairs from above, gray filamentous from below. Flowers in simple final panicles, pedunculate. Sepals densely covered with adherent stellate hairs. Okolovenchikovye leaves are golden-yellow, 4-5 mm long, calyx and corolla soon fall off after flowering. The pods are round and obovate, 4–5 mm long, the sashes are covered with stellate hairs, and the stigma is 2-3 mm long. Seeds ovoid, narrowly winged, two in a nest. It blooms from April to June.
Alyssum mountain (Alyssum montanum subsp. Brymii). Sterile shoots are not expelled, the plant is covered with 12–16-radial stellate hairs, the leaves are orange and dark yellow, 5–6 mm long, the filaments are winged, ending with two or three teeth, inhabiting the calcareous rocks of Slovak beauty.
Alyssum mountain Gmelin (Alyssum montanum subsp. Gmelinii). The stalk is often branching only in the upper part, the leaves are light yellow, 3–4 mm long, the threads of relatively long stamens are winged on both sides, inhabiting sand dunes and mounds in lowlands.
Alyssum wall (Alyssum murale). Motherland - Europe. Perennial up to 30cm tall. Thin straight stalk, woody at the base and with creeping branches. Gray elliptical leaves. Yellow four-petal flowers, collected in apical inflorescences.
Alyssum obovate (Alyssum obovatum). Western and Eastern Siberia, Central Asia, Mongolia. Annual or biennial with thin, easily pulling out roots, the stems at the base are not woody. Plant up to 15-20 cm tall, silver. Stems ascending, woody in lower parts, branched near apex. Leaves back-oval or spatulate, blunt. Inflorescences thick, racemes, from bright yellow flowers. Flowers 0.6-1.0 cm long. Sepals 0.2 cm long. Fruits are round or elliptical, 0.3-0.5 cm long. Seeds are rounded elliptical, 0.1-0.2 cm long. Seed propagation.
Alyssum Savransky (Alyssum savranicum). On the chalky outcrops and in the rocky steppes of the Voronezh and Belgorod regions, this East European species is encountered with a flat rounded 3-4 mm long pod.
Alyssum spiny (Alyssum spinosum). Loose spiny shrub 40-50 cm tall with oval silver leaves and fragrant white flowers, gathered in short brushes. May bloom.
Alyssum tortuous, or Alyssum tortuosum. Motherland - Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia. This is a very polymorphic species. Perennial. Stems at the base of woody, ascending or straight, winding, 8-30 cm tall. The leaves are back oval-oblong or reverse-oval, small, rounded-oval or oblong, the upper ones are often back-lanceolate, always narrowed towards the base, gray-haired from the pubescence. Inflorescence branched, squamous paniculate. Sepals about 0.2 cm long, petals 0.23-0.3 cm long, back-oval, golden-yellow. The pods are flat, elliptical. Flowering in April-June.
Alyssum Wulfen (Alyssum wulfenianum). Perennial 30-45 cm tall, forms a low hummock or cushions of gray-green leaves up to 3 cm long, elliptical, gradually turning into petiole. The final inflorescences carry masses of golden-yellow flowers. Fruits are elliptical, up to 0.8 cm long.
Alyssum tight (Alyssum turgidum)
Alyssum argenteum All. - Alyssum silver
Alyssum atlanticum Desf. - Alyssum Atlantic
Alyssum baumgartnerianum Bornm.
Alyssum bertolonii subsp. scutarinum nyar.
Alyssum bornmuelleri Hausskn. ex Degen
Alyssum bracteatum Boiss. & Buhse
Alyssum canescens DC.
Alyssum condensatum Boiss. & Hausskn.
Alyssum constellatum Boiss.
Alyssum corsicum duby - corsican alissum
Alyssum dasycarpum Stephan ex Willd.
Alyssum diffusum Ten.
Alyssum erosulum Gennari & Pestal. ex clementi
Alyssum flahaultianum Emb.
Alyssum granatense Boiss. & Reut.
Alyssum handelii hayek
Alyssum ligusticum Breistr.
Alyssum linifolium Stephan ex Willd. - Alyssum flax leaf
Alyssum loiseleurii P.Fourn.
