The Dutch oven is distinguished by its ergonomics, a high level of efficiency, convenience, and the simplest internal device, therefore, it is installed both in summer houses and in utility rooms, hallways and garages.
The Dutch oven appeared on the territory of Russia at the beginning of the 18th century, during which time several variations of it were made, which can often be found in residential buildings even today. The design of the Dutchwoman is very similar to the classic Russian stove, although it surpasses its characteristics. The furnace is going to be done by itself without any problems, but during the construction process one must adhere to strict masonry procedures, carry out the preparatory stage, gather the necessary tools and materials.
Advantages and disadvantages
Before you build a Dutch oven, you need to examine the possible pros and cons of this design in the house. Among the main advantages of the Dutch is worth noting:
- Faster heating of the room than from the Russian stove, which is achieved due to the small thickness of the walls.
- The small size of the Dutch allow you to choose the best option for home or garden, taking into account the peculiarities of finishing the room and dimensions.
- Due to the brickwork, the furnace not only quickly heats the room, but also maintains the temperature in it for a long time.
- Despite a number of advantages, the Dutch woman has some disadvantages: Uneconomic fuel consumption.
- Dutch masonry provides for the construction of a separate chimney and foundation, which should be laid out along with the base of the house or garage.
- Observe the rules and regulations of fire safety. Brick is a rather thin material, so it requires a lining of heat resistant, antipyretic material from above.
The existing advantages and disadvantages should be taken into account before you start folding the Dutch woman with your own hands - this will help to carry out the preparatory work for the construction of the furnace in a private house.
The scheme of the Dutch oven, which is assembled by hand, consists of the following elements:
- Firebox - a special type of niche, which should be very roomy.
- Chimney - it will pass through the smoke that enters the first smoke channel, and the heat begins to be given to the walls of the furnace. Further, smoke passes through the passes gradually to the second channel (to the firebox). Here it is heated to get back into another channel leading upwards. Thus, the smoke gradually reaches the chimney.
- The heating mechanism, consisting of vacation and intake channels. Their number is different, but often in the Dutch make three intake and three vacation channel.
- Gate valve to adjust the intensity of thrust.
- Cleaning compartment
- Smoke turns.
Dutch heating stove is of several types: round, rectangular, cylindrical and angular.
Types of Dutch ovens
Modifications of furnaces for a country house, a country house or a garage can be very different. Their dimensions and parameters are determined by the internal features of the rooms where the Dutchwoman is installed. There are the following options for Dutch residential furnaces:
- Kolpakova. A distinctive feature of the design is a high level of efficiency, which is greater than that of the classic channel furnaces. Such a Dutch woman works due to the fact that a special cap is installed on top, necessary to trap the heated gas. You can drown the Dutch firewood, but their size should not be very large.
Round. The mechanism of its action is based on the work of channels, the number of which varies from three to twelve. This is a special type of Dutch woman who “wears” in a metal casing, which saves the use of bricks. The advantages of a round Dutch oven include: low weight, high heat recovery, and budget.
Groom Grzhimailo. This is another type of round furnace, in which there are no channels and smoke exhausts. Many items for such a Dutch woman are already sold in finished form. Principle of operation: gases move under their own force of gravity, which allows them to lower down the cooling heavy ones, lifting up the lighter and hotter ones.
Old. Such a Dutch woman is traditionally veneered with tiles or tiles. There are such stoves rarely, and belong to the antique.
With a fireplace. Such a stove can be called a hybrid design, since the Dutch used a nadtopochny part and smoke dampers for arranging their stoves, creating a new type of Dutch with a fireplace. The stove is heated with wood, best of all oak and pine. From the classic English fireplace, this mechanism differs in small compact dimensions of the firebox.
With a stove. It is used in country houses where it is necessary to cook, heating the premises. For a Dutch woman with a stove, it is characteristic to use a hob that has no hot plates. It allows you to cook, warm water, reheat. A Dutch woman with a hob is perfect for preservation at the dacha.
