Binding apples is not a mandatory procedure. But, nevertheless, many experienced gardeners or gardeners tend to implement it annually. The objectives of grafting trees are different. To obtain a positive effect, it is recommended to preliminarily study the features, methods and timing of binding apple trees of various varieties and ages.
Every year, gardeners are engaged in spring or autumn grafting of fruit trees. The main objective of this procedure is the possibility of identifying new varieties of apples and improving fertility. But, this is not all its benefits. There are several more reasons why you need to tie an apple tree before the winter or summer season:
- expanding the range of trees in the garden,
- restoring the twigs to the hemp of a dried or diseased tree,
- the possibility of growing several types of varieties in one tree to save space on the site.
There are several reasons why gardeners perform this action. The procedure is quite simple, but after its implementation, a positive effect does not always occur. This is due to the assumption of various kinds of errors. It is important to preliminarily study the question of how and when it is necessary to plant trees in spring or autumn.
Normal terms for grafting
The first thing you need to pay attention - the timing of vaccination. Opinions of gardeners in this opinion are divided. Some believe that the ideal time for this is spring, while others insist on the need to do this useful procedure in the fall or winter. Regardless of the time of year, it is important that the following conditions are met for the implementation of the binding:
- optimum air temperature - up to -15 degrees,
- the minimum time interval to the previous frosts is 1 month,
- lack of heat
- no rain at the time of the procedure.
Compliance with the deadlines for a favorable binding provide a guarantee for achieving a good result. In the middle zone of the country with a predominance of temperate climate, the optimal period is mid-August - the first half of September. In some regions, for example, in the Moscow region, the air temperature decreases later, therefore, grafting can be done until the first half of October.
In what months can you plant an apple tree in the fall?
Gardeners reasonably argue that the most favorable period for grafting is a warm or cool autumn. This is due to the fact that over the winter the plant will grow better and the first fruits of another variety may appear by the new summer season. But, it is important not to miss the moment. The best time is September. This is especially true for the treatment of age trees.
October and November are also a favorable period for budding. But, in this case, you should regularly monitor the air temperature, it is important that the indicators of the thermometer do not have time to release to a point below - 15 degrees. In October, it is recommended to plant young trees and seedlings. As a method of binding, for the cool autumn months it is recommended to apply the method “behind the bark” or “in cleft”.
Necessary tools and materials
Budding is a simple but important event. One wrong action can lead to the fact that all works will be in vain. But, it is also possible to do harm to the tree, which will cause its drying and death. The first step in grafting apple trees in the fall is to prepare the necessary equipment and materials.
- Knife. It is important that it is sharp and suitable for gardening. The perfect option for this purpose is the pruner.
- Insulating tape. Unfortunately, not every summer resident has it. An alternative option is a strip of polyethylene or twine.
- Garden var.
Preliminary it is required to prepare a stock and a scion participating in a binding. Stock - a sapling or small tree on which a cutting or bud is attached. Graft - this is exactly the very same stalk that you want to tie. Of course, you also need a desire, some free time and skills.
When to plant an apple tree
Immediately you need to decide when you plant the apple tree. Experienced gardeners prefer to do this in spring or autumn, but it is possible to carry out the procedure in summer or even in winter. Experts say that the autumn vaccination is not easy, but has its own advantages. So, for example, grafted graft seedlings are much easier to tolerate the transplant in the spring and take root faster. Grafting an apple tree in the fall will save you time if for some reason the spring or summer period was missed.
If you decide to do it in the summer, then remember that June, July, August are hot months and you need to water the tree often. In spring, the optimal time is considered to be the beginning of sap flow, when the buds are only blooming, and the air temperature is +7, + 9 ° C. This is usually the beginning of April. With due attention and diligence, good results can be obtained at any time of the year.
The optimal period for grafting an apple is the first day of September. At this time, still active sap flow, which with the approach of frost becomes slower, the leaves are already beginning to fall, and the trees go into a phase of sleep. It is necessary to have time before the onset of the first frost, so that the branch of the graft can settle down. Otherwise, it will die, and the next re-vaccination will be only in the spring.