Alyssum marginatum Steud. ex Boiss.
Alyssum markgrafii O.E.Schulz
Alyssum minutum Schltdl. ex DC.
Alyssum moellendorfianum Asch. ex beck
Alyssum nebrodense tineo
Alyssum ovirense A.Kern.
Alyssum pateri Nyar.
Alyssum peltarioides Boiss.
Alyssum purpureum lag. & Rodr. - Alyssum purple
Alyssum scutigerum durieu
Alyssum serpyllifolium Desf. - Alyssum serpolistny
Alyssum sibiricum Willd. - Alyssum Siberian
Alyssum simplex Rudolphi - Alyssum simple
Alyssum stapfii vierh.
Alyssum strictum Willd.
Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol.
Alyssum szowitsianum Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Alyssum turkestanicum Regel & Schmalh. - Alyssum Turkestan
Alyssum umbellatum Desv.
Alyssum xanthocarpum Boiss.
Alyssum refers to cabbage plants. Height, type of shoots and appearance are completely dependent on the particular variety. The color depends on the same, but the most common shade is yellow and its variations. The fruit is a small seed box with the same small brown seeds.
The rhizome of the flower is superficial and fibrous. But it accumulates moisture well, so that the plant will survive a temporary drought. The classic type of inflorescences is a graceful brush made from tiny cups on four petals. The aroma of alissum well attracts beneficial insects, including bees. In culture it is also a honey plant.
Alyssum is not only beautiful, but also useful. It is used to prepare decoctions for the treatment of fever and colds, it is part of the diuretic fees, is used in cosmetology as an ingredient in tonic skin for problem skin. Once they even tried to treat people bitten by rabid animals, from which the name of the plant was derived. Literally, it translates as "against dog rabies."
Types of alissum
There are about several hundred species of annuals and perennial plants in the genus Alyssums. Most of them come from Siberia or from the south of Europe, as well as from subtropical regions of America and Africa. Perennial varieties are resistant to cold and easily survive in the northern regions, but they have a shorter flowering period. Annuals bloom long and especially colorful, but grow one year. In ornamental gardening, only a few of the most famous and unpretentious species are used.
Sea lobularia is now an independent plant species, but until recently it was considered one of the varieties of alissum. This is a perennial branched plant that envelops the earth with shoots. It is relatively low, up to 40 cm, covered with silver short hairs.
Lobularia is a thermophilic perennial. The leaves are oval and fleshy. Flowers - small golden, collected in elegant bright brushes.
- Esther Bonnet is an ampelous plant with shoots up to 25 cm. Flowers are mainly pastel cream and pink shades. Variety blooms from July to September.
- Tiny Tim - a miniature flower with shoots of about 8 cm and fragrant snow-white bloom.
- Princessin Purple - ampelnaya form with long extended shoots. Inflorescences - an elegant gentle lilac shade. Because of their beauty and elegance, the name of the species appeared.
- Violet Koning is a spherical bushy plant. This is a low variety, up to 15 cm. Flowers - bright purple.
This variety is distinguished by silvery oval leaves and unusual color of flowers. Height - up to 20 cm. White petals contrasted with brown anthers. Inflorescences are small and compact. Pyrenean alissum blooms not in spring, but in summer.
The popularity of alissum is growing rapidly among flower growers, so breeders bring out new decorative varieties. There is a cup, sinuous, silver, rough and other types. Of the interesting new varieties worth noting:
- White carpet - a groundcover with abundant and long white flowering.
- Paletta - miniature bushy plant up to 10 cm. Shades - any, up to brown. It is planted to create motley flower beds and alpine lawns.
- Golden placer - spherical bush with narrow leaves. This species differs in the shape of the brushes: they are smaller and denser, bright yellow in color. This alissum is used to decorate walls, masonry, stony hills.
- Pink rug - branched fragrant shrub up to 12 cm. It has an unusual appearance: gray-haired leaves combined with small pink racemes. This variety is used for framing flower beds, decorating balconies, verandas and gazebos.