Preparatory stage of masonry
The dimensions of a standard Dutch stove are compact, which makes it possible to install it even in small rooms. The average height is 1.2 meters, and the size of the square base varies from 1.2 to 1.3 m (each side). In the construction of the Dutch use the following materials:
- Ceramic bricks - 200 pieces
- Fireproof brick - 50 pieces
- Base plate
- Dry cement
- Construction clay
- Sieve to sift sand and cement
- Doors for firebox, blew
- Metal wire for fixing the door
- Roofing material necessary to create a waterproofing system foundation
- Chimney pipe
- Gate valve
The finished oven must be plastered and then lined (optional). It is recommended to do this two weeks after the masonry has been completed. The first time you can drown the Dutch in a month after the completion of construction, using high-quality fuel. Total trial fireboxes should be 2-3 to gradually increase the load and prepare the furnace for operation.
In size, a Dutch woman can be both small and large, depending on the functionality. Furnaces of small sizes are suitable for heating rooms up to 20 m2 and large rooms up to 50 m2.
Little about dutch
Blowing out (due to the low thrust of the classic Dutch woman, her model was modified by an ashpit and a blower) and the burning zone is equipped with doors in the course of construction. Through them into the furnace air flows from the room. Constant access of oxygen supports burning. The thrust depends on the size of the door gap. Above the chamber for collecting ashes into the masonry, metal rods are immediately installed, designed to support firewood, ensuring free fall of ash into the ash pan. On the chimney need a flap. It is set to reduce the loss of warm air into the pipe.
The oven (if necessary) is placed in the oven between the channels - smoke turns, on which heated smoke runs.
In order for the masonry to be strong, and the stove has served for a long time, the foundation must be reinforced.
How to fold dutch girl
Decide on the location of the furnace. Well, if it is located in such a way as to heat two rooms at the same time.
The foundation must be taken care of at least a week before construction begins.
Before starting work, draw or print out the order, stock up with the necessary number of tools, bricks, prepared clay and cement mortar and other materials.
The dimensions of the foundation take a little more than the base of the furnace. We disassemble the floor logs, dig a pit to a depth of about half a meter. If the distance between the foundation of the house and the furnace is very small, then we will subsequently make a sand layer between them.
Knead the cement mortar - on one part of the cement three parts of water.
Fill the first layer of the solution to the bottom of the foundation pit.
We prepare several metal rods of the same length (10–15 cm less than the length of the pit). We put them into the solution, keeping the distance between the rods up to 12 cm.
Pour the layer of cement mortar again (about 10 cm) and repeat the process of fitting the reinforcement.
We derive the foundation “under zero”, that is, we make it flush with the floor, gradually pouring the solution.
Gently sprinkle the top of the last uncured layer through a sieve with a dry cement powder (“ironing”).
In the process of work it is necessary to strictly check the level of horizontal surface.
Sift dry clay through a sieve (you can use the grate from the bed or fine mesh). Next, soak the sifted powder with water, wait until the clay swells, gently draining excess liquid. When it completely absorbs water, we add a new portion of the liquid - 1/8 of the total volume and sand (1 to 1 with clay).
We start laying
We lay waterproofing film, on top of it a thin sand layer (1-5 cm) and soak the bricks in the water.
In the first row, we do not use brick mortar. We lay out the site of bricks, placing them flat. On top of this site we make a pouring of the cement mortar (a layer of small thickness).
The following two rows are similar to the first. The calculation is made taking into account the order.
At this stage of construction it is necessary to install plumb lines. We will prepare long nails, a hammer, a load (for example, a nut) and a silk or nylon thread. In the corners of the masonry (in the wet solution between the first and second rows of brickwork) hammer nails. Using a ladder, we drop a thread with a load from the ceiling to these nails. We hammer four more nails on the ceiling, we tie threads between the ceiling and the laying. Check the vertical level. Inaccuracies are eliminated by bending nails.
