Bulgarian pepper is a gentle and thermophilic culture. And in order to get a bountiful harvest, many gardeners have to grow seedlings of peppers at home on the windowsill. But how to avoid mistakes in this troublesome business, because every mistake will certainly affect the development of plants. A healthy seedling is a guarantee of a good harvest. How to grow seedlings of Bulgarian pepper from germination and before picking, from picking to planting in open ground or greenhouse, read in this article.
How to care for seedlings of peppers from germination to picking
After sowing seeds of peppers for seedlings, if everything was done correctly, after 7-12 days the first shoots will appear, then it is time to put the seedlings into the light. It is very important not to miss this moment! How and when to sow seeds of peppers for seedlings can be found under the heading "Cottage, garden and vegetable garden".
Shoots, as a rule, do not appear in one day. Those plants that appeared earlier than others, the most precocious and strong, and from them you can expect the best harvest. Therefore, it will be reasonable to leave on the seedlings those plants that have emerged in the first 4 days from the beginning of the shoots. And all the rest should be destroyed - they still will not be confused.
The air temperature for seedlings of peppers in the daytime should be + 22-25 degrees, and in the dark + 16-18 degrees. Peppers are very sensitive to the lack of heat. Lowering the temperature below 12 degrees can lead to the death of plants. Seedlings of peppers do not like the cold air that falls on it from the vents and cold concrete window sills.
Watering seedlings of peppers need only warm water - + 25-30 degrees. It should be watered in such a way that the soil in the planting container is completely saturated with moisture. And the next watering is carried out only when the soil begins to dry out. We can not allow the plants to wilt and waterlogging. When watering the soil, the roots of the plants will not receive enough oxygen, which will affect their development, besides, they can get a “black leg”.
It is very important to monitor the lighting of the Bulgarian pepper seedlings. If tomatoes, under insufficient light, are pulled out, then the seedlings of peppers behave differently - they freeze. Pepper is a plant of short daylight. The optimal duration of the lighting of seedlings of Bulgarian pepper should last 9-10 hours. And later varieties require an even shorter day, but with high illumination.
If the windows, on the window sills of which the seedlings are located, are facing south, and the weather is sunny, this light is enough for the plants. It will only be necessary every day to turn the container with saplings one or the other side to the window so that the plants do not stretch out to one side. You can put the reflectors of light, making them from foil or from plain white paper.
But, if often there is cloudy weather or windows face the north side, then the seedlings need to be illuminated with fluorescent lamps or special lighting fixtures. In case of insufficient lighting, buds may not form on the first brush.
The seedlings of peppers are worse than the seedlings of tomatoes; they suffer picking; this procedure will delay the development of peppers by 8-10 days. Peppers picking in the phase of two true leaves, approximately 20-25 days after germination. To hesitate with a picking is not worth it, as the roots, developing, are strongly intertwined. And pepper roots are very long and poorly restored.
A container for picking seedlings of peppers, 0.5-0.7 liters in volume, should have an opening for water flow. In it lay a nutritious, light and loose soil mixture, with almost neutral acidity. Pepper seedlings are very picky about phosphorus nutrition. But nitrogen fertilizer, at this age, should be moderate. As for potassium, plants need it almost always.
If the soil for seedlings is in a cold place, then it is necessary to place it in heat two days before the pick. The ground should warm up well. Two hours before the picking, the soil with the seedlings is plentifully watered with warm water. If this is not done, then the dry ground will just fall off from the roots.
The container is filled with soil and lightly tamped. A hole is made in the hole, 5-6 cm deep. Using the back of a teaspoon, carefully remove the seedling along with a clod of earth. Then, in the prepared hole, lower the plant, deepening its stem of centimeters by 2. In the future, when planting seedlings in open ground, the stem of the pepper is not deepened. All additional roots on it are formed only as a result of picks. If, when disembarking in open ground, the seedlings are deepened, then this will greatly delay the time of harvest and reduce its quantity.
It is necessary to ensure that the plant root is not bent while picking, and the plant roots have good contact with the soil. Therefore, when planting peppers, the roots of the plant tightly pressed to the soil, and then abundantly watered.
It is impossible to pinch the central root of the seedlings of peppers, as it is done with tomatoes, since the roots of the peppers are restored for a very long time. For the picking select only developed seedlings. Weak plants are subject to destruction.
How to care for seedlings of peppers from picking to disembarkation
For growing seedlings of Bulgarian pepper most suitable are windows that face the south side, with wide window sills. If the windows face north, the seedlings will need lighting, but not to lengthen the daylight, but to enhance the lightness of the seedlings.
The optimum temperature for growing seedlings of peppers after picking in sunny weather should reach + 24-26 degrees, and in overcast - + 20-21 degrees. At night - + 16-18 degrees. At these temperatures, sweet pepper seedlings are provided with the most favorable temperature regime, which contributes to its good growth and development. Bell pepper seedlings grow very slowly only until the fifth pair of leaves appears. Then growth accelerates.
