Farmers appreciate the Gourmet grapes early for ease of care, marketability and rich taste. The grade is perspective for country and plantation cultivation. A market demand for berries focuses on breeding.
Early Gourmet grapes are in demand among gardeners and consumers
Initially, the hybrid was derived under the name Novocherkassky Red, later assigned the code 1-12. Krainov is the creator of five species groups of Gourmet: Early, Elegant, Gourmet, Raduzhny and Flashlight, which differ in the color of the berry and the period of ripening, and are similar in an extraordinary muscat flavor. Gourmet occurred during the selection of Talisman and Kishmish Radiant.
Description of hybrid 1-12
The grape variety Gourmand early is ranked as a table species with an early ripeness. The vegetation period is 4-4.5 months.
Description. Shrubs powerful tall, easily-rooted cuttings. The ripening of the vine is two-thirds the length. Gourmet colors are inherent in the female type. Pollination occurs at the expense of neighboring bushes with hermaphroditic or male flowers. In the absence of "neighbors" needs additional pollination.
In grapes innate immunity to gray rot and mildew. Oidium and anthracnose afraid.
The bushes have dense pyramidal brushes, formed by oval pink-lilac berries, which do not crack when there is a jump in humidity and are not peas. The structure of the pulp is tight, the skin is strong, the seeds are absent. Tasters note the extraordinary muscat flavor mixed with floral notes.
In southern latitudes, the crop is cut in mid-August. The bush has 5-9 kilograms. Berry is lying. Clusters are stored in a disinfected cool room. The presentation remains until spring.
Important! GF 1-12 is loaded on 35 eyes. Vine can not be overloaded. When reloading the grapes lose their taste characteristics, because of which the early Gourmet got its name.
Early Gourmet variety grapes gives up to 9 kg of berries from a bush
How to grow a good harvest
Process description. To obtain a high-quality crop, the main agrotechnical aspects are taken into account:
- Do not plant young cuttings in place of the uprooted vineyard for three years. Grapes depletes the soil, pulling out all the nutrients and trace elements on which the young grow and develop slowly.
- Maintain the agricultural background by applying root and foliar feeding. Before flowering, potassium and phosphorus are introduced, fixing the effect with microelements - iron, zinc and manganese.
- Conduct regular preventive treatment. GF 1-12 sprayed with fungicides and biological agents. When using biopreparations, three treatments are not enough. After the rain, the poison is washed off and the protective layer is restored on the foliage. Gourmet prone to attack spiderwebs and grape ticks. In order to prevent injury, insecticidal and acaricidal drugs are used.
- Developed adult grapes consists of 23-24 shoots. Experienced farmers advise pruning of fruit-bearing vines for 6-8 buds.
- Cover the hybrid for the period of frost. The variety can withstand temperatures as low as 23 degrees, and the root system does not tolerate soil freezing. As the winegrowers say: the root is alive, the grapes are alive. ” In the northern regions of Gourmet grown in greenhouse conditions.
In cold climates, gourmet can be grown in a greenhouse
GF 1-12 propagated in two ways:
- Rooting cuttings. Sow cuttings or seedlings with an interval of three meters. Before planting, planting material is disinfected and treated with a crushing agent, and the wells are fertilized.
- Graft. To the old bush cuttings are grafted in three ways:«black to black, black to green, green to green.
These are ground procedures that are carried out in a split. Do not allow the cut to dry. The necessary tools are prepared in advance to speed up the procedure.
In the summer period, unnecessary growth points and rootstock break off, allowing nutrients to concentrate in the splitting zone, and the young plant to gain strength. The holding fabric is removed in August-September.
Green vaccinations are carried out in the middle of spring, and black ones - at the beginning of summer.
It is most effective to inoculate a fresh cut escape to a young bush.
Grapes grafted black to black
Preparation of stock. Stock cleaned of leaves. Schedule a place for a scion in the gap between the nodes of the second and third order. Remove dirt and disinfect with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. The top layer of the vine is cut. The disinfected instrument produces a three centimeter splitting.
Scion preparation. The lower end of the cutting wedge-shaped cut, cleaned of dirt and placed in a solution of growth stimulant. The upper part is treated with paraffin, increasing stability.