In the third row, we install the blower door. To do this, it is necessary to measure the door and leave a space in the masonry exceeding the width of the door by 5-10 mm. Along the perimeter we apply an asbestos cord on the cast-iron door. Fixing the product between the bricks is done by refractory wire (it must be “drown in the solution between the bricks) and mounted on the inside of the door frame.
The fourth and fifth rows: we lay out a stand (without the use of cement) under the internal partition and the opening for cleaning the ash chamber.
Here we also install a door made of cast iron for a niche-firebox.
The following three rows (6-8): we build the walls of the firebox and the door overlap (we hang half of the bricks on each side of the door or make a lock joint, cutting off the bricks in the form of wedges).
We put the grate through which the products of combustion will fall into the ash pan. Binder solution is not used, so that later it was possible to replace the part.
Next (9-13 rows) build the walls of the fuel chamber.
In the fourteenth and fifteenth rows, we produce an overlap of the firebox (for example, laying bricks, using metal corners as a support), while there is space left at the back of the stove to connect the smoke exhausts to the chimney. The inner space of the firebox is lined with fireclay bricks (put it "on the edge").
The following rows (16-17) are the tabs for the cleaning door or replacing it with a single bounce brick.
18-26 rows: we build coil-shaped smoke channels - three pieces.
27: finish the construction of smoke.
Row 28: the channels - the smoke turns off (make a shift 5 centimeters back), leaving an opening for the exit of flue gases.
Row 29: We make the formation of the chimney, masonry perform without shifts.
30: We continue the construction of the chimney, install a metal valve (we wrap the edges with asbestos cord and insert the frame of the valve into the brickwork) in order to regulate the traction in the furnace.
Next, we continue the construction of the chimney and chimney. In a place where the chimney will pass through the ceiling, it is necessary to make a thickening in the brickwork, placing the bricks flat. Thermal insulation materials should be used to protect floors from excessive heat and possible fire.
The furnace can be operated 15 days after the completion of construction. To check the stove in the firebox, we burn a small amount of rags or waste paper, adjusting the gaps of the flap and the doors of the basement.
Take care of the appearance of the stove by finishing with stone, decorative plaster, paints, or jointing.
The origin of the name of the furnace
For the first time this type of masonry appeared at the beginning of the 18th century in Holland. It was the country of origin that gave this furnace its name. The lack of space in residential premises and the need to heat them in cold, wet weather led to the fact that the stoves began to be installed vertically and the length of the smoke attenuation was increased.
A large area of smoke attenuation ensured rapid heating of the air, and the unique design of the chimney that arose later allowed the smoke to be removed from several fireboxes at once. Thus, the Dutch reduced the amount of tax paid on chimneys. Important!There is no classic laying pattern for the box. You just need to adhere to the basic rules of masonry and use quality materials to get a durable and high-quality oven.
Stops furnace gases under the hood before they exit through the chimney. This increases the productivity of the structure. If the masonry is not properly assembled, the risk of room smoke will increase.
It is considered the most budget option. German type of galanka. This construction is laid out in a quarter of a brick and at the same time serves up to 10 chimneys. Differs in intensive accumulation of soot, therefore very fire-hazardous. This type needs regular cleaning. We advise you to read about how to make a summer shower for the dacha with your own hands, a wooden barrel, a sofa of pallets, a stepladder, a snow shovel and a trellis for the grapes.
It has a metal casing inside which bricks are laid out in rows. Requires regular cleaning, as it has a cap. Intensively gives off heat in the upper part, mainly installed in the center of the room. Be sure to have a foundation.
