There are many kinds of aphids. Gourd, bean, carrot, potato, root, mealy, etc. Of this set, cabbage is damaged by one species - cabbage aphid. In dry years in the southern regions of Russia, this insect is able to destroy up to 90% of the crop. To effectively protect your beds, you need to know the biological characteristics of the pest. The article will explain why aphid appears on cabbage and how to deal with it.
Everything you need to know about cabbage
Cabbage aphid is a very small insect of the order of half-coleoptera. Like all other species of the aphids family, cabbage feeds on plant sap. All representatives of the cruciferous family - cabbage, radish, turnip, radish, daikon, etc., can be targeted. The mouth apparatus of cabbage aphids is arranged in the form of a proboscis, which pierces the covering tissues of the leaf and the shoot. At the same time the plant loses chlorophyll, becomes unable to fully carry out photosynthesis, begins to turn yellow and dries out.
The development cycle of aphids is very complicated. Her eggs overwinter on uncooked cabbages or remnants of other cruciferous plants. In spring, as soon as the air temperature rises above + 11 ° C, the larvae hatch from the eggs. After several molts, in two weeks they become wingless females who, without fertilization (by parthenogenesis), produce up to 50 larvae each.
New larvae mature before the beginning of summer and turn into females-settlers. This is the winged form, whose purpose is the foundation of new colonies. Migrating to other plants, female settlers (again parthenogenetically) produce a new generation of larvae in a new place. For one season aphids are able to give up to 16 generations.
From this information we can draw several important conclusions:
- Cabbage aphid remains in the garden, if not in time to remove plant residues.
- Take measures to combat aphids need in April.
- In the summer of cabbage aphid is able to move to the garden, if in the vicinity there are infected plants of the cruciferous family.
Cabbage aphid is dangerous not only because it sucks vegetable juices. With the saliva of this insect, many viruses penetrate into the plant tissue.Including mosaic virus, black ring spots, necrotic jaundice, etc. ».
Causes of cabbage aphids in the garden
Primary colonization of plants by planting occurs when a female squander flew into the garden. Putting aside a lot of larvae, it starts the mechanism of constant reproduction of the population. In the future, if you do not take any measures, the aphid colony will maintain the number, wintering on plant residues.
There is another way to infect plants with cabbage aphids - ants. Aphids for them - the source of sweet "formic milk" (honeymoon). The symbiosis of these two species of insects is so cramped that ants retain their eggs in their anthills, and in the summer they house the larvae on young plants.
Chemical control methods
Aphid preparations are divided into three groups:
- intestinal action
- systemic (intestinal contact).
Chemicals are usually highly toxic. They can be used only for particularly severe lesions, when more benign methods do not help.
Biological methods of dealing with cabbage aphids
These methods consist in the use of aphid repellent plants or its natural enemies. Unfortunately, cabbage aphid has developed a special means of protection against its natural enemy - the ladybird. Getting from the juice of plants glucosinolates, aphid accumulates them in your body. In the body of cabbage aphid has the enzyme myrosinase.
If a ladybug eats cabbage aphids, both substances in its stomach react and form a toxic allylisothiocyanate. Ladybirds tend to die. But on sparrows, tits and hemp such chemical protection does not work. To attract them to your site, you can feed the birds in winter. Birds very quickly get used to the place where there is always food.
The easiest way to try to prevent the appearance of a winged female aphids on your site. If some plants are planted around the cabbage plantings, they can serve as good pest repellents. These include fragrant herbs such as mint, lavender or basil.
Signs of aphids on cabbage
Aphids are classified as sucking insects. She has a dark green or black color. Adults reach a length of 2 mm. It can be detected without any special devices. She always hides under a cabbage leaf, so you need to constantly look under its lower parts to prevent the mass distribution of insects. Several individuals can not harm the culture, but they tend to live on plants by huge families.