It is important to prepare the cutting in advance. It is better to do pruning in the fall, cutting off a branch with a length of at least 40 cm from the annual escape. Be sure to clean the bark of dirt. It is recommended to do everything in the morning, cloudy and dry day. It is better to store the graft in peat, sawdust or wet sand at a low positive temperature in a dry place, occasionally moistening the substrate. This will keep the cuttings fresh, swollen, as if freshly cut.
Which tree to plant
To obtain the desired result, it is important to know what you can vaccinate. For example, if an ordinary willow has grown in your garden, then a stalk or a bud from a mother plant can be grafted into it, and it will begin to bear noble fruits. The best stock is considered to be the same type of plant as the graft branch. The easiest apple tree in the autumn is grafted to the apple tree, pear to the pear. But breeding work expanded the boundaries of this rule. Make a hole in the bark of a pear tree; place a bud from an apple branch there and the tree will bear fruit like pears and apples.
The important role is played by the compatibility of the stock and the scion, so you need to choose the right thing to plant the apple tree for. Quince belongs to the same "family" as a pear or apple tree, but there are a number of varieties that are incompatible with it. The closer the relationship of trees, the better. Even if the graft got acclimatized well, it is not a fact that it will be durable. Thus, the majority of stone fruits are well accustomed to apricot, but only the apricot itself lives on it for a long time. The same rule determines what can be grafted onto an apple tree.
There are two main ways how to plant an apple tree in the autumn on an old tree - budding and copulating. The first is carried out with the help of the kidney, and the second - the cutting. However, grafting the apple with a kidney is best done in the spring. For the autumn period, the cuttings are much better suited. There are many ways of this type of vaccinations, so we consider only the most simple, practical options.
Simple copulation is used if the graft and stock of the same diameter and their age is not more than 2 years. It is necessary to make identical cuts along oblique so that they completely coincide. They should be applied immediately, otherwise the surface will dry out, oxidize due to which the accretion will take place much worse. An improved copying option will provide a stronger bond through an additional longitudinal cut. On cuts, it is necessary to make cuts by one third along the axis and carefully align the graft with the stock.
If the diameter of the branches is different, it is better to use the graft in the split. On an adult tree, the cut is split crosswise or crosswise. The cuttings are inserted into it, which should have long oblique cuts on the bottom. If animals have damaged the base of a tree or skeletal branch, then it is recommended to use a graft bridging. This will help save the sapling. Along the edges of the damaged area make T-shaped incisions according to the number of cuttings. Put in them the edges of the scion and secure.
How to vaccinate an apple tree
You will need a stalk with a pair of buds from the most fertile plant. Clean it completely off all the dirt on the bark, prepare the tool. The knife must be very sharp so that the cuts in the tree heal faster. Wash the cut place on the stock and graft with boiled water, wipe everything with a clean gauze cloth. Vaccination for the bark is carried out as follows:
- On the stock cut down a branch so that its length from the trunk was not more than 70 cm.
- Clean the place saw with a knife.
- Make a 6 cm long vertical incision in the bark of the branch. The blade of the knife should reach the wood.
- Spread the bark of the stock.
- On the graft graft make an oblique cut.
- From the reverse side of the cut, the stalk is sharpened and inserted under the bark of the stock.
- The place of vaccination should be tied with a film, twine or tape.
Video: how to plant a fruit tree
The main goal of grafting fruit trees is to get a healthy, productive plant. The result of the work has to wait 2-3 years, so errors in this process are highly undesirable. It is not as difficult to make as to grow an apple tree, but it requires more care and preparation. A video about the methods of vaccinations and preparation of the scion will allow you to more clearly analyze all aspects of this process.
The optimal timing and purpose of vaccination
Vaccination is done for:
- rejuvenation of old wood
- preserving the qualities of the variety,
- accelerating the cultivation of trees
- increase the resistance of the new variety due to the old stock.
It is necessary to do such operations while the tree is at rest - in spring or autumn. Each season has its advantages and disadvantages.
But in the fall there are advantages:
- more moisture and no particular drought,
- seedlings take root better and tolerate transplant more easily
- hardening seedlings and increased survival.
With this method, the cutting is combined with the stock. The method is quite simple, with a high survival rate of cuttings, suitable for beginner gardeners.