- Big Jam is one of the largest flowering varieties up to 35 cm. Its flowers are almost twice as large as usual. Colors range from white to lavender and purple. This is the perfect variety for the northern regions. He is not afraid of frost and drought. Big Jam continues to bloom even during frosts to -3C.
Even inexperienced growers can handle an unpretentious flower. The optimum soil is light fertile. You can use weakly alkaline mixture. Be sure to need drainage to avoid excessive moisture. It is also important not to overfeed the flower. When too intense nutrition well foliage grows, but the alissum almost does not bloom.
To prolong flowering, you need sun and air. Well ventilated areas are an ideal choice. Aging perennials should be gradually thinned toward the young and strong.
For regular maintenance, it is enough to loosen and weed the soil. Top dressings are introduced before and after flowering. For ground cover varieties, pay attention to liquid fertilizers, but they must be introduced carefully so as not to burn the leaves.
Perennial varieties are pruned to prolong flowering and decorative effects. The stalks are shortened by about a third during fruit ripening. Sometimes this way you can provoke repeated flowering. In order for annual varieties to delight longer, outdated peduncles need to be removed.
Keep in mind that the limit of frost resistance of alissum is not infinite. Temperatures below -15C he will not survive. In regions with severe winters, perennial varieties are covered with dry foliage, and in winter with snow. So you can prevent freezing rhizome.
Transplantation and reproduction
Ways to grow alissum - classic:
Seeds. They are sown in a greenhouse or open ground. It is necessary to evenly distribute them along the furrows up to 15 cm deep. If you plant a flower in late spring, by the fall it will delight the first flowering. In warm regions, you can plant an alissum at the beginning of winter.
Seedling. Seedlings - it is always more convenient. Thus, you can almost immediately get a strong flowering bushes. The first flowering begins in about 2 months. Moreover, in this way it is more convenient to create decorative compositions. Seeds are planted in shallow boxes, treated with hydrated lime and tightened with film. The boxes are kept warm in the light, with regular spraying and airing. Already within a week the first shoots are visible. After the appearance of the first two full-fledged leaves, the flowers can be transplanted into separate pots, and by the end of spring - into open ground.
Vegetative reproduction. This method is almost never used due to the fact that the alissum in gardens is often one-year. When splitting the bush, it is important not to damage the rhizome. You can also cut the cuttings about 10 cm, which are placed in the water before the first roots. Then they are transplanted into open ground, and by the end of the summer - to a permanent place.
Pest and disease control
Alyssum is relatively unpretentious and rarely gets sick. Its main threat is cruciferous flea. To withdraw it, you need to handle adults and grown strong plants with a special vinegar solution. Caterpillars are removed mechanically and excreted by insecticides or tobacco extracts. Timely processing will protect against cabbage moths.
With improper care or constant waterlogging appears late blight - a special kind of root rot. In this case, treatment with fungicides is necessary. Mealy dew is destroyed by Bordeaux liquid. Alissum also has viral mosaic from diseases, but it is not treated.
April is the optimal time for sowing alissum for seedlings, for planting in a flower garden is May.
For growing seedlings need a nutritious, light soil with a low content of lime. Alyssum is very photophilous, so during the cultivation it will need to provide good lighting.
Seeds of alissum are small. For sowing used cassettes with small and larger cells.
After sowing seeds do not need to sprinkle. Seed containers should be placed in a cool room with a temperature of 12 ° C. Shoots appear on the 5 - 10 day. Seedlings watered moderately. Then it is necessary to avoid high temperatures and waterlogging.
Seedlings swoop down in pots in stage 2 true leaves. Alissum seedlings start flowering after 6 weeks. To bloom the plant was lush, side shoots pruned.
Alissum seedlings, which are already flowering, are planted in a permanent place in May; the distance between plants should be 15–20 cm. Before planting, developed bushy seedlings can be divided into several parts and planted as separate plants.
Sowing alissum in open ground
Sowing seeds made in the open ground immediately after harvest, but most often in the spring, in April. Seeds are sown on the surface or pressed into the substrate, not sprinkling on top (the main condition for seed germination is light).
