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Growing strawberries in a greenhouse: selection of varieties and planting technology

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Strawberries (garden strawberries) as a crop culture appeared in the 18th century by crossing two wild strawberry species. Since then, breeders and agrotechnists have been working continuously to improve the varietal qualities of this plant. Its berries are considered to be a delicacy. Information on how to grow strawberries in the greenhouse all year round will be useful to people who have personal homestead farms and those who decide to build a berry business.

Growing strawberries in the greenhouse all year round

Growing strawberries in winter becomes a popular hobby or a profitable business, depending on the amount of the result - fresh, sweet berries. When complying with the agrotechnical requirements of cultivation, strawberries in the greenhouse give excellent yields all year round. The cost of acquiring the necessary equipment pays off in a maximum of two years, after which you can make a tangible profit. Berry business can be mastered by starting it with a small greenhouse, built on a personal plot.

Strawberry Greenhouses

Depending on the desired result, greenhouses can have a different shape and area. On private plots, a leaning construction is often attached to the wall of a house. To it is easy to bring heating from home and provide water. The framework of such a structure is often made of glass-coated wood. An alternative material for the manufacture of heated greenhouses is a metal (usually steel) profile and cellular polycarbonate. Using polyethylene film to cover a greenhouse is cheaper, but it will have to be changed every season.

Each of the listed materials has its advantages and disadvantages, so each owner chooses the material “affordable” for the construction of a cultivation facility. From whatever the greenhouse was made, it should perform the following functions:

  • Protect cultivated crops from wind, hail, snow, etc.
  • Provide cultivated plants with the necessary conditions for active growth and fruiting:
  1. optimal ambient temperature
  2. sufficient lighting
  3. available water
  4. acceptable humidity.

Strawberry belongs to the heat-loving crops. When growing it in greenhouse conditions, the temperature should be maintained from + 10 ° С to +24 ° С. It is regulated depending on the period of plant life:

  • landing - + 10 ° C,
  • growth - + 20 ° C,
  • flowering and fruiting - + 24 ° C.

High temperature is as destructive for a berry crop as low. A long period of elevated temperature will lead to plant growth of leaves and weak flowering, which, naturally, will affect the yield. Heating greenhouses happens:

  • convector (device with heating spirals),
  • air heater (heat fans),
  • water heating (hot water pipe system),
  • infrared (heaters with infrared rays),
  • heat pumps.

All functions of the plant organism depend on the intensity and period of illumination. Only in the light during photosynthesis do plants produce the organic matter necessary for life. With an increase in the light period from 8 to 16 hours, it is possible to speed up the beginning of flowering by 5 days and to begin the ripening of its fruits two weeks earlier. Depending on the area and investment opportunities, the following types of lamps are selected for the greenhouse construction system:

  • fluorescent,
  • metal halide,
  • high pressure sodium lamps,
  • LED.

The water supplied to the greenhouse should have two functions at the same time: watering the cultivated crops and maintaining the optimum humidity. Manual watering and irrigation is practically not used in large greenhouses. Waterlogging of the soil and the ingress of water on the leaves and flowers have a negative effect on berry crops. In the greenhouse crop industry, they increasingly use a drip and subsoil irrigation system. At high humidity, there is a failure of the physiological processes of the plant, including pollination.

Under conditions of excess moisture, pathogenic microflora is rapidly developing, causing disease in the bushes of strawberry. In order to avoid undesirable effects of waterlogging, plant breeders are installed in the air control and air humidification system. Special sensors measure temperature and humidity. If the set parameters do not correspond to the actual values, water sprayers are automatically switched on. For successful cultivation in greenhouse conditions, it is necessary to create this level of humidity:

  • 80% - with rooting seedlings,
  • 75% - during flowering,
  • 70% - during the formation of the fruit.

The technology of growing strawberries in the greenhouse

To obtain high yields of strawberry in greenhouse conditions, it is necessary to select special varieties of crops adapted to the conditions of artificial lighting with an early ripening period. On the territory with a temperate climate, strawberries in a heifer are grown using two technologies, which make it possible to obtain a large amount of fruits during the year: Russian and Dutch. The latter is more productive for the berry business, but it requires large material and labor costs.

The agrotechnology of the Russian method provides for the selection of a high-yielding variety of remontant (strawberry bearing fruit several times a year) and cultivating it for 5 years. The last year of the five-year period of cultivation of crops involves obtaining seedlings with one of the existing methods (from seeds or whiskers), the destruction of old plants and planting young bushes of berries.

Dutch

Strawberries in a greenhouse can be grown in an alternative way - the Dutch. This technology of continuous cultivation of strawberry in heated greenhouses. To do this, select superearly varieties of berry culture. Planting is carried out by fan (in parts) after a certain period of time, which reduces labor costs and contributes to the continuous process of fruit bearing of berry bushes. After the first harvest, all planting material is removed, and new plants are planted in its place.