Pepper seedlings outnumber tomatoes in terms of food consumption. Plants need phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium, iron, calcium, and in small quantities potassium. If the soil contains all the necessary nutrients, the seedlings will develop perfectly without additional fertilizing. Lack of nutrition can be seen on the condition of seedlings. And if necessary, you should feed the seedlings.
Water the plants only with warm water, about +25 degrees, as the soil dries. Watering is necessary so that the soil is completely saturated with moisture. Overdrying of soil, as well as moistening, will have a bad effect on the development of seedlings.
If you comply with all these conditions, seedlings of sweet peppers will be strong and healthy. She has only one drawback - she is too pampered. Therefore, two weeks, before planting the seedlings to a permanent place, it is necessary to begin preparing the plants for more severe conditions, that is, to harden it so that it can adapt to the environmental conditions in which it will have to grow further. To do this, every day, for two hours, lower the air temperature to + 12-14 degrees. It is not necessary, when hardening the seedlings, to allow the air temperature to drop below 10 degrees. At home, the temperature can be adjusted by a window or window sash. Further hardening time must be increased. Seedlings can be put on a loggia or balcony under direct sunlight, of course, if the air temperature allows. And by the time the plants are planted in open ground or in the greenhouse, sweet pepper seedlings will be strong, healthy, resilient, and will yield a good harvest in the future.
Planting seeds of Bulgarian pepper seedlings with a photo
Bulgarian pepper is a perennial crop, which to our latitudes is grown as an annual. The growing season of pepper is long; it takes a long time from sowing seeds to fruit ripening; a short summer is not enough to grow peppers by sowing in open ground. In our area it is cultivated through seedlings.
To get good seedlings, you need to select high-quality seeds. Keep in mind that the sale mainly hybrid varieties that give a good harvest. It does not make sense to collect seeds from them for further cultivation; the subsequent harvest will no longer meet all the characteristics, since hybrids do not retain maternal qualities.
Preparation of containers and planting seeds of Bulgarian pepper
Large containers are used as containers, since the root system of the pepper is fragile and does not tolerate frequent transplants. Opinions gardeners about picks diverge, some advise to use ordinary packaging, then dive the peppers in separate cups. However, it is believed that it is better to sow peppers immediately in separate containers, and to grow seedlings without picking. What a way to choose, everyone's business. We propose to consider the cultivation method of picking, as this method requires knowledge.
1. Rasnovny boxes disinfect, fill with earth and form grooves with a depth of 2 cm.
2. Seeds are laid out at a distance of 5 cm from each other, so that the shoots have enough light, and they do not stretch out.
3. Boxes covered with foil, cleaned in a warm place, where the temperature is 20-22 ° C.
Do not forget that when shoots appear, the night temperature must be reduced to 16 ° C, otherwise the seedlings will stretch. Further cultivation is reduced to the correct irrigation. In too wet ground peppers can get a black leg, and die in dry soil. Ground moisture is maintained by moderate watering.
What you need to know about picking Bulgarian pepper
Dive pepper twice. In the stage of two true leaves, the shoots are transplanted into separate containers for seedlings, the second pick is done immediately to a permanent growing place.
During the first picking, the seedlings are buried to the cotyledon leaves, but no more, a deep landing only hurts. The pots are filled with nutritious mixture, they make a depression in the soil, carefully transfer the sprout with a clod of earth. After planting the soil is moistened. Stripped peppers look lethargic, they need time to get stronger. For several days, remove the seedlings in a shaded place, do not water, provide high humidity around the pots. As soon as the peppers take root, the seedlings start to grow.
Care for the seedlings of Bulgarian pepper
To get quality seedlings at home, you need good lighting. Since the seeds are planted at the end of February or at the beginning of March, natural light will not be enough. Experienced gardeners recommend using artificial lights or special lamps for seedlings. Lighting includes at least 6 hours a day.
Two weeks after the picking, the seedlings are fed for the first time. Mineral fertilizer for the seedlings Agricola, Fortress and others gives good results. The second time feeding is made in the development phase of the second or third pair of leaves. The concentration of fertilizers is reduced in order not to burn tender roots.
Planting of Bulgarian pepper seedlings in open ground
Peppers are transferred to a permanent place when a stable air temperature of +16 ° C is established, and the threat of night frost is completely bypassed. This is usually the second half of May, but in the northern regions the dates may shift.
The best predecessors for pepper are siderats, cucumbers, zucchini, carrots, onions. Do not plant seedlings after tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant. In autumn, the soil is digged by adding organic matter and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Immediately before planting the pepper, the bed is decontaminated with copper sulphate or potassium permanganate solution.
Peppers are planted in rows, between which 60 cm are left. Plants in a row are placed at a distance of 35 cm. The holes are made shallow so that the root neck after planting remains at ground level. The bottom layer of soil from the hole is mixed with mineral fertilizers, fresh ground is poured on top, and the seedlings are planted after.
