A private trout farm specializing in trout farming can be a profitable and efficient business. For breeding and growing fish will not require excessive investment, and you can equip the farm at home, having your own country plot.
Trout breeding is a profitable business that is in its infancy in Russia due to the lack of specialists who are familiar with the breeding technology and are able to create the right infrastructure for this business.
Therefore, starting your own business of breeding fish, you probably will get a profit and pay back the investment. Before starting your own business you should consider the following factors:
- To decide on the type of fish being grown - rainbow and brook trout that are usually grown in fish farms are best adapted to the conditions of captivity
- Effective business requires large areas for breeding. For example, 1000 year-old fish can coexist in an area of 1 ha. With further growth, the territory of vital activity needs to be expanded
- The trout grows slowly and in the third year of life the weight of an average fish reaches 500 g, and the females become able to spawn. You can start making profits in 3-4 years from the moment of opening a business, it should be taken into account when planning a budget
Fisheries require constant presence, it is necessary to pick up personnel familiar with the tasks set, to pay considerable attention to the development and problems of the economy.
Peculiarities of fish existence and life expectancy
Starting your own business of breeding fish, first of all, you need to decide on which varieties will be grown. The following varieties are popular in fish trout farms:
- Streaming trout - found in mountain and flat reservoirs, sensitive to water quality; for normal existence it needs the use of a flowing reservoir with an established aeration system and temperature control
- Rainbow trout - is also found in cold rivers and streams, but it can also exist in reservoirs with standing relatively warm water. This family is distinguished by the presence of species with high growth and weight gain characteristics - up to 2 times faster than standard species.
The conditions for growing both species are relatively similar, but despite this, experts recommend growing in the same container in one variety.
Joint cultivation is permissible, but it is necessary to create averaged conditions that are comfortable for both species of fish, affecting the growth rate.
The brook trout has a high growth rate, and the adults gain significant weight. Average life expectancy is 8-10 years, maximum 12 years. The average weight of adults is 9 kg, the maximum is 12 kg.
The rainbow trout is significantly inferior to the brook and, with the same lifespan, the maximum weight of the average individual does not exceed 10 kg, taking into account the peculiarities of the diet. Rainbow trout are less whimsical to the conditions of detention, it is resistant to accidental temperature drops and other deviations from the normal content of fish in swimming pools or artificial ponds.
Ways to breed fish at home
There are three main ways of growing trout at home:
- Sadkovogo - for growing enclosed area of the reservoir with mesh or lattice cages. One of the most comfortable methods, but there are difficulties with the regulation of water temperature and other environmental parameters. When breaking cages there is a chance of losing fish.
Breeding fish at home will require creating a comfortable environment for the development of fish from fry to adult individuals, regardless of the breeding options chosen.
More information about the technology of growing trout at home
Growing in UZV is the most popular and simple method of breeding in fish farms of the country and the whole world, for growing trout and other sturgeon fishes. UZV is the following set of equipment:
- Plastic pool - prefabricated or cast with smooth walls
- Water circulation devices creating directional flow inside tanks
- Oxygen saturation devices - air-controlled compressors
- Ozonizers for water ozonization
- Pumping and filtration devices for removing waste of trout from tanks
Pools or UZV differ in the volume of water, allowing you to choose a suitable capacity for any volume of fish. In addition, with the help of artificial ponds of the closed type, the environment is controlled for the breeding of fry, incubation of eggs.
What to feed a trout
Stream and rainbow trout are predators and require an appropriate diet based on protein foods. In the conditions of fisheries, dry feed with a balanced content of useful components, being an alternative to natural protein foods, is very popular. Dry feeds are selected empirically, taking into account the features. On sale there are food, designed for different age groups, made taking into account the peculiarities of the diet of fish.
Also use live food. Zooplankton with grated egg yolk and spleen is used for feeding fry. Meat additives and ingredients obtained from the processing of internal organs and intestinal tissue of cattle can be used as food for adults. The use of meat feed of natural origin gives the meat a pleasant red color, improves the taste characteristics after cooking as food. For the storage of meat feeds, it is necessary to use special refrigerators that ensure the preservation of protein foods.