Growing methods

The traditional way of growing berries in beds is considered obsolete. It requires a large area of ​​the greenhouse. A weighty argument in favor of this method can be considered a small financial cost compared to new methods of cultivation of strawberry. Its disadvantages include:

  • Growth of weeds, additional labor costs for their removal.
  • Rooting of strawberry garden mustache with their untimely removal, which requires periodic thinning of the beds.
  • The contact of ripened berries with wet soil is the cause of the formation of rot.
  • Large water consumption. From the open surface of the soil moisture evaporates quickly.
  • The inconvenient position of the body of an employee caring for the plant and collecting the fruit.

The latest technologies contribute to the automation of agrotechnical processes, obtaining high yields of berries year-round thanks to the effective use of greenhouse area. One way is to cultivate strawberries in hydroponics. Translated from the Greek, this word means "working solution". Plants are grown on hydroponic substrate (expanded clay, perlite), and not in the ground. Automated installation conducts climate control, delivers the necessary nutrients to the plant's root system in the form of an aqueous solution.

The advantages of growing strawberries in hydroponics include:

  • Economical use of the useful area of ​​greenhouses.
  • Control and regulation of nutrient feeding and plant transpiration.
  • Saving water, mineral and organic solutions by supplying it directly to the root system.
  • There is no place for weeds in this system, so there is no need to use herbicides or labor to remove weeds.
  • Unmistakable hydroponic agricultural technology is the key to the health of cultivated plants and high crop yields.

The process of groundless cultivation of crops - the work of the near future. Scientists of the world are working hard to improve new technologies in crop production. In the meantime, hydroponics has several disadvantages:

  • Strong dependence on energy. Simultaneously with the installation of a hydroponic installation, it is necessary to provide the system with additional energy sources (in case of emergency situations related to energy carriers).
  • High cost of equipment and energy.
  • Agrotechnical errors immediately affect the condition of the cultivated plants, as they are highly dependent on external conditions.

Horizontal

Many specialists in the cultivation of berry crops are considered one of the best ways to cultivate in horizontal greenhouse conditions. It is used more often by the Dutch technology of strawberry cultivation. Apply PVC pipes or bags of reinforced polyethylene to create artificial beds. They make holes for planting uterine plants, hold inside the basal watering hoses, fill with soil of a certain composition. Artificial beds are arranged in horizontal rows, effectively using the area of ​​the greenhouse.

They have rows with bags (pipes) on shelves in several tiers at an angle to each other, so that the plants get the maximum light. The advantages of this method:

  • efficient use of space
  • no weeds,
  • the vertical position of the body of workers caring for plants
  • the fruits do not touch the ground, therefore they are always clean and do not rot.

Horizontal method of cultivation of berry crops can be used outdoors in private homestead farms. These beds have a decorative appearance and are very comfortable. But they have several disadvantages:

  • It requires investment, time and labor to create the structure itself.
  • Used soil is depleted over time. Requires additional mineral fertilizing plants.
  • A small amount of soil, the presence of expanded clay in it and the absence of natural processes of the circuit quickly alkalize the substrate. It is required from time to time to change it, which is accompanied with new costs.

Vertical

The vertical method of cultivation is based on the same principle of preparing artificial beds as the horizontal one, only mounted vertically. This makes it possible to more efficiently use the area, which increases the profitability of the greenhouse. The rest of the strawberries in the greenhouse in a vertical way has the same pros and cons as horizontal.

Hothouse varieties

The key to successful cultivation of one of the above methods is the correct selection of varieties of culture. The main criteria underlying the selection are:

  • Productivity Before you start growing, you need to understand how many kilograms of strawberries are supposed to be harvested.
  • Pollination methods. The priority are varieties of strawberry, capable of self-pollination.
  • The rate of maturation. It is necessary to pay attention to the duration of ripening berries. Among others, you can choose early ripening varieties. In some cases it is advantageous to cultivate several varieties with different periods of maturation.
  • Length of the whip. At present, varieties with long lashes (ampelous) are bred. Ripe berry is located 10 cm from the mother plant at the end of the whip. This has advantages for quick harvesting.
  • Quality characteristics of the berries. Among them, the weight of the fruit, the density of the pulp, taste.
  • Storage and transportation. It is important to know how the berry behaves during transportation, how much is stored and under what conditions.

Domestic breeders have achieved great results in breeding new hybrids of strawberry soda for greenhouse cultivation. The most popular varieties are:

  • Arapaho,
  • Temptation,
  • Sonata,
  • Honey,
  • Crown,
  • Marmalade,
  • Elsanta,
  • Moscow delicacy,
  • Tristar
  • Selva.

Honey is a universal self-pollinating variety for cultivation in greenhouse and open ground conditions. Bred by American breeders at the end of the last century and since then has not lost its popularity. Juicy, sweet berry weighing 20–40 g, has excellent transportability. Berries can be stored for up to 3 days at room temperature. Productivity - 0.5–1 kg from a bush. The plant is resistant to diseases.

