Savory garden or chobras is one of the fragrant and healthy spices. In the people the plant is also called pepper grass. It grows in the form of a sprawling bush, which can reach 70 cm tall. What types of plants are and how to care for them, read the article.
Description of the plant and its species
The homeland of pepper grass is the land of eastern countries. Often the plant is used as a spice and for decorating dishes. Chobr is used not only in the process of cooking meat and sauces, but also added to dairy products. The herb goes well with various seasonings, thus giving the dishes an interesting note.
Residents of Rome with particular trepidation belonged to pepper grass. They believed that a wreath of this spice can improve memory and strengthen immunity.
The most popular types of plants:
- Savory garden breeze. This is a mid-season variety, used for food as early as 50-55 days after sowing. Chobr grows up to 45 cm tall. The stem of the plant is thin, branching well. The leaves are small. Each plate is coated with a waxy coating. Flowers are small, blue-purple hue. When deformed, the leaves and stems produce a rich aroma.
- Savory garden Aromatic mid-season variety. To start the plant to bloom, it will take from 40 to 45 days. Fragrant savory grows up to 50 cm tall. Buds are small. In the open form, they acquire a light purple hue. This is famous for its fragrant and juicy greens.
- Savory Scented. One-year grade. The leaves of the plant are used both fresh and dry. The aroma of fragrant savory reminds thyme. Perfect for cooking mushroom sauces, cutlets and marinades.
- Savory Dwarf Garden. Differs in extraordinary compactness. Bush strongly branched. With proper care, it grows up to a maximum of 15 cm tall. This allows you to grow it in the open field, and on the windowsill. The grade possesses a magnificent set of vitamins and microelements. When systematically used in food, it favorably affects all systems of the human body.
- Very popular grade called Sprint. Full ripening will require a maximum of 45 days. With favorable weather, flowering can be seen earlier. The height of the spice does not exceed 35 cm. In diameter, the bush reaches 20 cm. Flowers of light lilac shade. They contain a large amount of cumin and other equally important substances.
Still, they are different ...
To start, let's difference between savory and thyme plants. After all, many believe that it is - the same thing. In fact, they are different cultures, although they belong to the same family of yasnotkovyh. Savory is an annual plant, and its thyme cousin is a perennial plant. Most often it spreads along the ground, while savory has vertically located and higher stems. Thyme is differently called thyme, and we told about its garden form on the pages of the publication.
Garden or fragrant savory is a herbaceous cross-pollinated plant. Stem branched, covered with short hairs, with a purple tinge. Leaves linear-lanceolate, narrow, pointed, dark green with a solid edge. The flowers are small, light purple or pink, sometimes light yellow, almost white, located in the axils of the leaves. Seeds are small, black-brown, their germination persists for 3-7 years.
This is a ripening, relatively cold-resistant plant, it can safely transfer small frosts. Demanding of light, prefers open sunny places and fertile light soils.
Savory varieties differ mainly in the shape and height of the bush. There are tall, reaching 50 cm, as well as low-growing plants - 25-32 cm. The latter, for example, include the Gnome variety. An overview of the most popular varieties is given below.
Fragrant. Mid-season variety. The period from full germination to flowering is 45-48 days. The plant is up to 50 cm tall, with a well-developed main stem, sprawling. The leaf is lanceolate, dark green in color. The edge of the sheet is smooth with a medium waxy coating. The flower is light purple. Aromatic strong. The mass of one plant is 140 g. Cutting of plants is carried out in the period of mass flowering.
Filevsky. Mid-season variety. The vegetation period from full germination to technical ripeness is 60-70 days. The bush is compact, 40-50 cm tall. The stem is branched, covered with short hairs, not lodging, woody at the base. The leaves are green with a strong spicy taste and aroma, reminiscent of pepper. The flowers are pink. The mass of one plant is 160-190 g. Aromaticity is well preserved in dried greens. Variety resistant to lodging.
Lobio. The variety is a Caucasian population of savory, with a strong spicy taste and aroma. Forms strongly branched bushes with a diameter of 8-10 and height up to 25 cm.
Vegetables under which organic fertilizers (cucumber, cabbage) are good predecessors for chabra are.
The grass is usually grown in open ground, sowing seeds immediately to a permanent place. The plot is prepared two weeks before sowing. At 1 mg make 3-4 kg of manure, 15-20 g of potassium chloride and 10-12 g of ammonium nitrate. Dig up the soil, level.
It is best to sow the plant in the early spring. Sowing is carried out in late April - May. To have fresh greens throughout the summer-autumn period, savory can be sown in several periods with an interval of 10-15 days.
Before sowing, seeds should be soaked for a day in a damp cloth, then dried to a flowability state, and then start sowing - between rows 30-40 cm and a seed embedding depth of 0.5-1 cm. For better germination, savory crops can be covered with spanbond. Simultaneously with the sowing, ammophos or superphosphate (1 tsp. For 1 linear meter) is added to the rows. Under normal humidity and temperature, seedlings appear in 10-15 days.
In the middle zone, you can spend podzimny planting in November. Consumption of seeds per 1 m2-0.3-0.5 g. Under winter, crops are dusted with peat or humus. When sub-winter sowing, maturation occurs about 3-4 weeks earlier.