Conducting vaccinations. Graft inserted into the cleft on the mother stump. It is important that the diameter of the cutting fits the cut. The graft is fixed with a cloth and moistened, maintaining a temperature of 22-25 degrees.
Tips for pruning grapes in spring
Pruning is done to establish a balance between the development of the roots and the ground part of the bush.
Young grapes (up to 3 years old) are pruned to give a certain shape. Adult fertile bushes - to increase the quality of the crop. Old vines - to extend the fruiting period.
- preparation, sharpening and disinfecting of a tool: pruner or garden shears,
- pruning carried out before the swelling of the eyes,
- removal or shortening of old crown and annual shoots,
- remove excess, weak and diseased shoots,
- after re-growing season, yes, 90% of the annual increase is removed,
- leave two healthy and strong vines, shortened by 5-6 eyes,
- make sections smooth and smooth without a bevel,
- cuts and mechanical damage left on the side of the escape facing the bush,
- slices make smooth,
- vines with a diameter of 6-10 mm are left for fruiting healthy and not injured,
- after cutting the grapes define the vine, which is already fruiting and cut,
- The process is repeated annually.
Pruning grapes should be well sharpened pruners
Possessing resistance to gray rot and mildew, the hybrid is susceptible to oidium and anthracnose. They love to eat berries birds, wasps, spiderwebs and grapes mites.
Description of the disease. Predominates in hot regions and affects young plants. On foliage and clusters a dirty white bloom forms. The leaves dry, and the grapes crack and rot.
Prevention. Danger can be prevented by prophylactic treatment. Before flowering, foliar feeding of phosphorus and potassium is introduced. After flowering, feed with iron, manganese and zinc. Systematically grapes are treated with biological preparations.
Description. Fungal disease, common in the southern regions. Fungal spores are introduced into the injured parts of the plant during mechanical damage or illiterate pruning. The fungus infects foliage, berry and vines. With late treatment, the bush dies.
Prevention. Competent autumn pruning, processing diluted Bordeaux mixture before flowering, the introduction of dressings and timely irrigation.
Description. Lives on the front of the leaves. On the inside of the sheet, a white terry bloom forms, and on the outside there are variously sized bumps.
Treatment. With closed buds, nitrophene is used to treat the plant. When the vine has reached six centimeters, it is sprayed with sulfuric, insecticidal or acaricidal agents.
Pull out the pulp of berries, worsening the presentation of the bunch.
Prevention. To protect the crop, the wasp nests are detected and destroyed, and traps are prepared for stray insects — fragrant substances of a sweet and sticky consistency are placed in flat vessels or pieces of fresh meat or fish are suspended.
The wasp eats away the pulp of the Gourmet and spoils its presentation
Distinctive features of gourmet varieties
Early or Gourmet 1-12 is distinguished by medium growth and early ripeness. Berry rounded pinkish. Not afraid of gray mold and mildew.
Gourmet or Gourmet 3-6 is notable for its small stature and large clusters of round light red grapes of pronounced nutmeg taste. The variety is productive and frost-resistant (up to 26 degrees). Resistance to fungal diseases is average.
Rainbow. Mid-season variety. Matures in 130-140 days. In the southern regions of the crop is removed to the beginning of autumn. Not adapted for cultivation in the northern regions. Clusters of selected large berries gain weight up to a kilogram. Berry ellipsoid red. Differs high sugar content. Grapes vysokoplodovity, not afraid of mushrooms and does not attract wasp.
Elegant. Variety last selection. Differs in tallness, fecundity and early ripeness. Reaches maturity in less than 4 months. Large medium dense clusters are formed by oval shade-pink berries with increased sugar content. Resists mushrooms. Maintains frosts to 23 degrees.
Grade Gourmet 1-12 thanks for a full and comprehensive care with a stable and high yield. With high-quality shelter at the time of cold weather, it is possible to grow in temperate and cold climates.
A bit of history
Brought this grape was a famous national breeder VN Krainov. The hybrid forms of grapes obtained by this specialist surprise many gardeners. The main distinctive features of the varieties cultivated by V. N. Krainov are very bulky clusters and large berries. In particular, hybrids of this specialist Gourmet line are valued by gardeners. Berries of this group of varieties cottagers consider especially tasty. This applies, of course, to the hybrid we are considering.