Elsanta is a Dutch self-pollinating early variety. Productivity - 1-2 kg from a bush. Resistant to gray mold, brown spot susceptible to powdery mildew. Very demanding compliance with the mode of irrigation. Poor tolerates both lack of water and waterlogging. The berries are glossy, one size, juicy, with a sour-sweet taste. Long stored, well tolerated transportation.

Selva - remontant variety with large fruits (60-75 g), bred by American breeders by crossing varieties Brighton, Tufts and Pajero. Refers to superearly varieties. Demanding compliance with the necessary conditions of agricultural engineering. Ideal for use in Dutch growing technology. Well tolerated transportation.

Advantages and disadvantages

There is no doubt that the cultivation of strawberries in greenhouses can protect it from the negative effects of weather conditions. That is, neither bad weather, nor a temporary return of frosts or prolonged rains will be dangerous for it. In addition, it is more difficult to get into the greenhouse for pests and birds, various animals that want to eat the crop. There are completely human-controlled conditions. It is possible to regulate not only the thermal regime and humidity, but also the condition of the soil, its chemical composition.

But there are serious problems. So, growing strawberries even in the best greenhouses, albeit a bit, but limits its insolation. Even worse things are with ventilation. There are certainly well-ventilated structures, but they are noticeably more expensive than ordinary greenhouses. In addition, care for watering falls entirely on gardeners, they can no longer rely on the natural assistance that rain and dew have.

Prerequisites and requirements

When equipping a greenhouse, one should strive to ensure that strawberries can grow all year round, even in winter. For this purpose only stationary structures erected on the foundation are used. They must be glazed or made of polycarbonate. Additionally, a winter greenhouse construction, including one built by own hands, should contain:

  • means for enhanced lighting,
  • heating equipment,
  • ventilation accessories
  • moisturizing and watering equipment.

There are various options for heating greenhouses. The choice between them is determined by:

  • location of the structure
  • the cost of certain types of heating,
  • features of the site
  • composition of crops grown
  • climatic features
  • engineering infrastructure on the site.

Heating greenhouse buildings in the cold season can be, if you lay a pipe there. Already at the design stage, you need to think about the electrical infrastructure. Without it, it is impossible to establish the normal operation of the fluorescent lamps. It makes sense to immediately invest in high-quality lamps, and not to purchase products of dubious origin. In the winter months, it is necessary to ensure heating to 22-24 degrees, and the duration of the backlight should sometimes be up to 14 hours.

Yield indicators

The number of berries harvested from 1 m2 depends primarily on the method of planting bushes. Gardeners with experience can collect 60 kg of fruit per year from such an area. But novice farmers should be considered a great success, and 30 kg per 1 square. m. The maximum yield per plant in ideal conditions can be 4 kg.

Early high quality varieties can produce 0.4-0.5 kg of berries in one fruiting. Such a result is quite achievable even without any sophisticated measures. But those who want to get the most out of their landings must strictly adhere to the norms of agricultural technology. A year-round working greenhouse is able to produce up to 4 crops per year. Much more depends on the selected variety.

Selection of suitable varieties

In the greenhouse it is recommended to grow self-pollinated varieties of strawberries. Experts say that the highest chances of success are when using several types at once. Some of the best, according to experts, are varieties of DSD, which are:

  • they pollinate themselves
  • little depend on the duration of the backlight,
  • able to give several yields in one year.

From the achievements of Russian breeders can confidently be called "Pineapple", "Corona", "Elizabeth." Foreign developers also managed to produce quite good varieties of strawberries - "Elsantu" and "Sonata". It is necessary to plant either purchased in professional nurseries, or planting material grown from seeds by own efforts. Before planting, the land must be enriched with humus, regardless of the selected variety.

It is also advisable to read the reviews of other farmers and information from the state register.

Technologies and agricultural technology

The Dutch way is good because it allows you to get the harvest all year round, even in relatively poor conditions. Ягоды не будут соприкасаться с землей. Растения, выращиваемые по этой методике, обязательно высаживают в различные емкости. Такой подход исключает возникновение целого ряда проблем и утрату товарного вида. Саженцы высаживают приблизительно каждые 45-60 суток, когда завершается успешное плодоношение предыдущих.

The Dutch version of the cultivation of strawberries is good precisely because it maintains productivity at a continuously high level. But full-fledged conditions for the development of plants should be created. We will have to systematically, according to a verified schedule, feed them. Even gourmets and experienced tasters will surely like the taste of the collected fruits. It will be possible to extract the maximum benefit from a limited area.

In the greenhouse the best types of strawberries are:

But we must understand that the Dutch technology also imposes strict requirements on the farms themselves. They must be consistently provided with planting material. For growing plants within a small farm is best to prepare this material on their own. You will also have to take care of high-quality lighting and rational microclimate. Some professionals believe that in the greenhouses special lamps should be used to support the plants, giving a near-natural emission spectrum.