Savory and seedlings are grown, especially in order to obtain seeds or on heavy, swimming soils, where it is difficult to get good shoots. To do this, in the beginning - mid-April, sowing is carried out in a greenhouse (in the sowing boxes) or in a greenhouse, the seedlings are thinned, and in the middle of May the plants are planted in the ground. It is better to sow directly into peaty or plastic pots 5 × 5 cm, since savory, like many other plants with taproots, does not like transplants. But you can dive it.
With the appearance of two or three true leaves, the first thinning is carried out, leaving a distance of 7-10 cm between the plants, and in the phase of 4-5 leaves - the second with an interval of 15-20 cm.
Cleaning and storage
Mass cleaning of savory is carried out during the beginning of flowering. Stems are usually cut at the base.
During the season, you can selectively cut the stems at a height of 10 cm or in places of branching, which stimulates the growth of young shoots.
For harvesting, the stems are dried under a canopy or in a well-ventilated area. Drying temperature should not exceed 35 degrees. C 1 mg get 300-400 g dry weight. Dried savory perfectly preserves the flavor and even enhances it.
Store dried plants in glass jars, tightly closed with polyethylene covers. Dried savory leaves retain their flavor for two years.
Another approach with the harvest of savory seeds. They crumble when ripe, so do not linger with cleaning. In late August - early September, when the seeds become dark brown, almost black in color, all plants are pulled out by the roots or cut off from the ground itself and hung in the attic for drying. Under the plants you need to spread something or put them on paper bags, then to collect the showered seeds. After drying the plants are threshed.
Savory in cooking and traditional medicine
Savory is widely used in cooking. Fresh or dried herb is a great spicy seasoning. It goes well with fresh cucumbers in salads, suitable for dishes from new potatoes, fish, poultry. Can be used as a breading.
As a spice, this plant is added to dishes from meat, poultry, vegetables, mushrooms, cold appetizers, soups, sauces. Savory is used in pickling, canning and pickling. On 1 liter of marinade or brine is 0.5-1 g of dried savory.
Garden savory is known in folk medicine as a medicine that helps with gastrointestinal diseases, as a sedative and painkiller. It is recommended by folk healers for diseases of the kidneys, liver, gall bladder, as well as diabetes. In addition, the preparations from savory have antihelminthic and diaphoretic action.
Broth from savory is used as an expectorant when coughing caused by ARVI, influenza, bronchitis, pneumonia. 1 tbsp. l dry herbs pour 300 ml of boiled water for 20 minutes, strain and drink every 10 minutes in small sips. All liquid should be drunk throughout the day.
© Author: Alexander Vladimirovich GORNY, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences.
CHABER AND TABRET IS NOT ONE AND SAME!
Because of the similarity of the names, savory and thyme are often confused.
Although they have in common only that they belong to the same family of Labiaceae and come from the Mediterranean countries.
Savory Oak (Satureja hortensis L.) comes from the eastern regions of the Mediterranean. As a weed plant, it often grows in the south of the European part of Russia, in the lower reaches of the Volga and the Don, in the Black Sea region, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the mountainous Turkmenistan and in the Tien Shan, preferring dry, sunny, rocky places.
Savory is an annual aromatic herbaceous plant with a height of 15-40 cm of bitter and burning spicy taste. It is very thermophilic, withstands short-term cooling, but dies even with minor frosts.
The savory is grown by sowing seeds before winter or in early spring directly in the ground or seedlings (sown in greenhouses in April). At temperatures above 14 ° shoots appear after 8-10 days. The optimum temperature for plant growth and development is 20-25 °.
Best of all is savory in sunny places, on carbonate loose loamy and sandy soils rich in humus. But on heavy, wet and cold soils, as well as on salted savory, it is better not to plant it - here it will feel depressed.
Savory leaves are used in food raw, dried or boiled as a seasoning for salads, soups, meat, vegetable dishes, in the preparation of sausages, as a spice for salting cucumbers and tomatoes. They are especially good with tender meat - chicken, veal, turkey (say, as an aromatic additive to sauces) and beans. Add them to tea (for which they collect the leaves immediately before the flowering plants).
In the garden savory is well compatible with onions and beans. The smell of the plant's flowers attracts Hymenoptera and Predatory Insects. Therefore, savory is the best culture for attracting, uniform and constant accumulation of entomophages in vegetable gardens.
Thyme is a completely different plant belonging to the genus Thyme (Thymus L.). The genus includes about 400 species of perennial evergreen or semi-evergreen shrubs or semi-shrubs.
Thyme bloom in the garden is accompanied by a strong pleasant honey aroma. The plant is an excellent honey plant (medoproduktivnost is 40 kg per 1 hectare, with solid bees produce 160-181 kg of honey per 1 hectare). Flowers produce nectar even in dry years. Thyme grows thick carpet, and bees do not fly from flower to flower, but move from one flower to another. And in the end they collect so much nectar in the goiter that they cannot soar with a heavy burden and are forced to sleep on flowers.
Thyme is used in medicine as a disinfectant, anesthetic and antiseptic, and in the perfumery and food industry - as a spicy and aromatic plants. Some flowering species are promising for use in landscaping.
© Author: M. IVANOVA, Head of the Laboratory of Breeding and Seed Production of Green Crops, FGBNUVNIO