How to get rid of aphids on cabbage
Due to the fact that the young cabbage leaf has a large amount of juice, this insect quickly affects the crops of this plant. Cabbage aphid can per day to occupy approximately 0.1 hectares of plantations with this crop. In order to prevent the death of the future crop, it is necessary to take measures to destroy the sucking pest immediately after its detection.
To get rid of cabbage aphids quickly and efficiently, you can use methods of chemical exposure to insects. Before planting the plant in the ground it must be treated with insecticidal drugs. The most effective are:
- "Malathion". The product is diluted in a ratio of 15 g for every 10 liters. When working with this chemical, you must remember that it is poisonous. After the procedure, the sucking pest does not appear on the crop during the entire vegetative period.
- "Seyfos". It is used for treating cabbage from aphids in case young plants are not subjected to pre-sowing spraying. It refers to less toxic drugs. Permissible concentration of the agent - 10 g per 10 l. It is necessary to sprinkle the culture with the prepared solution in the evening (in dry, calm weather). After 2-3 days from the insects will not remain a trace.
- "Pyrethrum". It is not very satisfying, but effective. In order to prepare a solution, it is necessary to dilute 100 g of powder in 15 liters of water. Plants are recommended to spray in dry windless weather (best in the morning). This chemical allows you to get rid of pests in a few days.
The fight against aphids on cabbage with the use of chemicals is quite simple and effective. But there is some danger of getting a large number of poisons in the final product. In order to avoid this, it is recommended to use biologically active complex fertilizers together with chemicals, which are able to neutralize and prevent the active ingredients from getting into the vegetable.
Fighting aphids on cabbage without the use of pesticides is possible by the so-called physical impact. These methods are good only if there is no mass settlement of pests on the culture:
- A small number of individuals can be crushed directly on the plant.
- You can prepare a weak solution of household soap (1 tablespoon of grated soap diluted in 5 liters of boiling water) and carefully treat the affected bushes with a warm agent.
- The most effective way to fight is to plant tobacco in the cabbage aisle. This method is able to scare away not only aphids, but also various kinds of caterpillars and beetles.
One of the safest methods of fighting with aphids on cabbage is the breeding of insect predators and birds that feed directly on the larvae of the pests.
- Tits These assistants all year round work on cleaning up the gardens and gardens from harmful insects. In order to increase their number, it is necessary to place feeders around the perimeter of the gardens.
- Ladybug. She enjoys eating both adult aphids and larvae. To increase the number of ladybirds in the area, you can arrange for them insulated special houses - logs.
Among the popular recipes you can find many effective and effective ways to handle cabbage from aphids. The best result gives tincture of onion, garlic and ash. Strong odors scare her away.
Tincture with a sharp aroma
- In 10 liters of boiling water, you must add 100 g of grated onions, 50 g of minced garlic and 150 g of ash.
- Bring the whole mixture to a boil and let it stand for 24 hours.
- After that add 1 tbsp. l liquid soap.
- Spray the cabbage solution.
Thus, to prevent mass settlements of aphids, it is necessary to carry out sanitary measures in a timely manner, both in the garden and in the garden. It is recommended to burn weeds directly in the places where they grew, as well as to tillage the land and lime the trunks of fruit trees.
Cabbage beds inhabit a separate type of pest - cabbage aphid. The body of a small insect is green with a yellowish bloom. In the middle of summer, winged individuals appear - mature females, males capable of migrating throughout the land plot, causing irreparable harm to crops, but laying eggs only on cabbage.
From May to July, only females are born, in the last summer month males appear. Fertilized young females lay eggs that will winter. In early spring, the larvae will appear from them, which will hasten to occupy the cabbage.
The life cycle of aphids is extremely short, but is compensated by the high fecundity. For the entire warm season gives way to 20 generations. Each time the female produces 40 eggs. The development of larvae in the egg lasts about 2 weeks. Immediately after birth, the young aphids start sabotage - sucking the leaves from the leaves.