Watering the land in Dutch greenhouses is often done using drip technology. Its advantages are:

  • further reducing the risk of fungal infection,
  • reduction of evaporative losses
  • lack of weed support
  • minimal energy and water costs
  • the ability to synchronize watering and fertilizing.

Netherlands greenhouse must have thorough ventilation. Only then will it be possible to avoid the defeat of rot and improve the taste characteristics of the fruit. Normal thermal regime - from 18 to 25 degrees. But with active flowering, the air must be stably heated to 21 degrees. Both excess and low temperature affect the plants negatively. The recommended level of humidity is from 70 to 80%.

For maximum space saving, vertical cultivation of strawberries in greenhouses is often recommended. It contributes to the maintenance of cleanliness and prevents the harmful effects of dampness. Strawberries grown in this way are unattainable for the main part of pests. It will be extremely difficult to suppress it and weeds. It should be remembered that watering the beds will have more often (they dry faster), that it will be necessary to introduce only liquid dressings.

Vertical beds in cold winters easily freeze. Therefore, it is necessary either to take care of powerful heating and reliable insulation, or to move the plants into the house. Planting berry crops vertically is possible in plastic bottles, pipes or in barrels. If small tanks are used, hydrogel should be used. Thanks to him, the frequency of irrigation can be slightly reduced.

In greenhouses, strawberries are also grown hydroponically. In this case, special substrates are used that actively absorb moisture and become a mechanical support for the root system. All materials used contain a significant amount of pores. Farmers are able to fully control exactly what nutrients to the roots and how much. Water is optimally used, even a small part of it is not wasted.

Hydroponics allows you to completely abandon the use of herbicides and other toxic chemicals. After all, before the plants, in principle, do not get any pests or weeds. As a result, the vitality of the culture grows significantly. Its overall performance also increases. But the time of receipt of the first crops significantly reduced.

But it is important to understand that hydroponics is not a panacea. In order to obtain an optimal result, the farmers themselves must be prepared theoretically and practically. Large volumes of special solutions will be required. The slightest mistake is difficult to fix, because, unlike the soil, the substrate is not able to regulate the composition independently, without human intervention. It will be necessary to strictly maintain the required air temperature.

Strawberries on racks are mainly grown by those who wish to sell it in significant quantities. This approach allows for a quick return on investment. If everything is done correctly, it will be possible to compensate the initial investment and break even in just one season. The level of profitability can reach from 75 to 100%. But for ordinary gardeners, this approach is unnecessarily complicated.

Attempting to grow strawberries in a greenhouse for beginner farmers often seems very difficult. But in fact, if you choose the optimal approach and strictly follow the basic principles, problems are almost excluded. Most often for the cultivation of delicious berries use designs made of polycarbonate. They give excellent results in a variety of climatic conditions, in all Russian regions without exception. Classical soil landing involves a distance between early plants of about 150 mm, and between middle and late varieties - 200 mm.

The gap between the individual beds can be 300 mm. The depth of the holes reaches 0.25–0.3 m, and their average diameter is 0.25 m. It is necessary to sprinkle the roots gently with soil and immediately water it abundantly. Poured on the ground cover mulch. As its recommended needles, straw and sawdust.

The mulch layout should be uniform for all plants. Instead of organic substances, agrarian fiber is sometimes used.

The best mulch substitutes are black. Such materials pass air well, but maintain a peculiar greenhouse effect. Covering material will additionally protect the landing from parasites.

Care and protection from diseases

To grow a good harvest, it is not enough to cover the strawberries in the greenhouse from the influence of the weather. Special care will be required, the provision of which starts from spring days. Preparation of seedlings involves growing it first in clay containers, and then in free land. During the first 7 days after planting in the greenhouse, the daytime temperature should be not lower than 7, and the nighttime temperature should not be lower than 3 degrees. In this case, we should not forget about the systematic ventilation.

As soon as the first, most difficult, period is completed, it is required to systematically increase the heating. The temperature is raised gradually, so that so that on the 30th day of day and night cultivation it was 14 and 12 degrees, respectively. The recommended level of humidity is 75%. To get rid of dried air, from time to time the earth is sprayed.

In the greenhouse it is necessary to lure the bees, even if the declared varieties are used as self-pollinated.

It is extremely important to maintain a decent sanitary state of landings. For perennial plants (and strawberries are precisely among them), smooth replacement of old foliage with new leaves is characteristic. Because you have to use pruning. In autumn, 100% of the leaves should be removed so that the plant can redirect all its energy to the development of the roots. This technique allows you to increase the resistance to frost and finally avoid damage by pests and infections.

If the terrain is characterized by a harsh climate, pruning is done immediately after collecting the last fruits in due time. It is not recommended to wait for the backward berries to develop. Experienced farmers advise to get rid of foliage to the ground. Everything that is cut is burned. Ridges necessarily treated Bordeaux liquid.

The end of pruning does not mean that you can stop care. On the contrary, after it the plants are watered and fertilized. It is necessary to loosen the earth up to a full-fledged beginning of winter. As for disease prevention, the main danger for greenhouse planting is gray rot. First of all, the disease affects the leaves, but soon its manifestations can be seen on the berries.

