In appearance, guinea fowls somehow resemble humpback chickens with a small head and a rounded body. The short tail of this bird is directed downwards, and the plumage is thick. One of the characteristic features of guinea fowls is the presence of horny growth on the head. The legs of this bird are thick, powerful and hardy. Wings chickens guinea fowls taken to prune at an early age. The fact is that these birds are able to fly.
As you can see, the guinea fowl (bird) is very unusual and interesting. The male and female look very similar, and so much so that inexperienced poultry farmers often cannot accurately determine the sex of a bird. However, it is still possible to distinguish between females and males of guinea fowl. The latter behave more actively and aggressively. In addition, the males have a lighter color and large earrings.
Guinea fowls tolerate both heat and cold well. Therefore, they can be bred in almost all regions of Russia. The only thing that needs to be taken care of is that the bird in the shed is dry. Increased humidity guinea fishes tolerate very bad.
This bird is sick much less frequently than chickens and ducks. However, if an individual does get infected with something, it will be almost impossible to cure it. Therefore, care for this bird should be in strict compliance with all the necessary technologies.
So now you know what kind of bird is the guinea fowl. This is a domesticated African chicken, hardy and active. Keep guinea fowls can be in a normal barn, along with other feathered living creatures: chickens, ducks, turkeys. This bird gets along very well with its neighbors - it does not fight, but if necessary it can stand up for itself. The main feature of guinea fowl in terms of behavior is fearfulness. It is better if the same person will always feed them.
In addition to fearfulness, this bird is also noisy. She notices other people and animals immediately and raises a scream. So guinea fowls are also excellent guards.
One of the important conditions for the successful maintenance of this African chicken is the presence of a large walking range. Bird shed should also be quite spacious. If next to him will not be walking, dilute guinea fowls will not work. In this regard, it is very picky poultry. Guinea fowl-hen is unlikely to mate with a male indoors.
Sometimes these representatives of birds are kept in cages. This limits the movement of young stock and accelerates weight gain. However, cells for guinea fowls must be sufficiently free. This active bird should be able to move freely in its home.
The guinea fowl bird is bred, the photo of which is presented on the page clearly demonstrates its unusual appearance, primarily for obtaining:
Modern breeds of guinea fowl are distinguished by precocity. Slaughter weight they gain by the 45-50-day age. Egg-laying in these birds lasts from early spring to autumn. In the year one chicken can bring 90-120 eggs. Guinea fowl meat tastes like game and is considered much more useful than chicken and duck meat. The fact is that it contains much less fat and water. A huge amount of healthy micronutrients is also what characterizes guinea fowl. The weight of an adult bird at the same time can reach 1.7-2.2 kg.
Guinea fowl eggs also have excellent taste. At the same time there are much more vitamins in them than in chicken ones.
They bring up African chickens in a private household not only for eggs and meat. These birds, among other things, can save the garden from all sorts of harmful insects. They also eat the Colorado potato beetle, which is not done by any birds. To let out the guinea fowl on a garden in most cases it is possible without fear. She never digs beds, and vegetables do not bite.
Answering the question of what kind of bird guinea fowl, it is worth paying a little attention and methods of its breeding. As already mentioned, in order to receive the fertilized eggs of this bird, the owners of the household plots must arrange for it a spacious enclosure. If the wings of the Guinea fowl are not clipped, it should be fenced with a fence not less than 2 m high. Experienced poultry breeders are advised to plant several bushes in the aviary. This will create an imitation of natural walking, and the bird will feel more confident. At 5-6 females usually leave one male.
The guinea fowl (the photo below confirms this) can sometimes hatch eggs and nurse chickens. However, the mother of this African chicken is still not too good. The owners of homestead farms usually do not allow them to hatch the masonry on their own. The fact is that this bird is very shy and can easily throw eggs.
In order to get the young, hen's eggs are laid under the chicken or turkey. Also, chicks can be bred in the incubator. The mode of operation of the apparatus in this case is set the same as in the withdrawal of chickens. The only moisture parameter inside the incubator should be slightly higher.