Damaged leaves turn yellow, curl, dark spots appear on them. Development, growth, formation of head is slowed down. Inferior seedlings simply die. How to treat cabbage from aphids - the most important issue that will have to be resolved.
Folk methods of struggle
To prevent infection by aphids of the future crop, it is necessary:
- from autumn collect all the pokers from cabbage, cruciferous weeds, burn,
- in the spring in the beds with cabbage plant an umbrella crop, a bright representative - dill. Plants attract insects that help destroy aphids. The best partner in this business is a ladybug.
To get rid of aphids on cabbage folk remedies, it is necessary to choose an effective recipe, carry out processing according to the rules. The best time for the procedure is early morning, late evening. The weather should be dry, windless. Further considered the most popular folk remedies.
Cabbage Aphid is afraid of the smell of tobacco. To combat it, you must sprinkle cabbage with concentrated tobacco broth. It will take 10 grams of shredded dry tobacco. Pour raw materials 5 liters of water, insist day. Put on the fire, add the same amount of liquid, boil for 2 hours. Handle heads of watering can, spray.
The simplest remedy is aphid vinegar. The pungent smell makes the pests leave the beds, flee. The solution is prepared immediately before use. Spray cabbage should be from all sides, paying particular attention to the bottom of the sheet. On a bucket of water you will need 200 ml of table vinegar, or 100 ml of essence. Add 40 g of any soap product.
Instantly removes from the beds adult slate ammonia. Sprinkle cabbage with this tool 1 time in 2 weeks. Excess nitrogen leads to disruption of vegetable growth, leaf deformation. In 10 liters of cool water dilute 50 ml of ammonia, 100 g of soap. It is necessary to water the plant from a watering can with a wide nozzle so that the spray will flow into the lower part of the leaves.
Ash and Spices
Cabbage aphid is afraid of ash, cinnamon, pepper. When combining these components, an effective remedy for aphids on cabbage is obtained:
- mix in equal proportions cinnamon, red, black pepper, add 200 g of wood ash,
- separately diluted in 1 liter of warm water with 200 g of soap,
- add spices and 9 liters of cool water, mix thoroughly.
The treatment is carried out twice with a frequency of 3 days. Nothing more is needed to destroy aphids. For prevention, repeat the procedure once a month.
Aphids on cabbage promotes the reproduction of pathogens. There is rot, mold. Tar soap does not only get rid of aphids, but also eliminates the consequences of its vital activity, contributes to the rapid recovery of the leaves. Especially useful is the use of tar soap on cauliflower. Dilute 100 g of tar soap in 1 liter of warm water. Add 9 liters of cold water. Sprinkle heads, legs out of the spray.
Folk control measures - a safe way to eliminate pests. The list of effective home-made drugs is endless. In addition to the above components use onion peel, potato, tomato tops, wormwood, tansy and much more.
Insecticidal agent of a broad spectrum of activity. Blocks the transmission of nerve impulses, causes paralysis, death. The minimum amount of poison is enough for the onset of death. It begins to act during processing, retains its properties for about 20 days.
On the basis of deltamethrin, the drugs Decis Pro, Fas, Atom are produced. Before use, prepare the solution according to the instructions, diluting the concentrate in cool water. Treated plant spray.
You can poison aphids with Spark insecticide. Available in several variations, in the names there is a prefix - Golden, Bio, Dual effect. It is produced in the form of a concentrated liquid, powder, pressed tablets.
Before spraying prepare the solution. Cabbage protection after treatment is valid for 20 days. During this time, adults die, the larvae of all ages. New eggs do not lay the females.
To consolidate the effect, repeat treatment is carried out after 15 days, then for the prophylaxis, once a month, the entire vegetative period. The interval between the last spraying and harvesting should be at least 20 days.
The biological preparation is based on the action of a substance derived from a chamomile of a particular type. The drug is safe for humans, does not affect the development of cabbage, but lethal to aphids. Pyrethrum is diluted in water, sprayed once every 2 weeks during the entire growing season of the vegetable.