It is very important to inspect the bushes whenever possible. Any infected berry must be immediately destroyed. If the infection has hit the whole bush, it can no longer be saved. It remains only to get rid of the problem plant, in order to exclude the transfer of the pathogen to the healthy parts of the beds.

For pollination in greenhouses, bumble-bee hives are occasionally installed. But this method creates a big risk for the owners of the site and other people for pets. Because it is much more common to use simple brushes to transfer pollen. Or sent in the direction of the peduncle air jets, which drives a home fan.

Watering strawberries in the greenhouse can be drip method, by sprinkling or auxiliary irrigation. Sprinkling is carried out only before flowering. As soon as the flowers are formed, watering becomes permissible only at the root and in the gaps of the foliage. Moistening frequency - 1 time in 10 days. When the fruiting is over, it is necessary to supply the strawberries with moisture as needed.

In any case, you can not get involved in watering, to prevent the defeat of fungi.

Before irrigation berries are harvested. When the shrub is watered, they immediately loosen the ground. Those who violate this rule themselves are punished by a decrease in yield. Rational top dressing for the first year consists of 400 g of cow manure and 30 g of ammonium. Both components are diluted in 10 liters of water.

At 1 plant consumes 1 liter of the prepared mixture. In the second year of life, strawberries consume the same mixture. However, before feeding the ground sprinkled with wood ash. On 1 square. m surface use 400 g of ash. And even easier to mix 10 liters of water with 10 kg of nettle and make the infusion.

How to grow strawberries in the greenhouse, see below.

More recently, the cultivation of strawberries in the winter was only due to greenhouses with industrial facilities. Now, planting strawberries in a greenhouse will not surprise anyone - modern varieties and technologies allow anyone to do this.

Of course, year-round cultivation of strawberries requires financial investments, labor and knowledge, but with sufficient effort it can pay off. In addition, even if you are not going to do business from strawberry growing in a greenhouse, it can become an interesting hobby.

Strawberry growing equipment

The most expensive in the cultivation of strawberries - the construction of the greenhouse and its equipment. You cannot do with an ordinary wooden greenhouse with film cover - it can, of course, accelerate the ripening of berries in summer, but it will not endure winter.

Therefore, it is usual for a winter strawberry growing to establish a glass or polycarbonate greenhouse on a wooden or metal frame. The thickness of the polycarbonate should not be less than 16 mm, and the base is strong enough not to fall under the load of snow. For residents of the northern regions and those who want to significantly save on heating, a greenhouse-thermos partially immersed in the ground can be an excellent option.

Building a thermos greenhouse: step by step instructions

Build a greenhouse-thermos and collect an unprecedented harvest of a variety of vegetables and fruits.

In addition to the greenhouse you will need:

  • phytolamps or fluorescent lamps capable of providing 10-14 hours of daylight to landings,
  • drip irrigation system
  • heating system that maintains a uniform temperature in the greenhouse,
  • fans that ensure air movement and uniform heating at different heights,
  • thermometer and hygrometer (temperature and humidity sensor),
  • racks, pots and drawers (for multi-level planting).

Strawberry varieties for greenhouses

Not every variety is suitable for growing strawberries for sale or for their own needs during the cold season. Only varieties with a certain set of qualities will give a big harvest:

  • self-pollinated (setting fruits without insects), because putting a beehive with bees into a winter greenhouse is rather difficult and too expensive, and it’s not rational to pollinate thousands of inflorescences yourself.
  • varieties of neutral day (they bear fruit continuously, tying fruit buds every 5-6 weeks).
  • with lying, transportable and leveled berries.

Many varieties satisfy these criteria, but most of them are not Russian breeding, so planting material will also have to be spent. If you want a guaranteed high result, choose: Albion, Pineapple, Arapaho, Brighton, Mount Everest, Darlelekt, Elizabeth II, Temptation, Capri, Corona, Linoza, Mahern, Moscow delicacy, Ozark Beauty, Red Rich, Sakhalin, Tribute, Truffo Produce, Tristar, Elsinore, Everest and others.

It is important to remember that before planting in the greenhouse strawberry seedlings must be trained and tested. Purchased seedlings in the summer need to be planted in open ground, check their fruiting and varietal quality, and then collect and plant the "mustache", which they will give in the second half of summer.

These "mustaches" are actively watered and fed, helping them to form a developed root system, and at the end of October (before the onset of frost) they are transplanted into pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm, remove the leaves and clean the storehouse (cellar) with a temperature from 0 to –2 ° C Only after a period of rest, which, depending on the variety, can last from several weeks to 9 months, the bushes are ready for planting in the greenhouse.

If you do not want to spend an entire season preparing planting material, you can buy frigo strawberry seedlings in the nursery, which has already passed all the necessary preparation steps.

Strawberry frigo - what is this seedling, how to choose, store and grow it correctly

The popularity of strawberry frigo is growing from year to year. What is its secret and what gives outlandish seedlings?