The principle of operation and the device furnace
Galanca differs from the classic furnaces with elongated smoke and chimney. In bell-type furnaces, smoke circulation is practically absent, giving way to a spacious cap with a view. The combustion chamber and the grate are preserved, the size of the firebox is reduced compared to classic fireplaces, but it is worth opening the doors - and the stove turns into a fireplace. We recommend reading about how to put the socket and the switch, how to remove the paint from the walls, whitewash from the ceiling, how to glue the wallpaper, how to whiten the ceiling, how to make a plasterboard partition with a doorway, and also how to sheathe the walls with plasterboard. When fuel is ignited in the firebox, cold air drawn from the street begins to warm up in smoke turns or a cap. The internal walls of the furnace heat up, the air in the room warms up. Due to the good draft of cold air outside, warm air is not consumed to ignite the fuel. The larger the firebox and the longer the smoke, the more heat the construction gives. Important!Before you first melt a new head, it must be given up to 30 days for shrinkage and complete drying. Raw materials can become cracked when suddenly heated and cause structural failure.The principle of operation of the furnace
There are disadvantages of this design:
- Efficiency barely falls to 45%. In this regard, it does not compare it with the Russian stove.
- With a randomly open view, it quickly loses all the accumulated heat and is filled with outside air.
- Sensitive to fuel. Requires high-quality materials, otherwise it does not have time to warm up. The optimal mode of operation - a long smoldering.
Did you know?Since Holland gained its independence at the beginning of the 16th century, local authorities began to levy a tax on the number of chimneys every single farm. The enterprising Dutchmen didn’t lose their head and began to adapt the construction of the chimney to the 3, 4 and even 12 chimneys. No other stove can simultaneously remove such a quantity of smoke without smoke from residential premises.
Dutch oven do it yourself
Due to the simple construction and rather high productivity, the head has gained great popularity among beginning stove-makers and self-taught masters.
Video: Dutch oven It will be useful for you to read about how to properly glue the baseboard, how to put a plastic window sill yourself, how to install blinds on windows and a shower cabin in an apartment, how to lay tiles on the floor and on the bathroom wall, how to install a sink in a tabletop, how to do it yourself wooden floor is warm, how to lay a warm floor under the laminate, linoleum and tile.
The furnace has the following special features:
- a thin body in one or half bricks ensures fast and uniform heating,
- no grate for the grate (in the classic version). Thanks to this feature, the stove with the doors open turns into a fireplace,
- no camera for ash. Fuel is used in quality, burns out slowly, so there is almost no ash,
- топка должна быть сложена из огнеупорного кирпича с использованием глиняного раствора,
- наличие вытянутых каналов для дыма. По ним циркулирует воздух. It heats up in the firebox, rises up, heats the walls, sinks down the adjacent channel back into the firebox, heats up again and then is discharged through the chimney,
- Master OK,
- hammer (pickaxe),
- plumb lines
- levels that
- capacity for solution,
- Bulgarian for bricks,
- Order (wooden lath with elevations of rows of bricks).
- fireproof and corpulent (better ceramic) bricks,
- mix for clay solution
- furnace doors, latches, grate,
- steel wire (3 meters),
- asbestos cord,
- metal fittings,
- wooden formwork.
Preparation for the start of construction
Lay a few sheets of basalt cardboard between the first row of the laying and the sheets of roofing material. This material is an excellent heat insulator, it will increase the efficiency of the furnace. To make sure that the masonry is correct and stable, lay out a few rows of bricks, not holding them together with mortar. If you see that the masonry lies flat, disassemble the finished rows and fold them again with the solution. Important!If you are laying bricks out of bricks that have already been in use, ensure their integrity and carefully remove any residual mortar before using it again.
To make the construction of the highest quality and durable should follow the technology of construction:
- Fold the first row of bricks into a square with a side of 3.5 bricks.
- Lay the foundation in smaller squares with a side of 2.5 and 1.5 bricks. In the center lay half.
- In the second row, fold the three sides of a size of 3.5 bricks.
- Add a third row, identical to the second, and install a clean door measuring 13x13 cm. Add a blower door measuring 13x26 cm.Did you know?The Dutch woman can work effectively only on very high-quality fuel. The fuel that burns quickly this furnace can not heat. For the Dutch, expensive fuel has never been a problem, since the Netherlands for centuries engaged in maritime trade, catching expensive fish from its shores and raising valuable livestock. Since the XVI century, these people began to receive additional income from piracy, and even the sailors did not shun robbing of passing private and merchant ships.