To save cabbage from severe infection with aphids can be Malathion. Organophosphate insecticide of a wide spectrum of action is used on any garden, garden crops from various pests. Destroys adult individuals, larvae of different ages.
When working with a strong toxic drug, rubber gloves, a respirator, protective clothing should be used. It is necessary to carry out processing in calm weather. If you violate these rules, poisoning occurs.
The fight against aphids Karbofos is 1 time. Pests die within the first 2 hours. The protective effect lasts for 20 days or more, depending on weather conditions.
Aphid preparations can destroy pests in a few hours. However, do not forget about their toxicity to humans, other living beings. Strict compliance with instructions is required. Before starting the application, weigh the pros and cons.
Aphids on cabbage are small insects that breed in autumn. The female lays eggs in weeds, and in the spring larvae come out of them.
Cabbage aphid differs little from the one that affects fruit trees. This insect is about 2.2 mm in size. It has a light green color, its body covers a small patina. The insect has a small trunk, with which it sucks the juice from the plants.
The pest multiplies rapidly, since the birth of offspring passes without fertilization, and one female lays up to 40 larvae. In one season, up to 20 generations of this pest change. In the spring and summer, only female insects are born. Males are born in the autumn, then the females lay eggs capable of withstanding the winter, and in the spring their life cycle repeats.
Another nuance complicating the process of fighting such a pest is that they can defend themselves against predatory insects. When aphids suck sap from plants, it accumulates glucosinotat in the body. When a predator attacks it, it releases this enzyme, which turns into a dangerous poison - mustard oil. After that, the attacked insects either die or escape.
The danger of cabbage aphids
Aphid sucks the juice from the plant. Because of this, the vegetable weakens, it breaks down the metabolic processes. Aphids can spread about 20 dangerous viruses.
If time does not begin to fight the pest, the vegetable will die, the aphid quickly moves from the sick head to the healthy one. Start to fight with aphids on cabbage should be immediately.
Insects are located on the bottom sheets of cabbage, plants are carefully inspected to detect them. After hitting the vegetables with aphids, the leaves turn pale and curl up into tubes, their growth slows down. Dark, sticky-to-touch stains also remain.
Methods of dealing with aphids
For one day aphid affects about 0.1 hectares of land. Чтобы предотвратить гибель урожая начинают борьбу с тлей сразу после того, как она была обнаружена. Борьба с капустной тлей ведется разными методами:
Biological and mechanical methods
To get rid of aphids, you can breed some birds and insects, they destroy the aphids still in the state of the larvae. Usually these are tits. To attract them to the site, set feeders around its perimeter.
From insects to get rid of aphids helps ladybug. To increase the number of this insect in the garden can specially installed logs, houses.
Another way to fight a pest without chemicals is mechanical. When insects are few, plentiful watering helps.
How to deal with aphids on cabbage folk methods
One of the most common pests of cabbage culture is aphid. These small insects are able to spread quickly and destroy the cabbage crop in almost a few days. To combat these "aliens" are used different methods, but the most safe are the popular recipes. How to get rid of aphids on cabbage with the help of folk methods will tell you our article.
What is a pest?
Aphids exist in many varieties, classified by color, size and lifestyle. For cabbage bushes, the main danger is green aphid, which prefers to settle on young plants. Aphids feed on long proboscis.
The insect sucks the juice from the plant, leaving a dry shell. In addition, aphid is a carrier of more than 20 types of infectious diseases of garden crops. It is also worth looking at what aphids look like on peppers in a greenhouse.
Moving freely between plants, small insects infect everything in their path. The spread of aphids contributes to warm sunny weather - it is in such conditions that the insect is able to give offspring up to twenty times per season.
In spring and summer, predominantly female individuals are born, which lay larvae without mating. By the fall, males appear that can fly over considerable distances. Aphid lays fertilized eggs on cruciferous weeds and garden plants. They safely survive the winter, and with the first rays of heat they are ready for an active search for food.