If there is enough heat and humidity of air, shoots will appear in a week. Seedlings moderately watered, and grown seedlings thinned out, leaving 12-20 cm between them.
From sowing seeds in open ground before the formation of flowers takes about 2 months, and plants grown in the ground bloom by July.
How to prolong flowering alissuma
The plant likes open, lighted warm places. Blooms profusely on loose and moderately moist soils with low nutrient content. It can tolerate dimming, but the flowering cushion will be loose, on rich soils the alissum gives lush foliage to the detriment of its flowering.
Alyssum does not tolerate prolonged drought - flowering ceases and premature seed ripening occurs. In dry summers, alissum requires periodic watering (but watering should be avoided).
In addition, we need constant weeding and loosening. To preserve the bush decorative after the first flowering, the plant is cut to 5 - 7 cm. This stimulates new growth and the formation of buds.
Alyssum in compositions
The plant is perfectly combined with ground-cover plants, with perennials and perennials, such as heliotrope, Turkish carnation, and pelargonium. Lively contrasts are found when planted with plants whose flowers are painted in purple, blue or pink tones.
Good neighbors for alissum are dwarf bearded irises, forest forget-me-not, blue muscari and red tulips, it looks beautiful between roses.
Alyssum: what is this plant
Burachok, loburiariya, lawn, stone - alisum in ornamental floriculture uses these parallel adverbs. The plant is very popular, and the main secret of his celebrity lies in the simplicity and beauty of an unpretentious flower, which, moreover, has earned the respect of beekeepers for its melliferous qualities.
Alyssum in the botanical description, designated as flowering culture, belonging to the Cruciferous family of the genus Burachok. The main outward signs of the plant are short stems, reaching up to 8 - 30 cm, with small oblong leaves of lanceolate form and four-leaved small flowers, gathered in inflorescences.
Old sprouts of this plant have properties to grow, and the foliage gets a smoky tint due to thick pubescence. Floral brushes are different, but most often there are lemon, purple, yellow, scarlet and white tones.
Regardless of the color, they have a pleasant honey-vanilla aroma. After flowering on the shoots ripen pod-like fruits with flat, very fine grains. Scientists have calculated that about 3.5 thousand seeds fit in one gram.
In the floriculture alissum is represented by hundreds of species that are common in the Mediterranean, which is the birthplace of culture, as well as in European and Asian countries. Moreover, botanists distinguish groups of annual and perennial, herbaceous and shrub plants.
Another feature of the flower is the duration of flowering. The bright carpet of alissum flares up with life-giving colors at the end of May and fades away with autumn frosts.
Florists have appreciated the simplicity of alissum in growing and maintenance. It is a very unpretentious, sun-loving culture that develops well on neutral, moist soils, and can also endure a prolonged drought. Perennials adapt to winter conditions. The plant multiplies seed, cutting method and division of rhizomes.
Common flower types
Breeders supplement the natural diversity of lobularia with new hybrids, assigning them unusual names like “white carpet”, “pink carpet”. Но в цветоводстве всегда особой популярностью пользовались горный, скальный, морской, ползучий и пиренейский виды алиссума, отличающиеся особенностями культивации и внешним видом. Рассмотрим детальнее их главные характеристики.
Его в народе называют горным. Outwardly, it is an undersized gray-green culture with growing upward or lying shoots, not more than 20 cm long. The stems are densely covered with foliage with a stellate pile. Sun-yellow splashes of inflorescences appear in the middle of spring, and in May the leguminous fruits begin to form.
Botanists include Alissum Gmelin (alyssum gmelinii) to perennial herbaceous plants and note its prevalence in the area of the meadow-steppe zones of Ukraine and Moldova. Yellow brushes of the species can be seen on the side of roads, ditched landslides and abandoned fields. Cultivated varieties of this species are resistant to frosts, prefer black earth and sandy substrates with limestone and chalk.
Attention deserve varieties:
- "Paletta" (different variety of color palette),
- "Big Jam" (large-flowered, very resistant to frost and drought),
- “Golden placer” (closer to wild specimens).
In the wild nature, the inflorescences of this type of alissum (Alyssum maritimum or sea lobularia) are found in white and lilac, and in the ornamental floriculture it is represented by a wide range of different shades.