- In the fourth row, halve the length of the ash chamber with an additional brick in order to put a grate grid of 25x18 cm and with a second additional brick, overlap the base of the small bell.
- Make the fifth row with a solid contour and free space for the firebox.
- Lay out the sixth, seventh and eighth levels identically to the fifth, leaving a space of one brick in size for a furnace door measuring 21x25 cm. Install the door in an aluminum box.
- Lay out the ninth level in the same way as the eighth level, leaving a burnout of 2 cm in size between the two innermost bricks.Did you know?Due to its efficiency and the need for the Dutch to save every piece of land in the golanka, starting from the end of the 15th century, it is equipped with elongated smoke turns. They can be half the height of the floor, and can stretch to 4-5 floors, heating the upper floors as effectively as the lower.
- The tenth row fold in a similar way, leaving a burnout gap.
- In the eleventh row lay the burnout completely.
- Repeat in the same way the twelfth row.
- In the thirteenth row, install a cast-iron stove with a size of 71x41 cm. Note that this stove warms up predominantly in the center, therefore it is only suitable for warming up with a slow decay to a temperature not higher than 300 degrees. The remaining space of 1.5 to 3.5 bricks will be the basis of the heating flap. Lay it with bricks.
- Fourteenth row collect in the same way as the thirteenth. Installation is complete.
- Proceed to the lining of the firebox. Remove the cast-iron plate and clean the walls of the solution.
- Assemble the first row of the firebox from refractory bricks with undercuts to install the grate grate 25x18 cm.
- Make sure that the gaps between the firebox and the outer contour are at least six millimeters, and that the solution does not get into them when they are laid. Put the grate in the undercuts of the grate size 15x4x23 cm
- Install the first row of lining of the undercoat of two longitudinal thirds and 1/6 of the refractory brick.
- Lay out the second row of lining, align it with the level of the firebox.
- Lay out the third row of lining as follows. Install bricks on a small longitudinal edge. If you followed the instructions exactly, the top row of the lining will be in line with the top opening of the furnace door.
- The fourth row of lining will block the opening above the door. In the top row of bricks, be sure to leave a burnout slot measuring 2x1.25 cm.
- The fifth level of the lining should block burnout.
- The sixth row of lining is laid out in a solid outline. The upper level of the lining will protrude above the level of the outer contour. Such a brick should be cut to one level with an external contour.
- Install a cast iron plate.
- Continue to build the shield. Collect the fifteenth and sixteenth rows in the same way as the thirteenth and fourteenth. Extension of rows will help to increase the heat capacity of the furnace (not more than twenty rows per cap).
- The seventeenth row will be the overlap above the cap. To assemble the ceiling, lay the outer contour bricks with undercuts. Leave a hole for the lift channel.
- Clear the bricks from the mortar and close the cap.
- Lay out the eighteenth row. In the end wall, leave space for a clean door measuring 13x13 cm. Similarly, collect the nineteenth row.
- At the twentieth level, overlap the upper door opening with a brick and make a cross cut for the lifting channel. Lay out the twenty-first and twenty-second levels in the same way.
- The twenty-third row will overlap the top cap. The outer contour of the fold of bricks with undercuts.
- Shut off the top cap, leaving the lift channel free to move.
- Place a 13x13 cm valve over the lifting flue.
- Lay out another twenty-fourth row of bricks with a cut in the shape of a semicircle for easy access to the valve.
- Lay out the next two rows in the same way. Cutouts are not required.
Video: laying oven You will probably be interested to read about how to build a pool, bath, toilet, BBQ, cellar and porch and formwork for the foundation of the fence with your own hands.