On video - aphid on cabbage:
Aphids are small but very dangerous pests that can infect and destroy the cabbage crop in a matter of days. Many means are used to combat these insects, but folk methods are considered to be the most secure. How to apply such mixtures, as well as the best recipes of similar formulations are described in the information in our article.
Aphids on cabbage: how to handle, how to fightThe biggest trouble for the gardener is the pests that eat the crops grown with love and hard work. Some of them multiply too quickly, hardly noticeable and are capable of destroying cultivated plants in the shortest possible time. About one of those parasites who eat cabbage, let's talk in this article.
How to detect aphids on cabbage (signs)Aphids are very difficult to notice, the adult parasite is only 2 mm in length. Insects use the lower part of the leaf plate to see them, you need to check the cabbage leaves more often. Aphids multiply very quickly, so the sooner you find it, the better. After settling the culture with aphids, the leaf plates of the plant begin to discolour, between the veins the leaf tissue seems to decay. With prolonged dominance of the leaves are deformed, rolled into tubes, the growth of the culture slows down significantly. On the leaves after the life of insects sticky dirty spots remain.
Wound up aphid on cabbage: what is the danger
Insect pests feed on cabbage juice, while the culture weakens. In a nutrient-free plant, all life processes are disrupted. Inhibited growth, development, in the end, the culture simply dies. When breeding, the aphid creates whole colonies on cabbage, the whole horde destroys both cabbage and the plants growing nearby.
Attention! According to statistics, varieties of early cabbage are affected by four percent more than late-ripening varieties. It is especially important to follow the seedlings.Cabbage must be freed from aphids as early as possible, if you do not take measures against insects, many plantings will die. Aphid, besides the direct harm to the plant by eating, carries about twenty viral infections. Since this parasite is almost omnivorous, it easily passes from culture to culture. Biting into the plant tissue, the aphid carries diseases from sick plants to healthy ones.
Mechanical methods: how to process cabbage without chemicals
To get rid of aphids by mechanical means, you can use abundant watering with cold water. This method is effective when there are few insects; you can also wipe the leaves with soapy water.
Did you know?In ancient Greece, cabbage was revered as a symbol of sobriety. With the help of juice from cabbage and now relieve symptoms of hangover.
How to deal with aphids biological methods
Aphids on cabbage may not appear if you know how to deal with it using biological techniques. Umbrella plants are good helpers in pest control. Sow around the cabbage parsley, dill, carrots, repel a lot of garlic and fennel. Amateur likes to enjoy earwigs, which can be lured to the site, putting pots with wood chips. Another method to get rid of aphids on cabbage - both folk and biological means - is birds. Aphids love sparrows, tits, linnet. To attract them to the site, hang up feeders for them and feed them, especially in winter.
Interesting!Such a dish as sauerkraut, came up with the Chinese. This food was fed to slaves driven to the construction of the Great Wall of China.
Prevention: how to protect the crop from aphids
Cabbage prevention from diseases and pests is simple: maintaining crop rotation and proper care. All crucifers have the same pests, choose the predecessors correctly when planted, for cabbage these are onions, carrots, legumes. Aphids on cabbage may appear due to poor nutrition of the plant, before processing with top dressings, make sure that the dosage of fertilizer complies with the instructions. After harvesting, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the soil from plant residues; eggs of aphids overwinter in cabbage stalks and weed residues. Cabbage – very useful and tasty product, a storehouse of vitamin C. It is healthy and tasty, both fresh and after processing (in hot dishes), in winter blanks. To protect the culture from aphids, start preventive measures in advance, as the aphid multiplies almost continuously.
How and what to process aphids on cabbage
How to deal with aphids on cabbage, an individual decision, involves the use of chemicals, folk remedies. Aphids affect any kind of cabbage; colonies hide on the bottom of the leaf. Restrains the massive spread of pests cool weather, torrential rains. In other cases, gardeners have to take emergency measures.