The guinea fowl, the bird, the description of which was given by us above, is carried about once every 3-4 days. At the same time, eggs that were stored for no more than five days are laid in the incubator. Before putting them in the incubator, a small test should be carried out. For this, eggs hit each other. Of course, only slightly. The rattling sound is thus rejected, since there are microcracks in their shell.
Care for Little Tsesarya
The particularities of growing guinea fowls and other pedigree species (there are usually many birds on the farmstead) living creatures must be known to the owner of the household farm. This is especially true for young stock.
Guinea fowl eggs are incubated for about 28 days. Care for hatched chicks is about the same as for chickens. That is, the newly born babies are first planted in a box with lined paper bottom. From above, such a house for the Tsars is covered with a grid. For heating inside you can put a plastic bottle wrapped with a thick cloth with hot water. Be sure to arrange the queens and lighting. In the dark, this bird is much worse developed.
After the hatching, boiled egg, cottage cheese and millet feed chickens of the guinea fowl. After a few days, begin to give greens. In the first two days after hatching, the Tsaryat is still not well oriented in the box and may not find food and water. Therefore, they need a little help - to tap a finger on the plate with millet or eggs, dip the beaks in the water. Until one month of age, they give food to the hens every three hours. After 30 days go to 3-4 single feed. Starting from the second week, yeast, salt and fish oil are introduced into the diet of chicks. In the box or in the cage to the princes, you also need to put a small container with small gravel. From the third week of life, you can begin to feed the young shredded, boiled potatoes and roots. Greens in the diet of chicks should be a lot. Go to the adult menu at the age of three months.
In order to succeed in breeding, it is not enough to know what the guinea fowl is, what kind of bird (the photos of these birds demonstrate their strong constitution quite clearly) it. It is also important to have an idea about some features of its cultivation. Guinea fowl over time very much get used to each other. In a flock quite complex hierarchical relationships are established. Therefore, it is not allowed to place extraneous chicks in the box. Members of the flock will react to him extremely hostile.
Another rule that must be followed by the owners of Tsars is absolute cleanliness in the box. African hens are very curious. Especially with regard to what you can eat. Therefore, they often swallow threads, rubber bands, pieces of rags, etc. Moreover, the consequences for this may be the most dire for them.
Up to 4-6 weeks old chicks desirable to keep in cages. Then they are transferred to the floor - to the litter.
What should be the barn
Thus, you now understand the features of such feathered living creatures as the guinea fowl. What kind of bird (reviews of homeowners about it are mainly about as very unpretentious) is, you know. So, for example, in the shed for this bird is not required to install any special equipment. All that is needed is to place here a standard set: a long trough and several troughs. Like hens, hens need roost. However, they are located in this case lower - at a height of 60 cm and at a distance of not less than 40 cm from each other. A litter of straw should be laid on the floor of the shed. Nests are made to the size of a bird and nailed next to the perches.
Without good lighting, as already mentioned, guinea fowls grow very poorly. Therefore, in the barn must be a window. It is also advisable to arrange ventilation. If you intend to keep guinea fowls in the winter, you need to warm the shed. These birds tolerate low temperatures quite well. But in a warmed barn they will still feel more comfortable. Of course, the shed should be dry.
Walking for guinea fowl
Near the barn is usually arranged aviary. You can fence the hill with the help of a usual grid-chain-link. The branches of the trees on the territory of the aviary should not penetrate. Otherwise, guinea fowls will spend the night on them and run wild. Very well, if in the aviary will grow grass. Various kinds of bugs and worms guinea fowls are very fond and absorb them in large quantities.
Adult bird feeding
Many domestic farmers are well known guinea fowl. At the same time one of the features of guinea fowls are accelerated metabolic processes. Therefore, the feed of this bird requires a little more than the chickens. In guinea fowl food, however, is completely picky. With great pleasure, this active bird eats both mash and grain. The basis of the diet is usually bird fodder (130-150 g per head). In addition, the birds give a lot of greens (30-50 g per day). Grass and tops are fed only fresh.