Brick chimney serves better and longer than its metal counterparts. For this furnace is suitable tube called chetverik. This design, the length of the face of which is 1.5 bricks. If your room is single-storeyed, and you immediately bring the chimney out, the construction will be simple in the shape of an elongated parallelepiped.
If your chimney passes through the interfloor overlap, you will need to display fuzz. Earthing is an extension of the chimney in the ceiling, made for greater fire safety. Due to the fluffing, hot gases will not heat flammable ceiling materials. Chimney layout and order Chimney masonry technology:
- Spread chimney out of standard ceramic or simple solid bricks. Rows collect identical to the twenty-sixth kiln, until you reach a distance of three bricks to the interfloor overlap (19.5 cm).
- Prepare a hole in the ceiling size 60x60 cm
- Pull back from the section of the pipe 3 cm and collect the first row of the fuzz. It will be a square with the same sides of brick, laid out longitudinally, quarter brick and one transverse brick.
- The second row collect from eight longitudinal three-quarter on the horizontal sides and two transverse three-quarter on vertical, receding 3 cm from the previous section.
- For the third row, retreat from a 3 cm section of the pipe and assemble it in the form of a square with identical sides made of bricks laid out longitudinally, three-quarter bricks and one transverse brick.
- Lay the fourth level in the same way as the twenty-six kiln, then make the outer contour with horizontal sides of three-quarter, quarter, whole transverse brick, three-quarter and quarter. The vertical sides will consist of a three-quarter, longitudinal brick and another three-quarter.
- Level five collect twelve bricks. Fold up the vertical sides of the five transverse bricks; lay the remaining space on the horizontal sides with two longitudinal bricks.
- Level six, collect the same as the second.
- You can continue further laying according to the twenty-sixth furnace row to the output to the roof. Complete the chimney with a stainless steel umbrella. The umbrella will protect your stove against ingress of foreign objects, precipitation and reverse thrust in case of changes in air flow. Leave the finished stove and chimney dry for two to three weeks. Start the kindling step by step so that the material heats up smoothly and does not crack.
Video: masonry chimneyImportant!It is only necessary to coat the stove after preheating to twenty-five or thirty degrees. Tile, laid on a cold oven, will begin to expand in the process of kindling and showered from the walls.
The end of the building and lining of the furnace
Cladding is the application of decorative tiles to the shield and the furnace section of the furnace to improve the appearance of the structure. Begin facing no earlier than a month after continuous use of the furnace, so that the bricks and mortar shrink and do not affect the quality of the facing.
To calculate the right amount of materials, measure the total area of the furnace. From it you will need to subtract 2-5 mm for each intersect gap. The interstitial gap is the distance between the tiles from which the mortar begins to dry. Also add to the amount of material received 10% of the safety stock for chipped, scrap and trimming.
The most popular method of lining is offset seams. With this method, the vertical seams of tiles on different horizontal rows do not coincide by 3-5 cm. This allows you to hide the imperfections of the lining. Only heat-resistant tiles are suitable for cladding, so do not save on material.
Video: tile facing Majolica, clinker, porcelain stoneware and terracotta serve these goals best of all. The finer the tile, the stronger it will stay on the surface of the furnace. Pick up 2 types of tiles (small and large) and lay out 3-4 bottom rows with large tiles so that the small pattern does not begin to move after laying.
In addition to the tile, you will need crosses to align the joints, tile cutter, trowel, heat-resistant grout, rubber hammer, primer, glue, mounting grid and plumb. The optimal solution is clay, the same used for stove installation. You can buy ready-made adhesive mastic, but its quality will depend on the cost. Did you know?In the Slavic countries, golanki appeared thanks to Peter I. He brought from the Netherlands not only knowledge of the ship's business, but also the principle of laying amazingly economical stoves. In order to quickly introduce the bottle into the everyday life of the people, the king issued a decree according to which it was forbidden to lay out stoves without chimneys in order to avoid fires.