The plant has a compact compact form up to 20 cm tall and wide, with fleshy hairy leaves of silvery tone and small buds that appear in summer.
In regions with a warm climate, culture has been developing for many years, staying in constant bloom. This happens in the Pyrenees, in its homeland, and in other places of distribution: in the Canary Islands, the Azov Islands, the shores of the Bay of Biscay. In temperate climates, the species is cultivated as an annual.
Sea Alyssum loves sandy soil, like on native beaches and dunes. It tolerates a lack of moisture. Its name was due to growth on the privileged sea zones.
In the culture of demand varieties:
- "Tiny Tim" (dwarf),
- "Easter Bonnet Deep Rose" (intensely pink),
- "Violet Konigin" (purple with thick branches),
- "Princess In Perple" (Alympus Alissum).
The combination and use of alissum in landscape design
Alyssum in landscape design, without exaggeration, is indispensable. Although some people are indignant about the low growth of this plant, but in fact nothing better for the borders in the flower garden can not be found.
Gardeners love to decorate lobularia alleys, cracks between paved slabs and even cracks in stone walls with compact color “baskets”.
The use of bright bushes can be found in rock gardens, mixborders, even on balconies and rabatkah. In addition, this option is infallible, because the flower is adapted to the sun and droughts. Especially it is suitable for fans to lay out various solitaires in rockeries from stones and boulders.
Long flowering alissum designers profitable use in the compositions on the flowerbed. When planting it is important to take into account the height and timing of flowering crops, as well as tonality.
For example, white balloons of alissum among red tulips look spectacular. You can choose combinations of shades to your taste from annuals and perennials. The contrasts of violet (pink, blue) and purple tones are picturesquely combined.
Now that you know everything about alissum, the peculiarities of its species and varieties, like an artist, you will draw your landscape from a floral palette. And let it bloom and smell to the joy of you and others.
Alyssum: Varieties and Varieties
The use of alissum in gardening began relatively recently, but every year it is gaining increasing popularity. The reason for this is its unpretentiousness, ease of care, bright attractive flowers and excellent honey aroma.
It is a short crop with a height of up to 40 cm. It is characterized by small oblong leaves and small flowers, gathered in a brush. The color range of alissums is very versatile: from white and yellow to purple. This plant has about 100 species, which can often be found in landscape design.
Sea Alyssum. This species is a perennial plant with a height of 10-40 cm, with creeping stems. They form lush bushes with silvery oval leaves. The flowers of marine alissums are white, lilac, red. The period of their flowering lasts from spring to autumn.
Its most common varieties are:
- "Violet Konigin" (purple, densely branched),
- "Tiny Tim" (white, dwarf, with abundant blooms),
- "Princess In Perple" (light lilac, up to 35 cm long).
Rock Alyssum. These are perennial plants that grow in small spherical shrubs. Their leaves do not die off even in winter. The flowers are usually yellow. Flowering lasts about 40 days in spring.
Mountain Alissum. This type of alissums is well adapted to frost. Its representatives reach a height of 10-20 cm. The plants have stems that creep along the ground, as well as pubescent leaves. Their yellow flowers form neat brushes.
The planting of this wonderful plant in open ground takes place in the period of May-June. For its cultivation is best to choose a sunny area. It is also worth noting that alissums grow well even between slabs and stones. The best is humus-rich neutral soil, which has a good drainage system.
It should be borne in mind that the plants quickly grow in breadth, so you need to keep a distance of about 40 cm between them. For planting, dig holes, the size of which is slightly larger than rhizomes. After that, the alissum is well watered. It will begin to bloom in 6-8 weeks.
A fabulous bright and attractive atmosphere will reign in your garden with a heady honey aroma as soon as an alissum appears. Planting and care do not require special skills. However, adhering to a few simple rules of cultivation, you will be able to reveal all its decorative qualities.
Tip For abundant flowering alissum, in the spring with it you need to remove all flowering blossoms that faded last year. If the same procedure is carried out at the end of the summer season, it will bloom again.