Tip! Try to keep an earthen room, so that the roots are not damaged during planting, and the seedlings adapt quickly to a new place.
After planting, the bed is watered abundantly, the soil is mulched with organic material. If the night temperature has dropped below +13 ° C, then without additional shelter, the seedlings can be ill, lag behind in growth.
How to care for Bulgarian pepper to get a good harvest
To increase the yield of pepper, the first flower on each bush is removed, the bushes are formed into 2 or 3 stems. However, one plant will not sustain more than 25 fruits.
Pepper bushes are fragile and often break under the weight of fruits or from gusts of wind. After landing, you need to think about the supports. In cloudy weather, plants are poorly pollinated by bees, from which yield is affected. Spray the bushes with the following mixture:
· Boric acid - 2 g,
Components dissolve in 1 liter of warm water, spraying is carried out in the evening.
Water the pepper as needed, but no more than 2 times a week. After each watering the soil is loosened. To avoid this procedure, mulch the beds.
Two weeks after planting, the seedlings are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. The number of dressings no more than two with an interval of 10 days. In the phase of flowering and budding, they transfer to phosphorus-potassium top dressings.
Hello, dear readers!
As we already know, sweet pepper is a very thermophilic culture and also has a long growing season.
And therefore, in order to get a good harvest, and even as early as possible, it is necessary to grow this crop with the help of seedlings.
Pepper grows well in the greenhouse and in the open field, but to sow it directly into the ground will not work with you either in the north or even in the south. So we will learn all the wisdom of planting sweet peppers through seedlings.
How to grow seedlings pepper? We will try to answer this question in this article. We can not regulate the weather outside the window, but we will successfully create the desired microclimate at home.
Attached to cozy pots on the southern, warm window-sill, the peppers grow beautifully and, then transplanted to the garden, turn into strong plants and give a good harvest.
In addition, the cultivation of pepper seedlings has the following advantages. In a vegetable grown by the seedling method:
- Increases the period of fruiting.
- The fruits begin to ripen earlier at 2.5-3 weeks.
But before you start sowing seeds, you need to choose the right pepper varieties that we will grow.
I advise you to pay attention to these basic parameters:
- The duration of summer in your area. If it is short, then choose early and mid-early varieties. If you have warm days for 2-2.5 months, you can also plant mid-season peppers. Well, and if you are lucky and you live in the southern regions, then the later varieties will also mature perfectly.
- The shape of the fruit is also important. Peppers with a conical and cylindrical shape with thick walls are good for salads, in the form of "cubes" it is great to use for stuffing, and medium-sized pepper is better for marinating.
- Color of bell pepper: dark colors, for example, sweeter.
- Growth bush. Tall varieties are usually planted in greenhouses, and low-and medium-growth - in the beds under the film shelters.
Now, directly, let's get to the answer to the main question - how to grow sweet pepper seedlings.
Step 1. Determine the date of sowing.
It is necessary to plant peppers for seedlings in a timely manner in order to get good planting material.
This is a very important moment in the cultivation of sweet pepper - the determination of the correct time for sowing seedlings. After all, if we plant the seeds too soon, the plants will grow back in pots.
The timing of sowing pepper seeds depends on several factors:
- Features variety. Peppers of early varieties are better to sow 60 days before planting it in the garden, and later varieties - for 70-75 days.
- Place of future cultivation. Keep in mind that young pepper seedlings should appear in a heated greenhouse at the end of April, in film greenhouses, greenhouses - from mid-May to its end, and seedlings will be planted under the open sky in the first June decade.
- Growing seedlings with or without picking. Peppers grown without picking will be ready for planting a week earlier.
- The climate conditions of your region.
For many gardeners, the answer is simple - to start growing seedlings in early February, but, on the condition of a short day, the young pepper needs additional lighting in this case.
If desired, you can use LED, fitolampy, including them for 12 hours.
But most experienced gardeners plan to sow seeds for seedlings in late February and early March.
- If the seeds are sown in the early stages, you can face some troubles: the plants will tie the lower fruits, this leads peppers to exhaustion. Such a seedling can be sick, it will become worse to take root and delay fruiting.
Pay attention to the quality of the seeds themselves! Many manufacturers expose seeds to overdry to increase shelf life. About this feature is usually written on the package.
Step 2. Cooking seeds
Sweet pepper - a capricious plant, its seeds can quickly lose their germination. To avoid this, they should be well prepared for planting.
♦ Selection of seeds. Prepare a saline solution (30 g of salt per liter of water). Опустите туда семена перчика и хорошо размешайте.
После 5-10 минут крепкие, качественные семена окажутся на дне, а слабенькие будут плавать. Нам нужны здоровые семена – их мы хорошо промоем и дадим высохнуть, разложив на бумажный листик.
♦ Протравливание. How to grow pepper seedlings and get strong seedlings? Need for dressing.
This method will disinfect the seeds and give them the first hardening of diseases.