Before starting the lining, clean the surface of the furnace from the remaining solution. Fix the mounting grid to the furnace surface with self-tapping screws, level the surface with plaster. Prime the walls with a heat-resistant primer and apply an approximate marking of rows, focusing on the plumb line. Prepare the mortar 10 minutes before the lining starts so that it does not start to harden in the process. Warm the bottle slightly to 25-30 degrees and start facing from the bottom corner, leaving a gap of 0.5-1 cm between the floor and the first row. Apply glue mass with a thickness of 5-7 mm on the tile with a spatula and install it into place, hitting the tile with a rubber hammer if necessary.
Align the seams between the tiles with a cross. After drying, they will need to be filled with grout. For one approach, collect 3-4 rows, and then take a break for 4 hours to allow the glue to dry. If the breaks are not done, the lining will begin to crawl under its own weight.
After finishing the lining and complete drying, begin to form trowels. Apply the grout with a spatula, and then give them a concave shape with improvised means. A toothbrush handle, a smooth ballpoint pen body, a thin rubber tube will do.
The grout dries in 2-3 hours. After this time, you can begin cleaning the tiles from the grout residues. The grout can be easily removed with a cloth moistened with soapy water or a special solvent. After finishing works, you need to wait 3-4 weeks and only then put the furnace into operation.
Video: tile facingImportant!The use of cement mortar for fastening bricks is prohibited. It does not belong to the refractory, so during the operation it will crack dry and open the seams between the bricks.
Dutch ovens appeared more than 4 centuries ago, and during this time their design has undergone many changes. They are used for heating private houses and cooking. The device of this furnace is simple, with due diligence, even a novice can cope with the laying of the head.
It will fit into any interior. Golanka is an economical way of heating, since it best of all warms up the room in the slow smoldering mode. After a full cycle of assembly, drying and cladding, it becomes an important and necessary element of the interior and a source of pride of the owner.
Stage 1. Preparation of equipment and consumables
For the construction of the construction will need the following materials:
- chamotte brick (minimum 200 pcs.)
- clay (about 0.5 cubic meters),
- river sand, necessarily sifted,
- door for the firebox,
- fine fraction rubble,
- steel wire.
In addition, you need to prepare such tools:
- roulette wheel
- mounting level
- clay tank
- Master OK.
Attention! For the Dutch, as for any other design of this type, a base is required.
Preparation of equipment and consumables
Stage 2. Foundation construction
Initially, it is worth noting that from a constructive point of view, the foundation being built should not be connected to the main foundation of the house. Further sequence of actions should be as follows.
The foundation for a brick oven
First you need to outline the outline of the future foundation. It is important that the width and depth of the base be 8-10 cm larger than the planned dimensions of the furnace. At the same time, it is necessary to check whether the foundation coincides with the place where the chimney is connected.
A pit of appropriate size is pulled out, its depth should be about 60 cm.
The bottom of the pit is covered with a 15 cm “cushion” of rubble. Crushed stone is carefully rammed, its surface is leveled with the help of mounting level.
Then you need to build a kiln foundation formwork. To do this, you can use wood, chipboard, and even thick cardboard.
Attention! If the material chosen for the construction of the formwork absorbs moisture, it must be sheathed with roofing material from the inside (although any other waterproofing material will be suitable for this).
Mixed concrete solution. To do this, dry cement is mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 3 and poured the necessary amount of water. The solution is thoroughly mixed.
The formwork must be filled with mortar and wait for it to dry completely. Often, this requires a maximum of a week.
Stage 3. Preparation of the solution
Initially, the raw material is prepared. It is advisable to do this in advance, a few days before construction. Clay is sifted, cleared of stones and large lumps. It is characteristic that such a procedure must be repeated several times.
Attention! As a sieve for sifting clay, you can use the mesh from the Soviet bed of armor-clad type. The grid is installed at an inclination (approximately 45) on any available support.
After that, the clay should be filled with water and soaked for at least two to three hours. It is important that the water is completely absorbed. Emerging its excess must be immediately drained.