Early Gourmet was added to the register recently, in 2016. When it was bred, V. N. Krainov used two very popular hybrid among summer residents - Kishmish Radiant and Talisman.
Early Gourmet grapes: general description of the variety
The main advantage of this hybrid, according to gardeners, in addition to the excellent taste of the fruit, is early ripening. The growth of this vine is medium. Each shoot of this variety matures about 2/3 of the length (sometimes more). In addition, the hybrid has a female functional flower. This variety is pollinated very well. They relate to the pluses of these vines and frost resistance. In the south of Russia winters early Gourmet very well. However, when grown in the Middle Belt, in the Urals or in Siberia, it is recommended to cover these grapes in the fall. The degree of frost resistance of this hybrid is -23 o C.
Also among the advantages of the Gurman early grape variety are resistance to diseases. For example, this hybrid almost never falls ill with gray rot or mildew. Oidium resistance is early average for the Gourmet.
Of course, due to the popularity of the Gourmet variety early, not only by the rapid ripening of fruits. Regarding the yield of it also there are just great reviews. The grapes on the vines of this variety ripen in fact very much. Also, the yield of this hybrid, judging by the reviews, is stable. However, in order for grapes to produce equally rich yields annually, it is recommended to prune it. In the spring, about 22–24 shoots per 4–6 m 2 (or 30–35 holes) are left on each bush. The shoots themselves are usually cut into 6-8 buds.
The brushes of this grape, like all gourmet hybrids, are very large. The shape of the bunch is cylindrical. Their density is average. The mass of the early grape bunches of grapes is usually equal to 500-800 grams. In some cases, with good care, this figure can reach 1300 g. Brushes of this sort look very neat. The load in clusters of early gourmet, judging by the reviews of gardeners, "pulls" very well. Transportability brushes differ quite good.
The fruits of the Gourmet early are characterized by very large sizes. The weight of the berries of this hybrid usually reach 8-10 grams. They have an oval shape. You can learn this variety not only by large berries and bulk brushes. Looks at the hybrid also very carefully. Berries differ in effective red color.
The taste of the gourmet early fruit is very pleasant - sweet and sour with a hint of nutmeg. The pulp of the berries is medium dense, slightly crispy. The peel of the fruit of this variety has an average thickness. In this regard, many other varieties of the hybrid, thus inferior. However, when eating, the skin of the fruit of the variety is practically not felt. That is, it does not have a particular negative impact on the taste of the berries. Juiciness in the fruits of this variety is moderate. Ghurman grapes early sugar content - 17-21%, acidity - 6-7 g / l.
The taste, according to many gardeners, the fruits of this variety are not too bright. However, the majority of summer residents do not consider this a disadvantage. Unlike the fruits of many other hybrids, the early Gourmet berries never become boring. Gardeners value this variety mainly not for its rather high yield, but for the pleasant taste of berries.
In the spring, taking off the shelter from the early Gourmet grapes should be in April, after the threat of frost below -10 o C is over. Sometimes, after winter, mold can be seen on the vines of this variety. No action is required in this case. After a while, the mold will disappear by itself.
Also in the spring necessarily carried out such a procedure as spraying. Diseases Gourmet variety early resistant. However, prevention does not put him yet. For spraying it is best to use Bordeaux liquid. You can also apply a 5% solution of copper sulfate.
In summer, early grape Gourmet care should consist in:
weekly watering at the rate of 10 liters per bush,
periodic dressings of ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate,
removing surface roots growing on the trunk (late August).
Just before harvesting, remove excess leaves from the vines - at the bottom of the bush and above the tassels. After this procedure, the clusters will receive more sunlight and will develop better. Fertilizing of grapes can be carried out simultaneously with irrigation.
Grape Gourmet Early Reviews
The opinion of gardeners about this variety has developed very well. Praise him, as already mentioned, above all for a harmonious taste bouquet. According to many gardeners, it is one of the best varieties available today. Also to the advantages of this hybrid, summer residents refer to the fact that it reproduces very well with green cuttings.
The flowers of this variety are female. However, it is pollinated from neighboring bushes, in the opinion of summer residents, very well.
The yield of this grape is excellent, and the brushes of the vines keep excellent. However, experienced gardeners do not recommend overloading early Gourmet bushes. Otherwise, the taste of grapes will decrease in the berries of this grape. Good reviews of this variety are available both in summer residents of the Middle zone, and Siberia, the Urals.