Growing strawberries in the ground

It is simpler and more usual to plant strawberries in a greenhouse directly into the ground (regular or high ridges). Of course, this limits the usable area of ​​the greenhouse to one level, but it allows you to spend a minimum of time on care.

When planting in the soil, the bushes are planted at a distance of 20 × 20 cm, and the bed is closed with spunbond or mulch. This allows you to protect plants from pests, the ground from drying out, and yourself from regular weeding.

Growing strawberries using Dutch technology

Practical Dutch technology allows you to squeeze the most out of a small greenhouse. On it strawberry bushes are planted in bags with nutritious soil and are replaced after each fruiting.

This technology provides a significant increase in yield, but to realize it is quite difficult - plantings need racks, a complex branched drip irrigation system and fertilization, as well as a separate plantation for growing seedlings.

Growing strawberries in horizontal PVC pipes

The method of growing in PVC pipes is visually similar to the previous method. The pipes themselves are both a support on which the bushes are located, and a ground reservoir, and do not allow water to pass through, which means that watering can be done directly over them.

The construction requires PVC pipes of two sizes: with a diameter of 100-150 mm and thinner, with a diameter of 20-30 mm, but longer. In thick pipes with a drill with a wide nozzle or grinder cut holes with a diameter of 5 cm at a distance of 15 cm from each other. Small holes are drilled in thin pipes, then the pipe is wrapped with geotextile or agrofibre and secured with wire.

At the bottom of thick pipes, claydite is poured for drainage, then thin pipes are inserted, through which water and fertilizers will be supplied, and then the rest of it is filled with fertile soil, and seedlings are planted in the holes above.

Irrigation pipes are connected to an automated irrigation system or a large container with water raised to the very greenhouse ceiling. Wide PVC pipes on both sides are closed with plugs to prevent water from washing out the soil.

Every adult strawberry bush needs 3-5 liters of soil.

Detailed instructions on the construction of such structures, planting seedlings in them, caring for plants in the summer and winter periods, read our article Growing Strawberries in PVC Pipes - a guide for beginners with videos.

Growing strawberries in pots and containers

For the smallest greenhouses, for example, semi-folding, attached to one of the walls of the house, or winter gardens, growing strawberries in pots will do. This option is not suitable for business, but it can significantly diversify the diet of your family in the winter and in the cold season.

Watering, additional lighting and fertilizing remain the same as in large greenhouses, but a small number of bushes will reduce the time of care for strawberries to a minimum.

How to prepare a greenhouse for planting strawberries

After the construction and technical equipment of the greenhouse is completed, it's time to start preparing the soil. If growing berries for you is a business, and you want to know exactly how many strawberry bushes should be planted in a greenhouse so that it is profitable to grow, then you should not save on the ground. Take coconut fiber, mineral wool or ready-made substrate.

If you grow berries exclusively for your needs, you can prepare the soil yourself. To do this, spill the garden soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, deposit it with a bucket of rotted manure and lowland peat, half a bucket of coarse-grained sand, 70 g of superphosphate, 2 cups of ash and 20 g of urea per 1 sq. Stir the soil thoroughly, remove all stones, plant debris, larvae and insect eggs.

Strawberry growing conditions in year-round greenhouse

It depends on the conditions for growing bushes how soon the first flowers and ovaries will appear on the strawberries. As a rule, special conditions for planting and growing are required for each variety. But there are also general rules for all that guarantee a good harvest.

  1. During transplanting, the temperature in the greenhouse should be 10-12 ° C, during the growth of greenery it is raised to 20 ° C, and by flowering to 24 ° C.
  2. Оптимальная влажность в теплице составляет порядка 85% во время посадки, и не выше 70% при цветении клубники.
  3. Вода при поливе не должна попадать на цветки и листья, поэтому капельный полив клубнике необходим.
  4. Помимо окон для проветривания, которые можно открывать летом и в положительную температуру, на зимнее время должна быть продумана система принудительной вентиляции.
  5. A strawberry needs a light day lasting at least 8 hours. Under these conditions, it will bloom in two weeks after planting, and will tie the berries in a month and a half. If the daylight is doubled, the first flowers will appear within 10 days, and the berries - 35-37 days. Strawberries should be supplemented continuously only on cloudy days, while the rest of the time you can do it in the early morning (before the sun) and after sunset.
  6. Every 14 days strawberries need to be fed. To do this, you can take ready-made nutrient solutions or prepare a mixture of 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium salt per bucket of water.

Strawberry treatment for diseases and pests

In the warm and humid conditions of the greenhouse, not only strawberries develop well, but also the pests and diseases affected by conditions that are so unexpected for winter. They will start attacking the winter greenhouse with tripled strength, so it’s best not to forget about prevention, so as not to lose the expensive berries.

All diseases characteristic of strawberry on the street are also found in her greenhouse relatives, and the treatment is no different.