Grain feeds are sometimes replaced with waste from the table. This may be boiled potatoes, cereals, etc. Wet mash is prepared not on the water, but in the skimming. You can also use a baker's yeast solution. In this case, egg production of guinea fowl will increase. Be sure to include in the diet of this bird and meat and bone meal. Guinea fowls can do without this product only if they are regularly released for walking. Instead of flour, you can use fish waste, low-fat cottage cheese or any other protein foods.
Mineral supplements should also be included in the diet of guinea fowls. It may be chalk, grated shells or wood ash. With a shortage of minerals, the shells will be thinned by the eggs. Adult guinea fowls, like chickens, are fed 3 times a day (sometimes 4 times). At the same time in the morning and at lunch give greens, and at night - feed.
Peculiarities of adult content
Guinea fowls have one feature, which the poultry farmer should be aware of. “Guinea fowl - what kind of bird?” - we answered this question above. This chicken brought from Africa, unfortunately, still remains pretty wild. Therefore, it is necessary to form a herd of young individuals. It is enough to hold a group of one cock and several chickens together for about a week, and they form a very strong group. It is almost impossible to form a flock of adult birds. If guinea fowl will live each by itself, it will negatively affect egg production. The productivity of birds living in a group is usually 1.5-2 times higher in this regard.
Some poultry farmers do not keep guinea fowls in the barn and aviary all the time. After the second feeding, the bird is released for free walking (of course, if its wings are clipped). Stray dogs and cats are not particularly dangerous for guinea fowls. This bird is very nimble.
What breeds are there
The guinea fowl, the cultivation of which is relatively simple, usually pleases its owners with high productivity. However, egg production and weight gain may vary with breed. Most often, domestic poultry farmers contain:
Siberian white guinea fowl. This breed is characterized by high egg production and resistance to low temperatures. The main distinctive feature of this bird is the matt-white plumage. Siberian white guinea fowls behave calmer than representatives of other breeds. The advantages of these chickens include including unpretentiousness.
Gray speckled. This breed is by far the most common. Popularity she won mainly for very tasty meat. In the year such chickens can carry up to 90 eggs. The head of representatives of this breed is practically not feathered.
Blue Guinea fowl. Parent for this breed is gray-speckled. Blue productivity is very good. It surpasses the gray-speckled egg production. One chicken can carry up to 120 eggs per year.
Volzhskaya. Chickens of this breed are able to carry up to 120 eggs per year. The benefits of the Volga guinea fowl also include early maturity. The survival rate of chickens reaches 86%. The color of this breed is very beautiful - cream.
The guinea fowl is a bird, whose eggs have remarkable taste, thus, can have different colors and be divorced, including as an ornamental chicken.
The most common causes of all sorts of health problems in guinea fowls are unsanitary conditions in the house and mistakes in care. Of the most common diseases of this African chicken can be identified:
Trichomoniasis. The causative agent of this disease is unicellular protozoa. Trichomonas enters the body of the bird along with dirty water or food. Most often, it infects young. Symptoms are liquid yellow feces, lethargic birds, the presence of plaque on the mucous membranes. Sick individuals in most cases die from suffocation.
Dyspepsia. Suffering from this disease is also most often young growth up to three months. The reasons for it are usually overheating and poor-quality feed.
Well, we hope, we have quite extensively answered the question of what kind of bird is the guinea fowl. Breeding these nimble African chickens may not be as beneficial as some other birds. However, the excellent taste of meat and unpretentiousness have earned them well-deserved popularity among owners of private households.
A little about the history of the species
The home of the guinea fowl is Africa, where many of its varieties lived. In ancient Rome, one of the species managed to domesticate, but with the collapse of the Roman Empire as a fowl, it disappeared. The second time the guinea fowl came to Europe thanks to the Portuguese sailors during the great geographical discoveries. Then she was kept as a curiosity of noblemen, the meat was served at feasts as an exotic delicacy. In the 18th century, too, they were brought to Central Russia for the sake of entertainment, but the bird took root easily in Moscow and gradually became home status.