You can cut the plants only 5-8 cm. Their cultivation and care must be accompanied by regular watering in moderate doses. This is very important, because of the lack of moisture, they can simply throw off their flowers. To determine whether it is time to water the Alissum, simply dig the ground 4-5 cm deep. If the soil is dry there, then you can safely take up the watering can.
Make sure that the soil around the plant is always loose and weeded. This will improve its air permeability and, as a consequence, the development of the alissum itself. And remember that proper care and care will return to you a hundredfold in the form of fantastic blooms.
Fertilizer and feeding alissuma
Nitrogen fertilizers plants can be fed at the time of growth of green mass. Before flowering in the soil of alissum they make complex fertilizers. Perennial species, in contrast to the annual, do not require too frequent fertilizing. They will only need one procedure done in the spring season.
Reproduction of alissums can occur in several ways, but the most common seed: seedling and seedless. How does the seed breeding method occur?
Sowing in open ground should be carried out in early May, to a depth of about 1.5 cm. With the advent of the first shoots of the plant, it is possible to thin out slightly. However, they bloom late. You can also plant the seeds in November. During the winter period they will undergo the process of stratification, and in the spring strong shoots will appear that will start blooming in time.
Flower growers often practice breeding seedlings. For this method, you will need a nutrient lime soil and a special container. Spread the prepared alissum seeds on the surface and sprinkle them a little with earth. Cover the container with glass and place in a well-lit room with a temperature of 12-15 degrees. Ventilate the container periodically. With the advent of the first leaves you will need to make a comprehensive fertilizer. When the seedlings are a little stronger, they can already be planted in open ground.
Diseases and pests
The cruciferous flea is the most dangerous for alissum. If this pest is affected, adult plants are treated with a special solution (one tablespoon of vinegar per 10 liters of water). In addition, alissums can be attacked by caterpillars. Remove them by treating plants with infusion of ordinary chamomile.
Excessive or insufficient moisture, which is the result of improper care, can lead to the appearance of late blight of the plant (rhizome rot). To save such an alissum, process it with a tanos, horde, cuproxate or copper oxychloride.
The plant may be contaminated with powdery mildew. In this case, treatment with topaz, oxyhom or ordan is used.
Alyssum: combination with other plants
Different varieties of alissums in combination with other cultures are often used in modern landscape design. All sorts of harmonious combinations of these plants are able to create an enchanting picture.
For example, when planted with rezuha or creeping aubriet, they resemble a fabulous, colorful, fluffy flowery river that flows around other plantations. Such fluffy shrubs are excellent for shading other perennials, such as lilies or roses.
Spectacular contrasting combinations are obtained from purple alissums and yellow marigolds or qenenary, white varieties will look great with salvia, begonia or petunia. Floating your imagination, you can get an amazing result.
Alyssum in landscape design
Due to its decorative beauty and unpretentiousness, these plants today occupy an honorable place in landscape design.
Low-growing types of alissums are used to decorate rocky rock gardens and rockeries. They can also be used to cover the bulbous crops that have faded in the spring (daffodils, grouse, tulips, white flowers).
High varieties are suitable for creating a kind of borders, because they remarkably tolerate a haircut. Alissums look beautiful in hanging street pots and in stylish containers that will significantly transform your balcony or alcove.
Alyssum prefers well lit areasand if it is landed in a dark place, its flowering will be loose. The soil should be light, fertile with excellent drainage and neutral acidity. Some varieties of alissum even frost-resistant, which must be considered when choosing a place to plant. Excellent flower growth is observed among the stones and slabs well warmed by the sun.
How to plant and grow
Alissum propagated by seeds in open ground. It should be placed after all frosts at night, that is, in May and June. Sowing the seeds of alissum is easy enough - just crumble to the ground and slightly pressed down with your hands. You don’t need to sprinkle them on the ground because the seeds need direct sunlight for good germination. Sowing alissum is not necessary very densely, since no further picking is carried out, and in case of thickened sowing powdery mildew is able to form. Even if the shoots have ascended very thick, carefully try to thin them, leaving a gap of 10 cm between them.