When the clay swells, it should be mixed with sand in equal proportions, and then add a little more water (no more than 1/8 of the total).
Stage 4. Masonry
Attention! When laying each brick should be placed in water for ten seconds. This is necessary so that the bricks do not absorb moisture from the clay.
Initially, the base of the structure is covered with two layers of roofing material. Next, the 5-centimeter layer of river sand is filled up. The sand is leveled, checked for horizontal position, and then sprayed with a small amount of water.
Upon completion of the preparatory work, you can proceed directly to the laying.
Row number 1. The first row is put "dry", without solution. This will require twelve bricks - they are put, checked by the mounting level and only after that are covered with a thin layer of mortar.
Row number number 2,3. The bricks lie flat, this time on the mortar (then they need to be laid out "on the edge" up to the top of the firebox).
Row number number 4, 5. Fireclay bricks are used, often yellow. In parallel, a lining is formed for the flue duct septum. The back wall is laid out of the "bogus" brick, laid "dry."
Attention! Раствор не нужен, т. к. этот кирпич будет все время извлекаться для прочистки дымохода от сажи.Of course, instead, the back wall can be equipped with an additional door, but in this case, the heat will quickly go out of the structure.
Also at this stage you need to install a door for the firebox. It is advisable to wrap it with asbestos, although recently this material has been difficult to find. Alternatively, any other non-combustible material can be used. To fix the door using steel wire, which is inserted into the masonry joints.
Row number number 6.7. Here everything is done in the same way as in the fourth row. The order may vary somewhat before the top of the door, but in this case it all depends on the height of the future structure. Upon completion of the door trim (often this happens when laying the seventh row), the bricks are again laid out flat. The dressing is monitored at all times, the horizontal position and location of each corner of the kiln are periodically checked.
Attention! In the seventh row, the brick is laid flat, and the back wall remains “on the edge”. The method of laying bricks changes only starting from the eighth row.
Row number 8. It differs in that a sloping brick is installed above the combustion chamber. This trick will allow you to use the stove as a fireplace after opening the firebox. This row completely covers the furnace.
Row number 9. The brick shifts backward (about 1/2 of the width). On top of the ninth row is some non-combustible material (for example, an asbestos cord) on which the hob is installed (if it is provided with a structure).
Laying the sealer for the hob
Row number 10. Next, the base is built under the chimney. If a Dutch woman of light modification is built, then it is better to use a metal pipe as a chimney, since the brick structure will be too heavy.
Row number 11. At this stage, the valve is inserted, pre-compacted with asbestos. In parallel, a joint is formed between the structure and the chimney. It is characteristic that the laying here should be done in bricks.
Attention! In order to avoid typical mistakes, it is recommended for beginners to first fold a brick stove without using a mortar and only then, if everything is normal, re-shift it.
- After laying on the stove is installed chimney. The gap formed between the floor and the structure is closed by a pre-furnace sheet, otherwise the sand will fall from under the furnace.
How to deal with condensate
When wood is burned on the walls of the chimney, pitch condensate accumulates, which flows down and forms a kind of stalactite in the furnace. Of course, these stalactites are partially burned, but some of them harden and create an obstacle to the flow of outgoing gases. To avoid this, you can do the following:
- pre-dry firewood
- increase the burning temperature
- from time to time to burn the structure to "red heat".
Neutralize these negative factors is impossible, but they can be reduced.
- The assembly of the chimney should be carried out against the movement of gases - so much of them will be burned.
- The chimney must be quickly removed if necessary. For this it is connected with screws.
- You can experiment with different burning modes, choose the optimum temperature. For a visual assessment of the combustion of fuel you need to inspect the combustion chamber after cooling. If stalactites are formed, then you need to increase the temperature.
Independently build a Dutch oven can be, it is not as complicated procedure as it may seem at first glance. You just need to prepare all the necessary equipment and strictly follow the instructions. And, of course, be extremely careful.