Of all the chicken relatives surpasses the hen in size only turkey. Her large body rises on rather long legs, and her head is small and devoid of feathers; a fleshy crest and the same sideburns adorn her head. The color of guinea fowls (except white) is amazing, as if they wear dark calico shirts with small white polka dots.
Now guinea fowls are bred in almost all countries of the world. The main value of these chickens - dietary meat, but there is another indisputable advantage - guinea fowls eat harmful insects.
Fact! In the US, they are kept because they kill on tillers mites that are dangerous to humans, and it is also the only poultry eating the Colorado beetles. Some gardeners to keep up with this scourge prefer to keep guinea fowls in order not to use toxic chemicals.
Characteristics and features of the species
The color of the plumage of guinea fowl is gray speckled, cream and white. The body of this chicken is oval, the back is arched, the sternum is pointed in roosters, fleshy in hens. Males and females in appearance are not very different, but they can not be confused. In males, the head is much larger than in females, the hen's nose is also not as big as that of the rooster. The hen keeps his head straight, and the rooster gives out ahead.
By the nature of guinea fowl shy, unlike domestic hens, get used to the owner and get nervous when the appearance of strangers, cars, dogs and other large animals. When frightened, they behave noisily, make quite a stir in the house.
A frequent question is whether guinea fowls can be kept with chickens. Yes, it is possible, because they relate to other poultry calmly.
The weight of an adult individual is 1.7–3 kg, one hen gives from 90 to 150 eggs per year, the color of eggs is yellowish, the shell is thick, so they are quite transportable and have a decent shelf life. The bird is ready for slaughter from the age of three months, when it gains more than a kilogram of weight. Направленность цесарок скорей мясная благодаря отменным вкусовым качествам мяса и мясистости тушки.
Для размножения на одного петушка оставляют 5 — 6 курочек, оплодотворение происходит на выгуле, потом присутствие самца не требуется. Возможен вывод цесарок в инкубаторе.
Разведение цесарок в домашних условиях
Разводить цесарок несложно, никаких специальных сооружений и устройств не требуется, не нужен и отдельный курятник. If the birds are raised for meat, the large size of the enclosure is not needed, in a small space they quickly gain weight, but the egg production is affected negatively.
No big chicken coop needed
This bird is quite omnivorous, it is happy to eat both plant food and various insects and their larvae. Guinea fowls can be used to destroy pests in vegetable gardens, they will not harm the plantations, because they do not dig the earth, like domestic chickens, but simply peck up the beetles and their larvae from the bush.
On a note! If you give the guinea fowls free-range and at the same time strictly adhere to the feeding regime, they themselves will come to the feeders at the right time. But for a long time to keep the birds free grazing should not, as a result, they can break the habit of the owner and run wild.
Guinea fowl can fly, fly over the fence for them - no problem, to prevent such liberties, you have to resort to trimming the wings.
Features breeding species
Guinea fowl chickens are born 27 days after laying eggs. The female can lead them only with complete peace and quiet. If the quiver, which incubates the eggs, is frightened, it can throw the nest and destroy the whole clutch. In order not to risk, it is better to lay guinea fowl eggs under homemade chicken or turkey. A good solution would also be the removal of chickens in the incubator at home.
In order to get the eggs ready for hatching in the incubator, the female is transferred to intensive feeding for three weeks - meat and fish waste is added to the mash, cottage cheese, batch is produced on fermented milk products.
Attention! The dirt on the eggs clogs the pores and can lead to a violation of the integrity of the shell, the embryos of birds will not be able to breathe normally. Chickens with deviations may be bred from eggs of too large sizes, as well as with rough shells, and they may not be bred from small or marbled ones.
You need to take the eggs from the nest with clean hands, taking them with two fingers for sharp and blunt ends. How to bring guinea fowl in a home incubator? Here the main thing - compliance with the temperature regime:
- in the room with the incubator, the temperature should be +18 degrees, the eggs should stand there for 5-6 hours before laying,
- a few days before the incubator is disinfected and kept at a temperature of +38 degrees,
- the first two weeks after the tab, the same temperature is maintained; cooling cannot be allowed,
- in the next 10 days, the temperature is lowered to 37.8 degrees and the eggs are cooled twice a day for 15 to 20 minutes at room temperature,
- The last two days the temperature should be 37.5, you do not need to turn and cool it.