Strawberry diseases: photos, description, treatment

From this material, presented in pictures, you will learn what diseases of strawberries can deprive you of the harvest of delicious berries.

To avoid such problems, follow a few simple rules:

  • plant only healthy seedlings,
  • do not overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers and do not miss potassium-phosphorus supplements,
  • remove diseased, dried or broken leaves and stems,
  • sacrifice the diseased bushes, if you did not manage to save them when the first signs of the disease appear,
  • before the appearance of the ovaries, treat the bushes with Fitosporin, Alirin or Gliokladin to prevent diseases.

Now that you know how difficult it is to grow strawberries in a greenhouse all year round, you will understand why these berries are so expensive in the winter, and they are rarely seen on the shelves.

The best greenhouse varieties

Growing strawberries in a greenhouse makes it possible to have appetizing homemade berries on the table, regardless of the season and weather conditions, it saves space by compact placement of bushes and preserves a large percentage of the crop.

Experienced gardeners by perennial samples found out which varieties of garden strawberries show the best yield when grown in protected ground. For this, one should choose high-yielding, remontant, self-pollinated, neutral day varieties. We have compiled for you an overview and a brief description of dozens of popular varieties.

    "Albion". Remontant, capable of repeated fruiting variety. Bred in 2006 in the USA. It is characterized by high yield (0.4–2 kg from one bush per season), large berries (40–60 g each), resistance to abrupt weather changes, anthracnose and gray rot.

How to choose a good strawberry seedlings

In order to get a generous harvest, in addition to the correct choice of varieties, you need to also purchase high-quality seedlings. When buying with plants it is necessary to make the following manipulations:

  • inspect the leaves - they should have a healthy appearance, a rich green color, not have spots, wrinkles, dots and damage,
  • count the sheets - there should be at least three of them in the outlet,
  • to inspect the root collar for the absence of rot, stains, as well as to assess its thickness (normally - at least 5 mm in diameter),
  • assess the condition of the roots - they must be healthy and well developed, at least 7 cm long.

For those who plan to grow strawberries for sale, we recommend purchasing so-called healthy seedlings - plants grown from uterine bushes in special conditions. These seedlings are much more expensive than regular ones, however, they have high resistance to diseases and pests, show the highest yield. Maximum yields can be achieved from plants that were removed in time flower stalks. Therefore, it is best to purchase seedlings in proven certified gardening and nurseries.

Soil for cultivation

The first thing you should pay attention to when planting is the composition of the soil. It is prepared a year before the saplings are placed in the greenhouse. The best result can be achieved in the nutrient land used after cereal crops.

Produce fertilizer with humus or compost to saturate the necessary trace elements and peat, which will improve the air- and moisture-permeable qualities of the soil and optimize the level of acidity. If the soil is too acidic, you will need to add lime - 50 kg per hundred.

Before planting in pre-moistened land make:

  • superphosphate - 30 g / 1 sq. m,
  • potassium chloride - 15 g / 1 sq. m

Planting seedlings

Today, strawberries are preferred to be grown in three ways:

  • Traditional - in the ground.
  • In pots.
  • In plastic bags or bags.
In the latter case, the plant can be cultivated in a horizontal and vertical position, which significantly allows to reduce the place in the greenhouse, to facilitate the work of care and to achieve better yields. At each weave fit the same number of bushes as 30-40 weave when planting in the usual way. Video: planting strawberry seedlings in the greenhouse

Classic scheme

Landing is a two-line method or in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between the rows should be 30-40 cm, between bushes - 25-30 cm, between strips - 80-100 cm. If the seedlings were bought in pots, then they are transplanted by transferring them into the holes 10 cm deep without destroying the earthy coma.

The point of growth must remain above the ground. After planting, the plants are watered and mulched with sawdust, straw, geotextile or other materials. Watering in the first month after planting is carried out daily.

In special pots

Dutch technology involves planting seedlings in separate pots. They are located in five or six tiers - so on each square meter fit about 50 bushes.

For planting in pots it will be necessary to prepare the substrate from:

  • peat (two parts),
  • perlite (one piece),
  • sawdust (1.5 parts).

Pots should be 18-20 cm in diameter, made of plastic, wood, but not metal. They are hung on special mounts, put on wooden or metal racks.

Strawberry bushes are planted like ordinary houseplants: they put a layer of drainage on the bottom, fill the pot with a moistened substrate, carefully place the root system in the hole and sprinkle it with the substrate, lightly tamping it. At the end of planting the plants need to be watered. It is important not to forget about the presence of a drain hole in the pot to remove excess moisture.

Video: growing strawberries in pots

An alternative to pot growing is planting in plastic bags, which is becoming increasingly popular among farmers. At cost, this method is much cheaper.

Its essence is that the substrate is poured into large, dense plastic bags, preferably white in color, which are installed on the floor, placed on racks, and suspended from fasteners. Desirable package sizes are 16 by 210 cm.