- simple - Scion and rootstock cut equally obliquely, applied to each other and wound. The whole operation should take less than a minute - until the slice is oxidized. It is used for young (1-2 years) branches,
- improved - on the graft and stock make a longitudinal section, cuttings are joined and wound. Suitable for branches of different diameter, as long as the bark coincides, on the one hand,
- in split - a cross-section is made on the stock where the graft is inserted with an oblique cut. Suitable for branches of different ages and different diameters,
- behind the bark - as a stock, a branch is used as a stock, into the cut of the bark of which the graft is carefully inserted with an oblique cut. Suitable for variegated branches, on a thick stock (more than 5 cm in diameter) you can even plant two grafts. This method is recommended for novice gardeners because of its simplicity and a high level of rooting petioles.
How to plant an apple tree on an old tree: a scheme
For grafting on an old tree in the fall, only two methods of copulation will be suitable - behind the bark and in the split. Budding will not work, because the kidney just does not have time to settle down before the cold weather and will die, and other copulation options are designed for young branches, and not the old thick trunks.
Work should be done in the morning, in dry and not sunny weather, at an air temperature of 15-20 ° C. Precipitation and humidity are not favorable for such work - the cutting can rot.
When choosing varieties for vaccination should be borne in mind that summer apple trees need to be vaccinated summer varieties, and in winter - winter or autumn. Otherwise, there will be a difference during the growing season and preparation for the winter of the grafted branch and the main tree.
Good rootstocks for apple trees will be:
- apple varieties "Antonovka", "Anis", "Borovinka", "Brown striped", "Grushovka Moscow".
To properly perform vaccinations, you must follow these rules:
- graft need no older than 3-4 years
- Before starting work, check how easily bark leaves from wood,
- graft should be less stock.
The sequence of actions is as follows:
- preparation of the cutting - a suitable branch is selected and an oblique cut is made on it from below (approximately equal to the three diameters of the cutting) and from above, 2-4 buds are required.
- preparation of a stock - the chosen branches are cut, places of cuts are smoothed. In the bark, a longitudinal incision is made up to 5 cm in length (and the knife should not cut the wood of the branch). The bark gently unbends from the wood.
- grafting - the cutting is gently inserted into the cut and firmly wound with a film. The junction is covered with garden pitch.
This method is simple and suitable for beginners.
The conditions for safe vaccination are as follows:
- the thickness of the grafted part is not more than 5-6 cm,
- no more than 3-4 branches remain on the tree before the work, the rest are removed.
The procedure will look like this:
- preparation of the cutting - a suitable branch is selected and an oblique cut is made on it from below (approximately equal to the three diameters of the cutting) and from above, 2-4 buds are left,
- preparation of the rootstock - the selected branch is cut and trimmed, the cut is carefully split in the middle to a depth of 4-8 cm. The depth of the splitting depends on the thickness of the cutting - the thinner the graft, the smaller the depth. The split is done with a hatchet and a wedge (or screwdriver),
- inoculation - cuttings are inserted into the cleft and attached with a film. Everything is carefully smeared with garden baking or plasticine.
But the work does not end there. Even if the vaccination is done according to all the rules, it is necessary to properly care for the tree in order for the cutting to take root.
Rules for tree care after vaccination
After any kind of vaccination after a week or two, you need to check the condition of the cutting - whether it is dried or not, whether the splitting has been delayed. It may happen that the cutting does not grow together, in which case it is removed, and the wound is sealed with boiling or clay.
Video: how to care for the scion Before the cold weather, the tree should be spud and watered. It will be good to fill the tree trunk with compost or humus. This will serve as fertilizer and retain moisture in the ground. To prevent weak branches from damaging the birds, you can set arcs or tie strips of red fabric — it will scare birds off.
Before the very cold, the vaccine needs to be warmed with a special covering material or just a plastic bag, wrapped in paper over it to prevent overheating from the sun's rays.
Grafting fruit: basic mistakes novice gardeners
Novice gardeners are not immune from mistakes and quite often make them. The main mistake is the wrong tool selection. Many people ignore the purchase of specialized equipment (grafting knives, hatchets, good pruning shears) and use ordinary table knives, tourist axes.
With this approach, the cuts on the cuttings or the usual part are uneven, shaggy. And such a graft does not take root.
Recommend here you can two things
- purchase of a grafting knife and its thorough sharpening,
- Before harvesting cuttings, you should first practice on wild or non-fruit branches.