If there is no automatic turning of the eggs, they are laid in the hatchery in a horizontal position, and with automatic turning - with a sharp end down. It is recommended to turn manually 4-6 times a day.
Tip! To better see which eggs have already been turned over, it is necessary to mark the sides of the shell with numbers before incubation.
Guinea fowl should hatch on the 27-28 day, incubation is considered successful if not less than 60% of chickens hatch.
Growing cultivated as an incubator method, and chickens are showered according to the following rules:
- in boxes filled with hay, no more than 18 chicks are placed per 1 sq. m, the air in the box is heated to +35 degrees using a lamp,
- they are ten days old, then released to a designated part of the chicken coop, the temperature is maintained at +25 - 27 degrees, using a lamp,
- in two to three weeks, chicks are released to the open air.
Attention! Young guinea fowls should not fall under the rain, therefore it is necessary to ensure that the chickens enter the aviary.
How to feed the daily hens at home? The first food should be mashed yolk, mixed with onions and cottage cheese. To feed them you need serum, ryazhenka, yogurt. From ten days of age, plant foods in the form of dandelion leaves, nettle, alfalfa are added to the diet.
How to feed chickens of chickens in the first days after they were released into the fresh air: at this time they add dry food, ensuring that the drinkers are always full and accessible.
Feeding adult guinea fowls is not difficult. If they are allowed to walk, in the summer additional feeding will be minimal, and in the autumn - winter period their diet should consist of oats, wheat cereal, cottage cheese and greens. Caring for guinea fowls includes the device of elevated perches, since birds tend to take off. In addition, the house should be equipped with comfortable feeders and drinkers.
Advantages and disadvantages of the form in comparison with others
The advantages of royal birds include:
- the possibility of keeping with other birds,
- decent egg production at the attraction of the whole year,
- good chick survival,
- excellent resistance to diseases peculiar to domestic chickens.
The disadvantages of the form include fearfulness and ability to fly away.
And yet the main value of guinea fowls is their healthy meat. It contains a small amount of fat, a lot of iron and vitamins. To taste it looks more like a game.
Farmers should pay attention to the advantages of the species and, perhaps, take a worthy place in this not-so-common business in Russia.
Little chickens love very high temperatures, you need to keep them at 34-35 degrees the first week, then it can be reduced to +30 degrees in the second week, and when the bird reaches one month of age and will have normal plumage, it can leave +18 degrees. Adults guinea fowls easily tolerate low temperatures, but when cold, weight decreases dramatically. To avoid this, you need to keep them in a heated house, maintain + 10-15 degrees throughout the winter.
Determine whether your pets are cold or not, you can tell by their appearance: if they are twisted, knocked together in heaps, the temperature in the room must be raised. If they are sitting separately, they seem to be very sluggish, they need to be given normal conditions, cool a little. White guinea fowls always spread their wings, open their beak, often breathing if they are too stuffy.
Guinea fowls need a little more light than ordinary poultry, especially if you are looking for intensive cultivation. The first 2-3 weeks need to maintain light day 20 hours a day., in a week you can reduce it to 18 hours, it is desirable that the lighting is not too bright, a 45 W light bulb will be enough for a room of 10 square meters, 2 W 20 is better.
At a monthly age, daylight hours can be made up to 14 hours a day, and for 3-4 months it can be reduced to 8 hours. In general, it is not particularly necessary to control it, since the age of the bird practically coincides with the duration of the natural light day. That is, a problem can arise only if it is cultivated indoors and it is necessary to create artificially all natural conditions.
At night, the light is also necessary, but only so that they can navigate the room. That is, the entire room in 25-30 square meters will be enough to install a diode light bulb at 5 watts. Nothing more is required.