The diet of the trout is calculated taking into account the age and time of the year to ensure a balanced deposition of fat and the production of beneficial trace elements. To accelerate the growth and improve the physical condition of fish growing in closed rooms, vitamin supplements may be added to food, compensating for the absence of healthy substances present in the water and open water bodies in a normal environment.
Difficulties of spawning in artificial environment
The trout cannot reproduce independently in an artificial environment, and to obtain offspring, it is necessary to make forced fertilization of eggs.
Caviar appears in every mature trout in the third year of life and beyond. In adult rainbow trout, the number of eggs varies from 800 to 3000 pieces. In brook from 300 to 1300 pieces. In the artificial environment, spawning and fertilization occur as follows:
- Large females capable of producing large numbers of caviar are removed from the amount of fish. After removal, they are seated separately, before the onset of full ripening of the roe.
- Ripened caviar is removed manually. To do this, wrap the fish with a clean cloth and gently squeeze the eggs through the natural opening for throwing eggs.
- Caviar is squeezed into a clean bowl without water.
- Next, decanted semen of male trout is added to the spawn.
- Caviar is gently mixed with bird feather, without damaging the structure of the eggs.
- After 5 minutes, water of the same temperature as the medium from which the female is extracted is added to the dishes with caviar.
After the fertilization of caviar, it is sent to special tanks incubators, where the required temperature and other environmental parameters are maintained. In order to get good offspring, it is necessary to take the eggs of only adult females and strictly observe the maturation terms of the eggs, in this case, the hatching rate will be quite high. Also, to increase the volume of hatched eggs, specialized preparations are used.
Where to sell grown trout
Having grown the first batch of adult fish, with a weight of one kilogram or more, it is necessary to determine the marketing of products. Before offering the fish to the buyer, make sure that all documents are in order and there will be no complaints from the health service.
You can sell products both to direct buyers - restaurants, cafes, offering fish dishes and seafood, and wholesale buyers who supply trout and other fish to markets and catering establishments. Working with direct customers, you get high prices. However, most establishments already have suppliers. Wholesale customers buy trout cheaper, but in large quantities, for resale.
During implementation, it is necessary to leave an adequate supply of sexually mature females that can spawn in order to maintain the livestock at the right level.
The cost of a kilogram is determined based on the weight, age and size of the fish. Adult individuals weighing 5 kg or more are the most expensive and are in high demand in restaurants offering exclusive cuisine. Find buyers for luxury products is easy, the main thing is not to make a mistake in the price and choose the best option.
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Everyone knows that there is almost no fish in the seas, and consumers have a huge market demand. Therefore, trout farming is quite a productive business. Fish can be easily sold, both wholesale and retail.
This business idea is quite accessible for beginner businessmen, because you can start with one pool. And then, having already received the first profit from the sale, it is already expanding quietly.
Beautiful business, and painstaking robot, to see the result, it is necessary to be patient.
Breeding trout in the pond. Technology and equipment.
The personal land plot will also be suitable, where it will be necessary to run a couple of pools and launch fry there. Production volumes depend on the initial capital and you can always expand in the future. A more expensive project that only experienced farmers need to implement is the organization of a cascade of artificial lakes.
It will take not only money, but also a lot of permits from the relevant authorities, so for the beginning it is better to run only a few pools. It is necessary to draw up a business plan for breeding trout, because this is the only way to see the approximate expenses and the amount of possible profit. So, the optimal weight of fish for sale - 1 kilogram and a little less.
Restaurants and small cafes boldly buy it, but the cost of a 500-gram trout will be relatively small.
Breeding trout at home: how to start a business
It will be even better to talk with the owners of such a business. If your intention only strengthened, feel free to go.
The form of doing business can be presented in the form of individual entrepreneurship.
If you decide to choose the first method, then you need to find a suitable reservoir somewhere in the vicinity of your settlement.
Please note that this path may be the most unprofitable, because in open ponds it is very difficult to create ideal conditions for the normal growth of fish.