The second mistake is the wrong choice of the cutting. The stalk is cut from the top of the branch, and in fact it has just appeared, has not yet ripened and is not fully provided with food. From such a weak cutting and vaccination will come out bad. Therefore, for the graft, choose one-year ripe branches, with developed buds.
The vaccination site should be as close as possible to the main trunk or on the skeletal branch. It is also not necessary to replant the grafted tree. Such a weak plant will grow poorly and will not bring any benefit. Vaccination is a rather complicated operation and requires careful preparation. But its proper implementation allows you to speed up the harvest, rejuvenate the garden and keep valuable apple varieties from degeneration.
When is it better to plant an apple tree: in spring or autumn?
We all look forward to spring. Especially gardeners and gardeners in order to realize the best ideas. This is understandable.
Spring is definitely the perfect time to bookmark and do all the good things in the garden. And for grafting apple trees, of course.
In the spring you have a good opportunity to use most methods of vaccinations.
And if something did not work out? Do you have time to insure summer vaccination?
I regret to admit that, having experienced gardener for more than 20 years, until recently I was skeptical about vaccinations at this time. Believed that the topic is mainly for professionals. And their opinions and opinions are not very flattering. And more specifically - just not recommended.
What are they guided by?
- Apple tree comes to a time of rest.
- Sap flow is already slow, and soon pauses.
- Скоро морозы – не успеет срастись прививка.
- Далеко не все способы прививок можно использовать, а лишь некоторые.
И с ними надо соглашаться. Но ведь они же говорят:
- При определенных обстоятельствах прививкой занимаются можно и полезно.
- Many have greenhouses, the conditions of which are very favorable to the vaccination of seedlings.
- Adhering to clear rules and conditions is not just desirable, but necessary.
Is it possible to plant an apple tree in autumn in September?
You can do it, but you have less time for it:
- As always, one should not miscalculate with this time when planting an apple tree in the fall.
- Evaluation should be done in late August and early September..
At the end of September and in October you can demonstrate your abilities in other ways - in the butt, behind the bark, in the split.
- Work better with young trees and seedlings. (grown independently or purchased in the nursery), and do not forget the older apple trees.
- Look ahead, look at the forecasts and count so that your vaccinations have 20 days of average daily temperature of 10-15 degrees for engraftment.
- There is no hot weather - it is easier to pick up appropriate weather conditions: but not with rain.
- Pay more attention to weatherization.
- Each region has its own weather.
- And the timing of vaccinations, see the place.
Why grafting apple trees in the fall?
Isn’t it better to plant a two-year-old apple-tree of a classy sort from a nursery?
It all depends on circumstances that, as you know, dictate a lot:
- So there is no room for planting new seedlings.
- Neighborhood garden just lovely, I want no worse.
- Market saplings gave a surprise - not what is in the picture. True, this is more like not a surprise, but a pattern of market sales.
- The apple is already old, the apples are not tasty.
- I saw a tree in the picture garden: - Why not surprise your friends and passers-by with your apple tree?
- And if you add to them desire to experiment.
The vaccination time for a good survival rate is significantly reduced. But this time provides additional features.The survival rate of apple trees.
Vaccination in Siberia starts a little earlier. Like ends faster. But since December, gardeners can be engaged in winter vaccinations.
Fall Vaccination Technologies
A limited number of good and favorable days for vaccination survival affects the choice of methods.
Each of them has its advantages:
- Spit the peephole (with summer escape):
- In the butt.
- Peephole in the cut.
- Plant the handle:
- Behind the bark.
- In the split (semi-split).
- Copulation (simple and improved).
And what is needed for vaccination:
- The tool you are working with is sharp and clean: wipe the cutting parts of the knife and secateurs with a solution of potassium permanganate.
What is missing in the picture?
- That's right, garden hacksaw and hatchet.
- And cuttings trees (seedlings).
Grafting the apple tree over the bark is most successful in early autumn.
- The age of the inoculated part should not be more than 4 years.
- The branches are medium and large in size.
- Different sizes in diameter of the grafted part (rootstock) and grafted cuttings.
- The elasticity of the bark and its easy separation for the prepared cutting.