If everything is done correctly, in a couple of months you will have healthy and well-fed guinea fowls, which can be sold or left for the next year to lay eggs.
The necessary conditions
Overnight should be made in a place with well-insulated walls. Although these animals are not afraid of cool weather, their productivity increases significantly in a room with warm conditions. Guinea fowl does not require unique buildings, so the drawings are not needed here. Birds do not tolerate cramping, so that with a large population it is necessary to have a spacious room. Cottage - a suitable place for the construction of a spacious house. Guinea fowl need a room with good lighting.
The number of eggs laid due to this factor. At the age of 3 weeks, egg production begins. The content of guinea fowls at home requires monitoring the temperature in the place of detention. 15 degrees is the best temperature for reproduction without adverse effects. A flock of grown parent individuals is created in the early days of the autumn period. The choice falls only on healthy and large individuals.
Terms of care and maintenance
How to care for and feed the royal birds and keep the right content of guinea fowls? Keeping and breeding best of all occurs in free range. When the cottage has a small territory, the best solution would be the presence of a spacious cage.
When kept in an enclosed area, the egg production deteriorates significantly. Do not be afraid to let guinea fowl in the forest plantation or outside the cottage, because the birds in any case return to the trough. Regime is the best way to grow a healthy individual. It includes feeding and daily care for guinea fowls.
Chickens and guinea fowls can share a chicken coop among themselves and feel very comfortable. How many places do you need guinea fowl or chicken? It should begin with the conditions of the space where the individuals live - a square meter for two birds.
The content of guinea fowls with chickens will not cause problems. A free-air cage can be arranged by planting bushes and building a small canopy. Chickens and royal little birds in a short time to adapt to each other. Birds form groups and soon respond to the breeder's voice. One of the few minuses - vociferous. The rest of the habits are very similar to ordinary domestic birds, because, like chickens, they don’t mind digging in the ground in order to find a worm or a beetle and eat them with pleasure. The factory owner receives selected meat with many useful properties.
This bird is useful in that it weeds out weeds and keeps the beds safe and sound.
Breeding and care are not particularly difficult for the owner. Breeding and maintenance of guinea fowls at home requires certain skills. The ratio of male to females should be maintained in a ratio of 1: 5. Best of all, birds mate when the age of the female is less than the male for several months. Individuals can mate during long-term walking in free conditions. A closed enclosure will only aggravate mating. Fertilization because of this may not take place.
Their content implies morning egg picking, and then shifting the pointed end down. The activity of the embryos will remain for 14 days with this type of storage. Growing guinea fowls does not require much effort, but during the first days of the life cycle, trimming the wings is necessary. Due to non-observance of this condition, guinea fowl are able to fly a long distance. There is no need to replace the female with an incubator, this will minimize problems with young individuals.
The maintenance of guinea fowls in winter requires the construction of perches for the birds to be constantly above the cold floor. Clearing the tracks from the snow flooring on the garden plot will not hurt. Fulfilling these conditions, their health does not harm anything.
Disease prevention and treatment
How do problems begin? Start the answer to the question will help the rules of the content. Guinea fowls at home begin to suffer from infectious and non-contagious illnesses due to disturbed growing conditions and if the food does not correspond to the recommended one. To avoid unpleasant consequences, it is necessary to monitor hygiene and sanitary conditions and keep guinea fowls under the supervision of an experienced veterinarian.
Poor care and a large number of litter leads to the development of pathogenic microflora. Keeping at home requires cleaning every day. Poultry, mice and rats are excellent carriers of germs. Most often royal birds suffer from trichomoniasis, pullorosis, pasteurellosis, mycoplasmosis. The veterinarian will prescribe in detail the treatment of each disease and indicate the required dose of recommended medications. In immunocompromised individuals, worms are often infused, so getting rid of these parasites is also included in the course of treatment.
With timely treatment, you can avoid complications and death of the bird. To prevent the development of an infection with a bacterial character, it is necessary to feed the chick with “Baytril” or “Enroxil” in dissolved form. The drug is diluted with water in a ratio of 1 ml of the drug to 1 liter of water.