We will help a weak solution of manganese (grams of potassium permanganate per liter of water). Hold the seeds there for about 15-20 minutes, rinse and dry.
♦ Processing. In order for our pepper to grow strong, 2 days before sowing, the seeds must be processed with microelements.
Spread the seeds in gauze bags and put them in a solution with trace elements (you can use "Ideal" or "Appin").
We hold the seeds there for about a day, after which we remove and dry (no need to wash).
- You can use for processing and folk remedies. Soak the seeds in a solution of ash (2 g of wood ash per liter of water) - insist the mixture a day. And we keep the bags with our seeds in the solution for 3 hours.
Council You can do without soaking the seeds. Bubbling (processing of seeds in water saturated with oxygen) is considered a very effective method of preparation.
This method dramatically enhances the germination of pepper. For bubbling, use an ordinary aquarium compressor. Treat seeds in this way for 2 weeks before sowing.
- Take a large glass jar, fill the container with 2/3 water (at the same time the water should be about + 20 ° С). Lower the compressor there so that its tip is located at the bottom, and turn on the device. As soon as bubbles appear in the water, immerse a bag of seeds in it for a day.
♦ Hardening of seeds. Seedlings of sweet peppers should have good immunity.
Hardening will help the pepper to adequately cope with weather troubles and any diseases. The hardening of the seeds is carried out directly before the sowing.
Soak the planting material in slightly heated water, wait for the seeds to swell and immediately put them in the fridge on the bottom shelf. Keep them there for a day. Then proceed to seeding immediately.
Step 3. Preparing for sowing
Our pepper does not tolerate a pick-up - therefore it is better not to plant the seeds in a large total capacity. Ideal would be individual cups in 100 ml volume.
As the pepper grows, we will simply “load” it into larger containers.
♦ Soil for seedlings. Land for our seeds must be energized and insulated.
To warm up the soil - first pour hot water into the containers with the ground, and stretch the film over it (evaporation will be collected there).
Ground for sweet pepper can be in several variations:
- Ready soil. On sale there are special, already prepared mixtures for growing seedlings of pepper. This is the most reliable option for planting. Such land has already been treated and protected from diseases and pests.
- The soil is cooked by yourself. To do this, mix a seedling bucket with peat (4 parts), sod land (2 parts), lay sawdust (1 part), humus (1 part), river sand (0.5 l) and wood ash (2-3 tbsp. l.).
- Coconut substrate. It can also be found in stores, such a substrate is also great for growing young peppers.
- Earth with hydrogel. The addition of a hydrogel to the soil makes it possible to keep the soil moist. But you should add gel bulbs that are already swollen in water. If you lay dry granules in the ground, when the balls swell, they start to push the ground out of the pots.
- Peat tablets. One of the most convenient options for growing seedlings. In the future, plants (when picking or transplanting) are simply transferred along with the tablet to other, larger containers.
Advice on how to grow pepper seedlings. In order for the pepper to adapt better in its permanent place in the garden, add some soil to the soil from the plot where you plan to plant the plant. Do not forget to process it with potassium permanganate or steamed in the oven for 30-40 minutes.
Lay a drainage layer on the bottom of the cups, as a drainage you can take small pieces of foam plastic, broken particles of red brick or expanded clay.
It is better to take the cups themselves opaque - the sun negatively affects the healthy formation of the root system.
♦ Choose a place. Bulgarian pepper does not like the cold very much, direct rays of the sun are vital for it.
An ideal place for seedlings will be the southern windowsills, all the time flooded with light. On very warm days, seedlings can be put up on warmed balconies / loggias (put insulated material under the cups of the seedlings).
Step 4. Seeding
♦ Sowing pepper in seedlings. Fill the cups with soil mixture by ¾, slightly compacting the soil with your hand.
Then we pour the soil a little and make grooves 1 cm deep. In each cup we put two seeds of pepper at a distance of about 2-3 cm from each other, sprinkling them with soil (it will be convenient to use a toothpick).
We cover the cups with seeds with polyethylene and place them on the windowsill.
- Instead of a film, you can use a glass coating on top of the cups. This method will provide our plants with an optimal microclimate, which is very important for the healthy growth of seedlings. In order to maximally protect the seeds of sweet pepper from possible drafts, mini-greenhouses can be equipped with seedlings - install dense, reliable wire at the edges of the boxes and stretch plastic film over it, completely covering the ground with seeds.
Advice on how to grow pepper seedlings. Experienced gardeners are advised to place the pots with seedlings at a distance between each other. It is noticed that the Bulgarian pepper does not like to touch the leaves and immediately begins to stretch at the same time. Neighbors bother him!
Step 5. Competent care for crops
It is very important to observe the correct conditions for growing seedlings of pepper. As soon as we planted the seeds, they should be kept until the first shoots appear at a temperature from + 25 ° C to + 27 ° C.
The first sprouts can appear after 7-15 days (depending on the type of vegetable). Spray the soil in the boxes every two days with water from a spray bottle.