If you want to start blooming earlier, plant seedlingswhich you can get by the following method:
- Prepare the soil, which should be loose, moist, nutritious. Place it in a special box and carefully sow the seeds from the pinch, then gently press and water.
- Cover the box with the seeds of alissum with plastic wrap and leave it in a bright and warm room.
- The vegetative period of the plant takes about two months, and the seedlings themselves can be seen already on the seventh day. It is at this time that it is very important to add artificial lighting and create a temperature of +12 o. Watering the shoots of alissum should be moderate.
- Planting of seedlings in the open ground occurs when the alissum seedlings are strengthened. In addition, you can plant a plant before winter, in the spring to get plenty of flowering.
Caring for an alissum is easy, thanks plant simplicity. The main thing that you always need to do is cut and trim. In the spring, it is necessary to remove flower stalks from last year, as well as weak branches and dried foliage. A similar procedure is carried out immediately after flowering. Often such a procedure becomes an excellent stimulus for the secondary flowering of the alissum.
Flower requires constant watering, however, without over-flooding, because without the necessary moisture, the plant simply drops flowers. The best is considered to be watering an alissum with a hose placed under bushes for its uniform distribution or with the help of a nozzle that creates a kind of rain watering.
Alyssum requires bi-fertilization with nitrogen or complex fertilizers twice a year. This gives him the power to bloom and increase greenery, and besides this, the plant will bloom brightly and long.
Pests and diseases of alissum
Flower capable hit some diseases, for example, its roots and root collar are touched by brown rot. In addition, the plant suffers from downy mildew, viral mosaic (standard cauliflower disease), wilt and jaundice asters.
Speaking about the pests of alissum, of course, do not forget about the caterpillars, moths and cabbage moths, reptiles moths and cruciferous fleas. In order to prevent the multiplication of pests and cure alissum, flower growers use standard protective equipment that can be purchased in specialized stores.
Where is alissum used?
The most common alissum is king of the alpine hills due to its versatility because it is not afraid of direct sunlight. It is perfectly used for masking plants that have faded. Due to the fact that alissum is growing rapidly, it is often used as a carpet plant. When it blooms, it looks extraordinary, and no less beautiful after it blooms, due to the amazingly beautiful color of the leaves (photo).
Very often for registration of borders, paths and flowerbeds, flower growers use low-growing types of alissum. In addition, experienced florists recommend considering the plant as an element of group planting. The flowers of alissum contrast well with the rest of the flowers and complement the picture of the flowerbed well. Often alissum combined with phlox, irises, tulips, which bloom late.
Growing alissum in pots and flower containers, they can decorate your balconies. However, do not forget about the sweet honey aroma that attracts many bees.
Types of alissum
Professional gardeners emit two main types of alissum and its various varieties.
Alyssum sea - an annual plant that forms small rosettes of flowers, grows up to 20 cm in height. The flower is not able to winter in the open field. Wonderful flowers of alissum white, pink and blue color are pleasing to the eye in May and before the first frosts.
Certain varieties of sea alissum:
- Salmon (photo) - grows up to 10 centimeters and differs in flowers of salmon-pink shade.
- Tim Tim - height no more than eight centimeters. Multiple white flowers grow carpet, covering even the stems and foliage.
- Paletta is a combination of sub-varieties of brown, white, lilac and crimson flowers.
- New Erikot (photo) - gently-apricot flowers of the plant are pleasing to the eye, and the plant itself grows low.
- Alyssum rocky is a perennial that grows up to 30 cm, which has leaves of various shapes with a rich gray color. Such leaves are stored even for the winter. Yellow flowers are gathered in panicles, and they appear for a rather short period of April-May.
Some types of rocky alissum:
- Citrinum - short stature, flowering pale yellow.
- Plenum - small growth, small double flowers.
- Compactum (photo) - an aromatic plant is drawn out to a maximum of 18 cm.
- Golden wave - a lush plant grows up to 20 cm, and its fragrant and cute yellow flowers perfectly decorate your garden.
- Mountain gold (photo) - spectacular yellow inflorescences delight the eye until the frost and prefer solar lighting. Great for alpine slides.