At the bottom of the bags lay expanded clay as a drainage, and then fill them with a substrate of peat and perlite in equal proportions (a mixture of turf soil, river sand, sawdust and humus will also do). Then along the package make incisions of 8 cm at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. They put the bushes seedlings.

For the cultivation of strawberries using this technology will require the organization of drip irrigation. Instead of plastic bags, polypropylene bags are also used, for example, made from sugar.

Conditions and care for strawberries in the greenhouse

After planting by any of the above methods, care must be taken of the favorable conditions for the plant and of high-quality regular care, which will include:

  • watering
  • airing
  • top dressing
  • preventive treatments.

Additional lighting

Lighting is very important for the growth and development of strawberries. It is necessary that in the greenhouse where strawberries are grown all year round, a 10–14 hour light day is observed. To achieve it, you need to include additional sources of lighting from 8 am to 11 pm and from 5 to 8 pm. This is especially important in periods of release of peduncles, flowering and fruiting. As an additional source of illumination should use fluorescent lamps.

If you have chosen to plant a variety of neutral daylight, then under the conditions described above, the plant will be fully provided with the necessary amount of light.

Increasing the length of daylight hours allows for faster flowering and faster fruiting. For example, with an eight-hour daylight the plant will bloom two weeks after planting, and the ovary will give after 1.5 months. At 16 o'clock - the flowers will appear after 10 days, and the ovary of the fruit - in 35-37 days.

Ventilation

Airing is carried out when the temperature in the greenhouse reaches +21 degrees. Do it in the daytime. The ventilation system can be manual or automatic. Thanks to ventilation, fresh air enters the greenhouse and comes out heated. Thus, it is possible to lower the humidity and temperature, to avoid the development of most diseases.

Air humidity

Humidity in the greenhouse during planting should be maintained at 85%. When the bushes take root in the ground, it will need to be reduced to 75%. In the flowering and fruiting phase, this indicator should be set at a level not higher than 70%.

The humidity level must be strictly monitored, since this is one of the factors that influence the development of fungal diseases.

One month after planting, you will need to adjust watering once every 7-10 days. Watering is carried out with warm water in the evening. It is very important to ensure that the plants are not overwetted. Otherwise they will bear watery fruits. Waterlogging also threatens to rot and fungal diseases.

For strawberries, it is best if water goes directly to the roots and does not get on the stems and leaves. This can be achieved by organizing drip or automatic watering. With the help of a drip system, fertilizers are also introduced. Such a system can be purchased at the store or equip his own.

If you choose varieties that are unable to self-pollinate, they will need to provide pollination. For it use several ways:

  • manual,
  • a fan
  • insects,
  • draft
  • water
The first method is carried out by ordinary natural brushes for drawing, with which they transfer pollen from the flowers of some bushes to others.

For the second - resort to installing the fan, the air flow which will carry the pollen. At 100 square meters. m will require three vehicles. They will need to be included during flowering every day for several hours.

On large plantations, the help of insects will be needed - for this, a hive is placed in the greenhouse. Despite some laboriousness and insecurity of the method, its efficiency reaches 95%. You can pollinate plants by spraying water from stationary sources. However, the efficiency in this case will be 45%. Pollen spreads and drafts, if you open the windows and doors of the greenhouse, located opposite each other.

For feeding you can use a solution of potassium chloride (10 g per 10 l of water) and ammonium nitrate (80 g per 10 l of water). It is brought under the root system. Organic feedings are also effective - slurry (one to five), chicken manure (one to ten). Feeding is carried out every 14 days.

Preventive treatment

In order to prevent the disease in the greenhouse, it must be regularly aired, not to overwet the soil and air. It is also necessary to observe the recommended distances between bushes during planting and fertilizer rates. For prevention, the introduction of fungicides in the root zone using the drip method.

Strawberries in a greenhouse may be affected:

  • gray rot - for prophylaxis, regular airing will be required, for treatment, removal of diseased plants,
  • white spot - provoked by strong soil moistening and high humidity in the greenhouse. It is treated by treatment with drugs "Falcon", "Euparin", copper sulphate,
  • powdery mildew - develops when the overmoistening of air and soil. It is treated with blue vitriol and soap solution,
  • late blight - with the defeat of the plants are removed.

From pests on strawberries at high humidity can attack slugs. To eliminate them, you will need to set traps or collect pests manually. Thus, when growing strawberries in a greenhouse, you can shoot almost year-round harvest.

The greenhouse effect in the cultivation of plants in closed ground provides the most favorable conditions for this berry and allows you to achieve the highest yield. The technologies we have described above make the growing process simple and affordable.

Adding an article to a new collection

More recently, the cultivation of strawberries in the winter was only due to greenhouses with industrial facilities. Now, planting strawberries in a greenhouse will not surprise anyone - modern varieties and technologies allow anyone to do this.

Of course, year-round cultivation of strawberries requires financial investments, labor and knowledge, but with sufficient effort it can pay off. In addition, even if you are not going to do business from strawberry growing in a greenhouse, it can become an interesting hobby.

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