Council As soon as the pepper has an effect on the first shoots, we remove the film coating. At this time, you need to organize the plant additional lighting phytolamps - this will accelerate the growth of seedlings and strengthen them.
- The lack of light provokes stretching and deformation of seedlings. Adult peppers at the same time can suddenly stop growing, their roots begin to rot and die.
The optimal light day for sweet pepper is 9-10 hours. We will finish reading the pepper in the afternoon (from 8 in the morning to 20 in the evening).
♦ Temperature conditions. An important factor in obtaining healthy seedlings - temperature. The best for seedlings is daytime temperature of + 23 ° -25 ° С, nighttime + 16 ° -18 ° С.
If at night the temperature falls below + 12 ° C, the plants will start to lose leaves and may die.
♦ Watering. Watering young seedlings should only be warm water, preferably in the morning. Watering the peppers is not often, but quite plentiful - look at the condition of the soil!
After watering, do not forget to break through the ground. For water, use rain or melt water. If you take the usual, from the tap - be sure to let it settle beforehand.
Advice on how to grow pepper seedlings. Loosen the earth more often - the roots of the pepper is vital to get oxygen. The roots of this plant - the most "sore" place. They categorically can not be damaged - the deformation leads to inhibition in growth and the cessation of further fruiting.
♦ Hardening. Already grown seedlings (10-12 days before disembarking the garden) should be tempered - take out for a short time on the street or open windows.
For hardening, spraying the seedlings with grass infusion will be useful (for infusion, you can use garlic, onions, needles, marigolds, or calendula flowers).
Tempered seedlings will gain resistance from pests.
Important! If you sprayed seedlings - on the street, under the sun it can not be carried with wet leaves! Water droplets on the leaves can cause their burns.
♦ Feeding. How to grow healthy pepper seedlings? Feed your young vegetables! For the entire period of growing seedlings peppers need to feed 2 times:
- When there will be 3-4 true leaves.
- With regrowth 5-6 of these sheets.
The introduction of a mullein solution (10 parts of water and 1 part of manure) or bird dry manure (it is necessary to fill it with hot water at + 80 ° -90 ° C, based on the part of the litter 20 parts of water, it should be infused for about 2 hours) is ideal.
To make the fruits of the pepper become large and juicy, it is useful for the seedlings to carry out foliar feeding by spraying the young plant with a solution of complex, mineral fertilizers.
♦ Dive or not? Although many gardeners do not recommend diving peppers (seedlings when transplanting reluctantly take root in a new place), but many successfully grow their seedlings using dives.
- Picking Do not miss the moment when it is worth planting grown-up peppers (the ideal time for a dive: 15-20 days after the shoot, when 2 leaves appear on sprouts). During the dive process, one cannot pinch the main root of a plant. A picking is recommended if the sowing of seeds of sweet pepper occurs in a particularly nutritious soil with a high nitrogen content. After picking young seedlings fall into conditions close to the garden.
- Without a dive. This method is simpler and safer. Grown up plants gently roll over with an earthy lump in a larger container. At the same time, the root system is not damaged and the pepper has more chances to grow into a healthy culture.
Problems and troubles
When growing seedlings, any gardener can face problems. Young seedlings have not so many troubles as an adult plant, but they can be:
♦ Shoots dramatically slowed growth. This can occur in peppers after a dive, when the roots were accidentally damaged during the transplant. Therefore, if you are a novice gardener, try to do without picking seedlings.
- Sometimes pepper can slow growth with a lack of fertilizer. Its "hunger" is indicated by the light green color of the leaves, which is paler than the rest of the seedlings. Do not forget to feed your pets!
♦ Black leg. How to grow seedlings of pepper without the disease. Pepper loves moisture and watering, but in no case of coma can it be watered too actively and diligently.
Excess water in the soil can lead to the emergence of a dangerous disease of seedlings - a black leg. The soil, which has not undergone prior disinfection, can also lead to infection with the soil initially infected with spores of the fungus.
- With the disease, the root neck of the plant becomes soft, the pepper withers, thins and "lies on its side." It is very easy to pull out of the ground, as the diseased roots die and become thinner.
The causative agents of the disease are pathogenic fungi, which are activated when the soil is too wet and its high acidity.
Diseased and heavily planted peppers may be affected.
To prevent disease, pour calcined sand onto the soil surface and avoid over-wetting the soil!
Carry out competent care of seedlings of pepper, adhering to the following tips:
- Water the seedlings very carefully, trying not to fall on the stalks. The tiniest sprouts are best pipetted between the rows.
- Do not keep long shoots under cover! Ventilate them more often and make sure that water does not accumulate on the ground, there is no dampness around the stalks. You can even periodically blow on the plants to prevent air stagnation.
- Refuse cold windowsills! The frozen ground dries out very slowly, and the spores of the fungus need to be activated.
- Do not thicken the crops! In the "more" seedlings accumulates cold air - a real haven for the disease.