The disadvantages of this type of gardeners mainly include only the large size of the seeds in the fruit. Everything else, they are also poorly separated from the pulp.
Like any other grapes, the Gourmet early fruit can ripen only on the bush. Therefore, when harvesting all the berries should be ripe. This grape ripens in early August. As many gardeners say, berries can be stored at the same time until March. Tastes and properties of the fruit for all this time does not change. Sometimes gardeners keep clusters of this variety in cool rooms (0– + 5 o C). In this case, they can lie down until May.
Appearance of grapes
The Gourmet grape variety is early ripe: about 110-125 days pass from the appearance of buds to the final maturity. White Delight, Kishmish Nakhodka and Malbek are also distinguished by early terms of ripening.
This is a very tall grape. Rooting cuttings good.
Vine matures more than 2/3 of the length. Flowering in the southern regions begins in early June, and in mid-August - it is already possible to harvest. All Gourmets have a feminine flower shape and need pollination. However, they are pollinated well, if there are a number of varieties with bisexual or male types of flowers.
A cluster of elongated, very large, loose, can reach a mass of 1-1.8 kg. The berries are oblong, oval, rather large, about 8-10 grams. Original clusters also have large clusters, Delight and Bazhena.
The color of the ripe berries is bright pink, almost lilac, they are one-dimensional, and no pea is observed. The flesh of the berries is dense, crunchy, with a pleasant nutmeg flavor, sweet, seedless and very tasty. The skin is not thick, eaten.
All Gourmets are hybrid varieties of amateur breeding., bred by V. N. Krainov in the process of crossing Talisman and Radiant Kishmish varieties. In 2006, the Gourmet was recognized as promising and identified for cultivation in the southern regions of Russia, in Ukraine and Moldova.
The hand of the same breeder belongs Blagovest, Victor and Anthony the Great.
Variety can withstand temperatures as low as -22-23С. Therefore, in areas with a cold climate it is better to grow in a greenhouse. In moderate climatic conditions, for example, in the southern regions of Belarus, the Gourmet can be grown in the open field, provided there is a good shelter for the winter.
Reviews of gardeners for this variety are extremely positive. With respect to the maximum load on the bush about 20-23 shoots, the variety will consistently bring at least 6-8 kg of berries from one plant. Pruning fruit-bearing vines is recommended in the fall, an average of 6-8 buds.
When grown in temperate climates, the variety is not very frost resistant. Maintains a maximum reduction of t to -24C. Needs a good wrap and competent care. Gourmet resistant to most diseases and pests of grapes.
Diseases and pests
Oidium is more common in young, fragile plants, and may appear when grown in areas with a hot climate. This disease manifests itself in the form of a grayish bloom on the leaves and berries. Over time, the leaves begin to dry out, and the berries crack and rot.
All Gourmets are moderately resistant to this disease and if preventive measures are observed, infection can be avoided.
As such measures, prior to flowering, root dressings with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers can be used outside, and after flowering, add iron, manganese and zinc to them. To protect the vineyard well helps the use of biologics.
Anthracnose is a fungal disease characteristic of southern latitudes. Appears when illiterate pruning or in places of mechanical damage to the shoots. It affects leaves, berries and branches. If time does not begin treatment - the plant may die.
To avoid infection, it is necessary to properly conduct the autumn pruning and process the grapes with a solution of Bordeaux mixture before flowering. Do not forget about the use of fertilizers and timely watering the plant.
In addition to diseases all gourmet varieties can be attacked by pests. Most often these varieties are affected by birds, wasps, grapes and spider mites.
To protect the grapes from being damaged by birds, you can try to cover the vineyard with a polymer net or use a fishing line stretched in several rows between the tiers of a trellis.
To combat the wasps, special traps installed near the grape bushes help well. As such traps, small flat containers with jam or syrup are suitable, and in early summer it is better to use a piece of fresh meat or fish. It also helps the destruction of the wasp nests around the vineyard.
The grape mite often affects all types of Gourmets. It manifests itself in the form of bumps on the outer side of the sheet. The underside of the leaves is covered with white felt patina. Before blooming buds, grape nitrophen treatment helps. Later, when the shoots have reached a length of 4-6 cm, you can use spraying with sulfur or any insecticides and acaricides.