- Prepare the cutting for grafting:
- Make an oblique cut of its lower part (the length of the cut is three times the diameter of the cutting).
- Leave 2-4 buds.
- Prepare a grafted apple tree:
2.1. Cut down the branches to be grafted and cut the sections with a knife:
- Removal from the trunk - 40-80 cm.
- If you vaccinate completely - leave 2-3 main branches for food.
2.2. Make along the branch cuts of a length of 3-6 cm:
- The blade of the knife reaches the wood, but does not cut it.
2.3. Separate the bark carefully with a knife.
- If you need to grow planting material.
- Planting wilderness, on which budding has not taken root.
- Planting overgrown saplings stock.
- Growing dwarf trees with inset.
- Repairing damaged trees.
Use reliable and most effective methods for grafting.
In the side cut, each of you can:
- Replant in the crown of an apple young branches.
- Replant wild when failed kidney vaccination.
If you plant cuttings of the same diameter as the stock - not to do without copulation (more reliably with improved copulation).
- Get good results using this method when winter grafting branches 1-2 years of age.
In what situations you will do this:
- You wanted to significantly change the grade, adding a few good varieties you liked.
- And Michurin enthusiasts use it to create from one apple tree a whole garden of numerous varieties.
At the same time remember:
- Depending on its diameter, 2-4 vaccinations can be grafted onto one branch.
- Graft branches not at the same time, but in 2-3 years.
- Do not graft branches that grow vertically (less than 30 degrees).
- As well as diseased branches.
Grafting an apple tree in the fall with a kidney (in the gardener's tongue - peephole) you can practice from late August to mid-September. And in the south even longer.
- Method of grafting, suitable for gardeners from spring to autumn.
- But in the fall you don't even need to spend time on harvesting cuttings - everything is at hand.
- And the cuttings do not need much.
And you can use at your discretion any of the methods:
- In the butt flap. It is more acceptable if, for various reasons, the bark is not quite well separated.
- In the cut. Execute it as a letter T.
- Prepare a stock (grafting branch or sapling):
- Water plentifully apple-tree for 1-2 weeks.
- Pick up the area on the branch for grafting, clean it from dirt dust: Distance - 5-8 cm from the ground for seed and 12-15 cm for clonal rootstocks.
- Make a knife cut bark letter T: Along 2-3 cm. Across - 1.5 cm.
- Pry off the bark with a knife on both sides and bend the edges.
- Prepare the inoculated flap with a kidney - this is a summer kidney from an annual cutting:
- It is called gardeners asleep, because it will start growing since spring.
- Cut with wood and under the size of the cut on the stock.
- Cut in one motion so that the cut is even and without chipping.
- Insert the shield neatly into the incision and press it: if the shield is cut out narrow - align one of the edges with the cambium of the branch.
- The peephole looks up and in the middle of the cut (as in the photo).
- Make a wrap film: remove it only in the spring.
- In the autumn budding experts advise not winding the kidney.
- Graft two buds at once (from different sides).
- Check for kidney survival after 10-15 days.
- In spring, when pruning a branch, you can leave a small thorn for the garter of a new shoot: It is removed in summer.
Vaccination in the barrel
In words - we are all aces and geeks. We know how to cut and form the crown of an apple tree.
And when the apple-tree begins to grow we notice:
- This branch is weak.
- This is not quite right.
- And here it is not for various reasons.
To eliminate these errors, use the graft in the trunk for the bark.
- Clean dust and dirt.
- Make a bark cut like the letter T, or an inverted L.
- Prepare the stalk:
- Make a side cut below.
- Leave 2-4 buds on the handle.
- Insert the cutting into the cut.
- Wrap a tight inoculation.
- Apply graft with garden barb.
- You can use an oblique side graft:
- Do this on the branches. inverted L.
- Use thin grafts for grafting.
- For a strong attachment of the stalk to the trunk, use thin nails.
Is it possible at home?
We constantly remind about timing for vaccinations. Autumn is picky about the weather. And the cold may come before you waited for them.
therefore amateur gardeners are increasingly using vaccination facilities (specialists are vaccinated all year round).
And in many ways they win:
- No hot sun.
- Not necessarily in the early morning.
- Do not be afraid of rain.
And even more so if you have grown seedlings of the same age.