Breeding trout and carp as a business
Carp feed is much cheaper, the average price for 1 kg of feed is from 10 rubles. For trout 1 kg of feed will cost you from $ 1.
Every day, carp consumes food in the amount of 1.5 - 3% of its weight.
It is very important not to overfeed the fish, excessive feeding will lead to the fact that the fish will stop growing and gain weight.
The main risk is that fish are subject to disease and epidemics.
Trout grows in 1.5-2 years. Profit from the business will depend on the demand for products and an established sales market.
How to create a mini trout breeding farm
But this method is not suitable for all regions: the fish do not tolerate high temperatures, and if the reservoir cools down insufficiently, it may die. For a complete cycle, several separate reservoirs are needed: auxiliary, several production (for young animals, grown individuals, uterine, feeding and for wintering), as well as quarantine.
Growing in pools is carried out in a similar way, differing only in nuances. So, in the pool is easier to control the quality and temperature of the water.
Cages are used for growing fish in large reservoirs, for example, on lakes. They are a closed platform with an internally located network.
Cages are stationary, pontoon (floating) and sectional. The most popular pontoon.
They can be removed from the shore, providing the best conditions for trout breeding by controlling the temperature - the closer to the shore, the warmer.
Efficient Trout Breeding Techniques
It is necessary to have astaxanthin, a natural carotenoid, so that the trout meat has a pleasant red color. If these conditions are met, on average over four years the trout grows to 2 kg.
Trout can be grown in various ways.
It depends directly on the type of reservoir and its location.
Today the most common breeding options are:
- installation of closed water supply - UZV,
For maximum results, experienced distributors use combined methods. Most often large individuals are kept in the spacious parts of the reservoir, small ones are grown in cages, and eggs and planting material are kept in special small trays and containers. Perhaps the most easy to grow trout in a closed pond.
What you need to know for breeding trout
For eggs there can be one tank, for young and adult fish - cages, and for large individuals - separate reservoirs. Bred in a pond, cages, pools, installations of closed water supply (UZV). You can use an existing pond or you can build it yourself.
The first option is less desirable - it’s difficult to maintain ideal conditions for fish farming and it’s almost impossible to protect a pond from poachers. We advise you to read about, and. In the pond, where trout is bred, it is necessary to make a flow: this will provide fresh and cool water.
Stagnant water will be saturated with oxygen, and the pond itself will be cleansed of food and waste products of trout.
We learn how to breed trout
Growth rates depend on trout culture and conditions.
- By year 3, fish grows to 500 g.
- weight of 2-year-olds - from 130 to 170
- the weight of one-year-old fish is from 20 to 25 g,
The fish reaches sexual maturity at 3-4 years of age.
The incubation period depends on the water temperature:
- up to 65 days at a temperature of about 8 degrees.
- up to 200 days at a temperature of about 2 degrees,
Streaming trout grows worse than rainbow trout, but they often practice joint breeding of both species.
Cultivation and cultivation of a trout in house conditions
In general, will be required for the organization of an artificial reservoir:
- Water filtration system
- Pump systems,
Therefore, it is recommended to create an artificial pond.
For this, either a plastic bowl is taken, or an appropriate base is made in the ground. Cage option for breeding is unacceptable.
You can also prepare for this pool.
For the pool will need the same equipment, but with the appropriate indicators. It is necessary to select equipment according to the displacement that it is capable of processing. Ideally, the performance should be somewhat higher, so that the elements do not wear out too quickly when working at the limit.
Trout is a more delicate type of fish and has its own requirements in the pond.
Trout as a business
Its depth must be at least 3 meters.
In the feeding waters, the trout feeds on carp, roach, and orff fry, which are released there as food. The pond is not quite the natural habitat of this fish, therefore in them it practically does not spawn. Fry are grown artificially.
To open such fish production, you need to find out some aspects of this type of activity, namely:
- Where and in what conditions are trout grown.
- Food for trout, as the most expensive item of expenditure.
- What kind of trout can be bred.