A spider mite appears on the underside of the leaves in the form of small dark dots. After some time, a sticky white cobweb forms on the leaves. In the fight against this tick helps spraying with special preparations and removal of the affected foliage.
Early: Differences and Features
Grapes varieties Gourmet early has several names. When breeding, he received the name Novocherkassk red. Later, it became known as Gourmet 1-12. But in the descriptions often referred to as early gourmet grapes. Unlike the Gourmet itself, the early Gourmet is medium-sized and ripens later. Berries are rounded, pale pink. The variety is well resistant to gray rot, oidium and mildew, is not damaged by wasps. Otherwise, all the characteristics of both species are the same.
Lakomka: what is unique?
Grape Gourmet Gourmand is also an early variety. The name Gourmet 3-6 is often mentioned. The maturation process takes 108-115 days from the appearance of the kidneys. The variety is medium tall, with large clusters not subject to pea.
The berries are round, rather large, light red, with a strongly pronounced nutmeg taste. The variety is high-yielding. Maintains a drop in t to -26C. Medium resistant to fungal diseases. Suitable for cultivation in the south of Belarus and Russia.
This type of gourmet is mid-season ripens in 125-135 days. In the southern regions of Ukraine it ripens only at the end of summer and beginning of autumn, therefore it is not suitable for growing in areas with a cold climate. Rainbow gourmet - medium-sized variety, well-growing both on rootstocks and on its roots. The clusters are large, conical, weighing about 1 kg. The berries are oval, very large, even red color, one-dimensional. The variety is resistant to fungal diseases, is not damaged by wasps.
The youngest kind of gourmet. Bred in 2009 and has not yet received wide distribution. This is a tall, early ripe variety, fully matures in 110-115 days.
The cluster is rather large and medium dense. The berries are rounded elongated, light pink in color, have a high sugar content. The variety has good resistance to fungal diseases and high yields. Frost resistance within -22-23С.
All types of Gourmet possess unsurpassed taste and beautiful appearance.. With proper care always give a consistently high yield. Experienced gardeners grow this variety even in areas with a temperate and cold climate, provided it is carefully sheltered for the winter.
All Gourmets reproduce well by cuttings and are slightly susceptible to major grape diseases. Gourmet and its varieties, as well as Angelica, Ataman Pavlyuk and Augusta, are great for growing on their own plot.
Description and distinctive characteristics of the variety
Grapes "early gourmet" description of the variety (see photo), according to reviews gardeners:
- early ripening (growing season 4-4.5 months)
- frost resistance to -23 ° C,
- nutmeg taste of berries,
- cylindrical or conical bunch,
- bunch weight can be from 600 to 1600 g,
- oblong berries,
- the color of the berries is pale pink,
- the weight of one berry is from 7 to 11 g.
Maturation term "gourmet" only 120 days. Beginning to bloom in early June, grapes can ripen in the southern regions in the first half of August. In the northern areas, greenhouse cultivation or wrapping of the crop for the winter is recommended.
The variety does not have the ability to ripen without a bush, therefore it is only necessary to harvest the crop when it is fully ripe. However, grapes can be stored, under proper conditions, until the end of spring. In addition, the hybrid is considered one of the most resistant to various diseases.
Features of growing
Knowing certain features of the cultivation of the early "gourmet", you can achieve excellent crop yields. When placing shoots in the garden plot, you should remember about the characteristics of planting grapes, such as lighting and soil.
Grape is a light-loving plant. The lack of light leads to disruption of the normal functioning of the leaves, planting fruit buds, lower yields and disease resistance.
It is not recommended to plant a crop between fruit trees. Ideal for vineyards to take away a well-lit area throughout the day.
Better conditions for lighting the bush are achieved:
- with optimal planting density,
- placement of shoots on the trellis,
- shaping the bushes
- timely garter, pruning and pasynkovane branches.
The main criterion for planting is fertile soil on small elevations. In case of heavy rainfall, the plant should be protected from rotting.
Before planting seedlings in the ground it is necessary to ensure its integrated feeding. In the future, the plant can be fed root and foliar fertilizers. All types of fertilizers are usually applied after sunset, as direct sunlight can leave fertilizer burns on the surface of the crop.