- Do not allow for your pets sudden temperature drops - they may suffer and decrease immunity.
The quality of "adult" seedlings
Knowing how to grow pepper seedlings, what are necessary competent agrotechnical measures, taking care of their young pets, we can grow strong seedlings that will successfully turn into adult, healthy plants.
And for a successful transplant in the garden, they must meet the following characteristics:
- Age of seedlings 60-80 days.
- The height of young peppers should reach 17-20 cm.
- Healthy plants are required to have 7-10 perfectly developed leaves.
- They may have small buds and a sturdy stem 3-4 mm thick at the roots.
Our seedlings will be ready to move to their permanent place of residence when the soil in the garden warms up to + 14 ° -16 ° C (in the root layers it is a depth of 10-15 cm).
And when there is no threat of sudden frost (as a rule, this period falls on the end of May-beginning and mid-June).
Before planting, young seedlings should be watered well to reduce possible injury to the roots.
We met with the traditional method of growing seedlings of sweet pepper.
But I want to invite you to watch several videos of Yulia Minyaeva about another method of growing seedlings - "in a snail." I really liked him. I will try to plant part of the seedlings with this method.
See you soon, dear readers and success in growing strong and healthy seedlings!
How to grow seedlings pepper at home
Are you curious about what sweet pepper prefers? Here, these components of a successful vegetable growth:
- Loamy and light soils with a neutral or slightly acid reaction.
- In the periods of development of a small light day.
- Pepper is a connoisseur of potassium, therefore it needs this fertilizer in significant quantities.
- Suitable temperature value of 20-28 degrees. If the value is less than 14 degrees, it stops developing.
Remember that growing seedlings is not the most difficult task. Difficulties arise after moving into the ground. At the same time, pepper grows only in the southern regions of the country (and even then not in all). In other cases, it is cultivated in greenhouse conditions.
From my experience I will say even with luxurious seedlings and transplanting into the open ground, the fruits turned out to be small in the end. And it is in the south of Russia. Better shows himself bitter pepper. When growing in the garden, such wonderful peppercorns are obtained directly.
When to plant pepper on seedlings
Sweet pepper is considered a fastidious plant, so it is necessary to monitor the temperature indicators and do not forget about watering. It is important to choose the right time for sowing in order to get quality seedlings by the right time. By the time of transplanting, the shoots should be 20–25 cm high.
You can choose the time according to the lunar calendar. In 2017, seeds can be planted on February 14, 16 and 23. In March, these are days - 3,4,12, 14,20,30 and 31. In April, the suitable dates of the month are 9, 11, 18 and from 26 to 28. In May, an opportune time for landing is 8.14.15, 24 and 25.
It is believed that it is better to make landing with a growing moon.
By the time of planting sprouts must be more than two months old. Experienced gardeners recommend sowing seeds in February, and in the southern regions it is possible even at the end of January.
In regions where the spring lasts a long time, and the sun shines a little until March, it is not recommended to plant seeds in January. But until the weather is sunny, a real leaf will not form and the sprouts will stand for a month with seedbed flowers, which will have a negative impact on the harvest in the future.
Planting pepper seedlings
Before planting, it is necessary to prepare the seeds. They are characterized by poor germination, so they need to be stimulated. Many recommend soaking in a weak solution of manganese, but I do not do this, since it is likely to burn the seeds. (I had a sad experience with cucumbers).
You can use this method:
- Seeds need to hold in a thermos in water, heated to 50 degrees, about 25 minutes.
- Then wrap in a wet cloth, put in a plate and place under the freezer compartment for a couple of hours.
- After this immediately sow.
A simpler method that I use: soak the seeds for half an hour in a growth stimulant solution. This may be Novosil, Zircon or Energen.
The solution must be prepared according to the enclosed instructions. From my experience I can confirm the effectiveness of Novosil, I have not used other drugs.
For many, the question arises whether a picking is necessary. Using the example of this culture, I can say that the plant does not tolerate transplantation very well.
Therefore, you can immediately plant 2-3 seeds in a half-liter tank and grow it before transplanting into the ground. Then you can cut a weak sprout or plant two plants in one hole at once, which will make the root system stronger.
Ground for peppers, sowing seeds
The ground for the peppers also requires preparation. The easiest option is to use the soil from your garden and store soil. In this case, the store substrate should be 30%, and the soil - 70%. Land from the own garden will help the plant to adapt in the future, and the ready soil will help the seeds to turn faster.
There is another option for preparing the soil. On the bucket of peat is taken a fourth of the sand, as well as a glass of lime or a can of ash.
The seeding itself is performed as follows:
- The tank is filled with soil at half the height, it is poured abundantly with warm water. It is better to use a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- The surface is sealed with a spoon.
- Seeds laid out with a distance of 20 * 20 mm.
- From above, the soil is poured to a distance of 4 cm and compacted, again we slightly moisten the top layer of the earth.