When grown in a pool, an average fish farm can produce up to 10 tons of trout per year.
With a minimum wholesale price of 170 rubles. per kg., annual revenue will amount to 1 million 700 thousand rubles.
What you need to start a business?
Typically, a hectare of water area allows you to grow about 1000 trout fry up to a year old. Industrial cultivation of fish will allow to increase this figure at once tenfold, as well as the possible profit. But it will be necessary to establish a whole feeding system for fisheries, to use sewage treatment plants, etc., which cannot be done at the initial stage of creating a business.
On average, a trout lives 10 years and during this time has time to grow to a weight of 12 kilograms. Fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of 3 years; it is at this time that it is so important to arrange everything for spawning in order to get the opportunity to grow hatched fry.
Trout breeding technology
At first glance, technology may seem complicated. To start a business you will need:
- Get the most useful information about the intricacies of growing trout, maybe even visit a couple of farms and explore everything yourself.
- Пройти регистрацию бизнеса, уплатить все налоги и пошлины, чтобы иметь возможность заниматься предпринимательской деятельностью на законных основаниях.
- Взять в аренду помещение под бассейны иди же выкупить его. Подойдёт и личный земельный участок, где необходимо будет запустить парочку бассейнов и запустить туда мальков. Production volumes depend on the initial capital and you can always expand in the future.
- A more expensive project that only experienced farmers need to implement is the organization of a cascade of artificial lakes. It will take not only money, but also a lot of permits from the relevant authorities, so for the beginning it is better to run only a few pools.
Calculations of investments and profits
It is necessary to draw up a business plan for breeding trout, because this is the only way to see the approximate expenses and the amount of possible profit. So, the optimal weight of fish for sale - 1 kilogram and a little less. Restaurant and small cafes boldly buy it, but the cost of a 500-gram trout will be relatively small.
To achieve this size, the fish will need to grow for at least 3 years, after which the fish begin to spawn. You can sell and fry at a price of 600 rubles per kilogram . The fecundity of one female reaches approximately 3,000 eggs at a time, so from the point of view of growth such a fishery will definitely be profitable.
If you start to grow fish, then four years later, the farmer has about 40 kilograms of fish, the purchase price of 1 kilogram is 200 rubles. It is easy to calculate that a kilogram of fry (about 60 pieces) will bring 12 thousand of income in the future.
As for the main items of expenditure, the salary of farm workers will take at least 400 thousand rubles, a kilogram of fish food costs about 2 thousand, and equipment maintenance is estimated at about 3 thousand rubles to grow one kilogram of trout fry.
The initial investment in the business will go primarily to:
- equipment purchase . This is of paramount importance, because without high-quality equipment for breeding trout to support the vital activity of fish and their ability to spawn is impossible,
- purchase of feed . Feed additives should only be of high quality, low-quality food will immediately show itself in the form of white meat in fish,
- purchase of fish stock . Usually in different regions the price of a kilogram of fry reaches 300 rubles,
- necessary accessories . It will be necessary to buy the pool itself, the pump and cleaning systems, as well as the automatic feed. By the most conservative estimates, this is 100,000, and the desire to reach a higher competitive level will require even greater investments.
Interesting article: sturgeon cultivation.
Feed and the fight for health
Breeding trout in a pond will require a businessman to observe a number of very important conditions: to fully and timely feed the fish, as well as to try to avoid infections and epidemics that can destroy the whole trout. To control the entire pond, experienced breeders every 10-15 days catch fish, study their condition, size, as well as internal organs and gills. So you can avoid the development of the disease, which in a short time will make the farmer bankrupt.
It is believed that to do trout breeding in the country, you just need to run the fry fish in the pond and wait until she grows up. And then the entrepreneur left her to catch and sell. But in fact, fish farming is one of the most serious and complex businesses that a businessman can begin to engage in.
Get ready for the trout rearing cycle to be at least 3 years old. You can sell fish in a year or half a year, but in this case its weight will be only 300 grams and you will not earn much from such sales. So you have to wait a bit to get the maximum profit.
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