It must be remembered that the soil should be well heated. In the event of a sudden cold weather after the landing of the “gourmet” in the ground, the cuttings should be covered to avoid freezing.
Selection of seedlings
Cuttings for planting during harvest pruning in the spring. For this average thickness of the shoots cut into a length of 35 cm with five buds on each. The ends of the seedlings are dipped in melted paraffin, wrapped around the cuttings with a damp cloth, placed in a dark cool place.
About a month later, planting material is taken out, cut off the end and make several holes with an awl at the bottom of the branch. Of these, the root system will continue to develop. After that, the seedlings are placed for three days in a solution of honey (2 tablespoons of honey per 2 liters of water).
Planted cuttings in pots with garden soil and leave in a well-lit room at a temperature of 18 ° C. After about four weeks of systematic watering (once every three days), the buds will swell and leaves will appear.
In open ground, germinated seedlings are planted in May, in the ground warmed to 12-15 ° C.
Planted cuttings need to a depth of 50 cm at a distance of not less than 3 m from each other. Next to the seedlings establish a support, and the ground, covering the sprouts, sprinkled with mulch.
Next, the ground should be covered with foil. This will help the soil to warm up faster, and the mulch, in turn, undergoing decomposition, will produce additional heat.
Hybrid "gourmet" quite unpretentious in the care in providing him with proper watering, fertilizing and pruning.
The first two months after planting watering the grapes is required. It is necessary to loosen the soil for better absorption of moisture by the roots and prevent their rotting.
Dry summer implies mulching of grapes to retain moisture and maintain optimal microclimate.
After mid-summer, systematic watering should be stopped to allow the fruit to fill with sugars.
Fertilization is mandatory for the crop after planting. Before the start of flowering, a hybrid must be provided with phosphate and potash supplements. After the end of flowering, the grapes should be fertilized with manganese, zinc and iron. So the plant will be provided with a strong immunity and will be less susceptible to diseases.
In the fall, the hybrid also needs fertilizer, for which organic supplements such as cow dung or chicken manure are suitable. During the cold period, it will help the soil to fill with nutrients.
Cropping culture is carried out in early spring, before the beginning of the sap flow period.
It is necessary to save the plant from all those killed during the winter of the shoots, cutting the vine to five buds. On the bush should be no more than 35 eyes.
How to protect grapes from diseases and pests
Early grape variety is quite resistant to mildew and gray rot. However, young and weakened bushes are often exposed to diseases such as powdery mildew and oidium. At the same time on the berries and leaves formed a gray patina. Spring prevention with sulfur-containing and copper-containing drugs, as well as fungicides, will help to cope with similar diseases.
With careless pruning and damage to the vines, grapes may produce anthracnose, which affects the berries, leaves and crop sprouts. In this case, the branches and fruits dry up, and the leaves are covered with brown spots. Infected areas should be cut and burned, and the hybrid treated with protective mixtures containing copper sulphate or nitrophene.
Since the “gourmet” is prone to attacks of grape and spider mites, it is necessary to protect the culture with insecticides and acaricides.
It is necessary to systematically carry out preventive spraying with fungicides and biologics. Applying a biological tool we must not forget that after the precipitation it is washed out and additional processing is required.
Sweet berries of the early variety attract birds and harmful insects. To prevent the attack of birds, you can use a tensioned grid. Get rid of unwanted insects will help in a timely manner set traps.
Do I need shelter for the winter?
The frost resistance of this grape variety is relatively small - down to -23 ° C. In this regard, in the winter, "gourmet" is better to cover.
To do this, you must do preventive processing, cutting and autumn feeding. Then you need to hold a semi-shelter and hilling or complete shelter of the bush, depending on the climatic conditions of the region.
In some rather cold northern areas, “gourmet” is cultivated only in greenhouses.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The grapes "early gourmet" is distinguished by a large number of positive reviews from gardeners.
Among the advantages of lovers of juicy berries say:
- early maturation of culture
- stable and rich harvest
- good disease resistance
- delicate unusual taste of berries
- quite promising for both individual and mass cultivation.
Light, tasty, early ripe, not giving too much trouble the “gourmet” early grapes are favored by gardeners for their incomparable qualities. With proper care, the plant will fully repay grape lovers with its generous harvest.