- Finished containers covered with dark polyethylene.
Seeds are planted at a depth of 2-3 cm. The fact is that sprouts should not be deepened when transplanted, as this will cause the roots to rot. Поэтому, семена сразу высеиваются на глубину, иначе корни сформируются близко от поверхности земли и кустик может падать.
Если планируете делать пикировку, то это нужно делать на стадии двух настоящих листиков и без заглубления. Настоящие листики образуются через 3-4 недели после всходов. You can also dive at the stage of cotyledon leaves.
Before the soil in the pots should be carefully shed with water. Then the following sequence of actions is performed:
- The seedling is removed along with the earthy clod and transplanted into the prepared pot.
- Sprinkle earth on top.
- After planting, the soil is slightly compacted and watered.
- It is worth remembering that the root neck is buried only half a centimeter.
It is important to feed, which should not be forgotten. Before transplanting into the soil, the plant needs to be fed twice. This is done two weeks after the picking, and another two weeks after that.
Top dressings are brought in a liquid state. You can use ready-made fertilizers: Sturdy, Mortar or Agricola.
- After germination, the film is removed, and the seedlings are exposed in a warm, but well-lit place. The temperature even at night should not fall below 15 degrees.
- It is necessary to create all the conditions for the sprouts to get enough light. To do this, you can fix the foil on the slopes of the window so that light is reflected and hit the plants.
- Fluorescent lamps can be hung above the landings to provide illumination in the required amount.
- In two weeks it is necessary to harden. You can start with a temperature of 15 degrees and bring up to 12, but not lower. There must be no drafts.
- Any feeding is done after the appearance of two true leaves. You can prepare such a solution: in a bucket of warm water, dilute 40 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of urea and 15 grams of potassium salt.
- It is important to monitor soil moisture, since drying out is detrimental to the crop.
- To sprout do not hurt, water with warm water. At the same time try not to fall on the leaves.
- Do not allow strong over-wetting of the soil. This can cause black legs. By the way, from this disease helps ash.
- Watering is best done in the morning. To avoid stagnation of liquid, it is better to make holes in the tanks.
- Before watering the land is recommended to plow through.
Growing at home and transplanting
Do not replant the vegetable in chilled soil. The earth should heat up to 17-18 degrees. Before the procedure, seedlings need to moisten. Harvested holes must be of such a size that the germ moves easily into it along with the soil clod.
In the grooves need to make a spoonful of potash supplements. Then the recess must be filled with warm water. After the liquid is absorbed, the seedling is transplanted along with a lump of earth.
The plant does not need to be deepened, but only compact a little soil around the bush. Then grind the surface with hay.
Alternatively, this vegetable can be planted along rows of tomatoes, which will save the bushes from aphid attack. It is good to plant sprouts in a low greenhouse separately from other crops. In this case, the air will not be cooled much at night, as in high greenhouses.
If the nights are cool, the seedlings can be covered with a spunbond, lutrasil or a regular film.
It is impossible to plant bitter next to sweet pepper, as this will give bitterness to the fruit.
Diseases and pests
Most often, all varieties of pepper are affected by aphids, slugs, and spider mites. Karbofos will help fight pests.
Among the popular recipes is a popular solution made of ash or laundry soap. Nettle helps with slugs, the stalks of which can be tied around the bottom of the shrub.
From diseases, pepper infects late blight, gray or apical rot, and sclerotia. To deal with such ailments, be sure to remove all affected areas.
Then is processed fungicides. From late blight helps such a tool as a barrier and barrier.
Tips for a beginner pepper grower
Many novice gardeners are interested in the question: is it possible to grow peppers without seedlings. Professional gardeners do not advise doing this, as cold and heavy soils are not suitable for this crop. For example, I always grow from seedlings. (Although the experience is small, only four years.)
Are you interested in what problems beginners often face? Here is a list for you:
- Pepper blooms, but does not form ovaries. This happens when overheating in the greenhouse, with high humidity and cooling below 14 degrees. In this case, it is worth trying drugs that improve the setting, as well as less water.
- If the pepper does not produce buds for a long time, then this may mean overfeeding with nitrogen. Do not use manure or weed solutions.
- The leaves twist up in a boat or form a rim of brown color with a lack of potassium. In such a situation, use fertilizer with potassium in the evening.
- Many diseases can be prevented by irrigating the planting site with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Video - pepper seedlings from germination to pick picking
When using useful recommendations you will get great seedlings of pepper at home. Pay special attention to the preparatory stage, which determines the growth rate of seedlings, seed germination and the absence of diseases.
I hope that my advice and my experience will help you to grow a great harvest. Successes you and health. Really looking forward to your comments on your experience. Or maybe you have some original advice and do not mind sharing with him. See you soon.
On the blog there is an article about the beneficial properties of sweet pepper, take a look, read.
Growing pepper seedlings at home
We will discuss in more detail how to grow seedlings of pepper at home?