Chose the day and time for vaccination:
- Dig out the right amount of seedlings.
- Make the necessary inoculation.
Preference is given to methods:
- In the split.
- Improved copulation.
- Sprout additional roots in a sapling.
- These seedlings take root better and begin to grow in the spring along with the graft.
Application of moss
In relation to the apple tree, the phrase moss and lichen meant for me that they must somehow be dealt with. But sphagnum moss It turns out to be the most valuable thing for enthusiastic and engaged in the cultivation of rare orchids. It is he who creates the wet aura in the apartment for orchids.
For rooting cuttings Mix chopped sphagnum stalks into the soil.
Try putting sphagnum moss in pots with grafted seedlings for:
- Prevention of soil drying.
- Good root formation.
- Better vaccine growth.
One of the methods (grafting the eye into the incision) was discussed above.
But there are situations where the bark on cooked branches is not quite well separated (both time and features of a grade).
With this you can okulirovat kidney in the butt:
- Prepare the shield by cutting the bud from the prepared cutting: Its length is 2-4 cm, and its width is 1-1.5 cm.
- Prepare a grafted branch (seedling): Cut the bark in the internode:
- As the size of the prepared shield.
- Leave a small pocket (its size is one-third of the cut).
- Insert into the pocket (or attach) shield to the place of the cut.
- Wrap a film of vaccination (do not wrap the kidney).
Split or semi-split
Autumn (September-October) In a split manner, perform vaccinations indoors (and heated). After vaccination, store for some time at a temperature of 3-5 degrees, and then even less. And until spring.
- Age of grafted branches does not matter.
- The diameter of the grafted branches can be significantly larger than that of the grafted cuttings.
- Often use a cut on the stump and implant immediately 4 cuttings.
- Prepare the graft branch (trunk):
1.1. Cut (branch) the branch at a distance of 15-20 cm from the ground or trunk.
1.2. Split a branch (trunk) in the middle to a depth of 4-8 cm:
- The thinner the branch, the lower the depth.
- Do this with a graft knife, a hatchet.
- Use a wedge (it can be a simple screwdriver)
1.3. When grafting in the half-split - split the branch not in the middle, but slightly shifted to the edge.
- Make oblique cuts on both sides - a wedge of 3-5 cm will turn out:
- So that the cutting is stable and does not move when touched.
- Do not leave a crevice either on top or on the sides.
- Do not forget for the upper section of the graft graft.
- After 2-3 years, leave the best (in quality and location).
- Cut the rest neatly.
- Do not split longer than necessary.
- Watch for the combination of the cambial layers of vaccination participants.
Watch the video on how to plant an apple tree in a splinter:
How to care for grafted apple trees
It is necessary to care for grafted seedlings regardless of the method of grafting an apple tree. Every two weeks you need to carefully inspect the site of vaccination.
When budding, pay great attention to the condition and type of the vaccinated kidney. With other methods of grafting an apple tree, carefully inspect the grafts. If there is the slightest suspicion that the graft or kidney has not taken root, unwind the vaccination site, remove the shield or cutting and cover the incision with garden pitch.
Remove the "bandage" from the vaccination sites with a successful outcome until spring is undesirable. But with the onset of a thaw, it is necessary to gradually weaken it, since during this period the growth of the branches begins.
To ensure good nutrition of grafted seedlings, all shoots that grow below the grafting site must be promptly and ruthlessly removed with a sheath.
Before the onset of frosts, one should not forget about the mandatory autumn watering and hilling of apple trees, thus preparing them for winter.
As soon as you see that the graft has got accustomed perfectly, and the first shoots appeared from the buds, cut them, leaving only the strongest ones.
It is necessary to tie grafted apple seedlings when the shoots reach a height of 25-30 cm. Re-garter is required when they reach a height of 40-50 cm. This is necessary so that the seedling does not break under the weight of its weight or from the wind, since Apple trees grow together for a long time - at least 2-3 years.
Remember that after vaccination, an apple tree needs a lot of time and effort for the accretion of damaged tissues to pass safely. By feeding the apple tree with fertilizer in a timely manner, you help it recuperate and gain the necessary amount of nutrients even before the onset of winter.
Before the onset of frost do not forget about the warming of apple seedlings and protect them from rodents.