For peppers you need to make a light nutrient substrate of sod or garden soilmixed with humus, peat and a small amount of washed sand. You should not take the land from the greenhouse or from the flowerbed, the best option is the soil on which the grass grew.
Growing pepper seedlings from seeds. You can plant seeds in containers or peat pots. Before planting, seeds are treated with a growth promoter and soaked for swelling..
Pepper does not tolerate transplanting and picking, it will have to be transferred by transferring it to a new place of residence (in a greenhouse or in the ground). A fragile root system is easily damaged and difficult to repair.
A convenient option for growing peppers for seedlings at home - pieces of plastic film, which gardeners call "diapers" themselves. Growing up in “diapers” is very economical, the shoots develop perfectly, moisture does not stagnate in the soil. In this way, you can grow good and healthy seedlings without picking.
The manufacturing process is simple. Thick plastic is cut into rectangles the size of a tetrad sheet. A portion of the prepared soil is laid on each billet, the pepper seed is placed in it. Plastic with the ground rolls up in the form of a cylinder, the process is a bit like swaddling a baby.
The lower part of the workpiece is tightly tucked in, the stationery gum is put on the top for fixation. The resulting cups are tightly installed in a deep pan. If several varieties are planted, it is necessary to mark each glass and enter the name of the variety in the notebook.
Before transplanting, it is enough to remove the gum from a plastic cup, remove the film and place an earthen ball in the prepared hole. With this method, the root system is not injured, seedlings take root in a new place without problems, do not get sick and develop well.
You can clearly see how pepper seedlings are grown in the photo below:
Garden on the windowsill
How to grow seedlings of pepper at home? A very important point - the correct placement of landings at home. Usually shoots peppers put on the windowsill of the south, southeast or southwest window. To create an optimal atmosphere, it is better to veil the window with plastic wrap on both sides. This technique will provide the greenhouse effect, the plants will not suffer from drafts.
At what temperature is pepper seedlings grown? For seed germination optimum temperature is from 25 to 28 degrees. When sprouts appear on the soil surface, the temperature should be reduced to 22-25 degrees.
How to harden pepper seedlings? Some gardeners recommend tempering tempering with a decrease in temperature to 20 degrees. This temperature is maintained no more than 2 days after the emergence of sprouts, then the temperature rises.
The atmosphere in the window greenhouse must be stable. Lower temperatures hinder development, and excessive heat can cause the death of sprouts. It is strictly forbidden to put boxes with seedlings on the battery or in its immediate vicinity. Severe overheating dries the soil and roots.
The secrets of proper cultivation
How to grow seedlings of pepper at home? Growing peppers need a short light day, while they love bright lighting.
To ensure the desired mode on the window lamps are strengthened for illumination. At 19 o'clock the container with seedlings is covered with an opaque breathable material, in the morning it is removed. As a result, seedlings develop well and do not outgrow.
At home pepper often affected by mites, aphids and other pests. Effective means of bio-protection (for example, Phyto-farm) will help to destroy insects. Replace the purchased preparations can infusion of calendula, garlic, pine needles or onion peel. The affected plants are sprayed from a spray bottle, the procedure is repeated until complete destruction of the pests.
Only completely healthy and strong plants can be planted in a greenhouse or in open ground. The transshipment with the earthy ball is carried out, when the earth warms to 15 degrees. Improving survival rate helps pre-spillage holes with hot water.
Watering and fertilizer
Immediately after sowing, the ground in a container or pots is moistened with a spray bottle. When sprouts appear on the surface of the ground, you can start watering from the spoon. It is impossible to pour seedlings stagnant moisture in the soil causes rotting of the roots and the appearance of a “black leg”.
For irrigation using warm distilled water. Ideal if the temperature of the water coincides with the temperature of the air. Cold watering excludedThis can cause shock and death to the plants.
Watering grown seedlings need twice a week, making sure that the soil does not dry out. If the leaves begin to fade, it is worth spraying with warm water. To improve the condition of seedlings will help and an aqueous solution of growth stimulant. Watering with a stimulant is useful immediately after seed germination and after the formation of 2-3 true leaves.
When the first true leaf appears on the plants, you can begin mineral fertilizing.
An aqueous solution of complex fertilizers is introduced into the soil. After the appearance of the third leaf, fertilizing is repeated. Potassium humate has a positive effect on root development..
After transplanting peppers in the greenhouse or in the soil, fertilizers are applied twice a month. Watering takes place in the usual mode for seedlings, 2 times a week.
For future harvest is very important seedling age. Overgrown peppers should not be planted in a greenhouse or garden bed. To obtain seedlings of the desired size and degree of development, it is important to accurately calculate the time of sowing seeds. Paying attention to all the little things, the gardener can count on a good development of plants, timely formation of ovaries and abundant fruiting.
So, the main topic of the article is pepper seedlings: how to grow it strong and healthy? We discussed the main points of cultivation, and also gave tips on how to grow peppers from seeds at home for seedlings?