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8 types of phosphate fertilizers: description and application

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It's no secret that experienced gardeners and gardeners use fertilizers to get a good harvest. Thanks to them, the earth is filled with essential nutrients that affect plant growth. One of the most common is phosphate fertilizers. "Which ones?" - the question suggests itself. It is especially relevant for novice gardeners. This type of fertilizer is necessary for many plants, since the lack of phosphorus in the soil adversely affects them. Its main advantage is the fact that even an overabundance cannot harm crops. It is absorbed exactly in the quantity in which there is a need. Plants that sprout on a soil rich in phosphorus are rapidly growing and produce a good harvest.

The article will provide detailed information about phosphate fertilizers, their significance and use.

Defining signs of phosphorus deficiency

An experienced agriculturist can determine by one type what a plant needs. This, of course, is a matter of practice. And how to be a novice? To help him - the main features by which you can easily determine the lack of phosphorus:

  1. Properly developing root system allows you to fully eat the plants. In that case, if the soil is depleted, then the stem can no longer fully hold above the ground.
  2. The plant is modified, ceases to grow, in some cases becomes bushy.
  3. In garden crops without full feeding, leaves begin to fall, and those that remain acquire an irregular shape. However, phosphate fertilizers can immediately improve their "health."
  4. Leaf color is also an important indicator. For example, if black dots began to appear, then this is a direct sign of phosphorus deficiency. Also, a color change to dark green indicates the initial stage of the disease, and a purple-purple one indicates that it is neglected.

All this can be avoided if the phosphate fertilizers are applied in time. Their importance and application are so important for plants that in no case should we ignore this type of top dressing, it is recommended to timely treat the soil with them.

However, there is another important point: enriching the earth, you will need to figure out why a phosphorus deficiency occurs. The most common ones are:

  • incorrect use of fertilizers of this group,
  • the previous germinating culture absorbed all the phosphorus reserves that were not subsequently replenished,
  • wrong cultivation process,
  • with a heavy load on the soil, that is, with intensive farming, the microflora simply does not have time to recover,
  • wrong chemical composition of agrochemicals.

Organic phosphate fertilizers (types)

Fertilizers for soil can be obtained not only with chemicals, but also from organic substances. This, for example, bone meal. As you know, bones of livestock are rich in phosphorus, they contain more than 50% Ca3(PO4)2. Fertilizer is obtained by processing them. The advantage of this type of feeding is the absence of chemicals in its composition. Bonemeal helps to grow crops that are safe for health in large volumes.

Organic phosphate fertilizers are used for tomatoes, potatoes and other garden crops. Most often, this type of feeding is used for all domestic plants, including indoor plants. Palms, ficuses, lianas grow especially well. It is better to calculate the dosage of fertilizer (in liters) directly to one flower pot in accordance with 3 tsp. on 1 l.

Ammonium Phosphate

Diammophos - agrochemical, which is sold in a concentrated form. This allows the most economical use of phosphate fertilizers. Making them enriches the soil with a large number of nutrients. As a rule, fertilizing occurs during or before sowing. This fertilizer can reduce the acidity of the soil, and this, in turn, will lead to a good harvest.

Ideal for all types of garden plants. When planting potatoes, it is recommended to add 1 tsp. directly into the hole. For cucumbers and tomatoes, it can also be used. However, fertilizing with phosphate fertilizers containing ammonium hydrogen phosphate occurs before sowing or during flowering of these crops. In the latter case, it is necessary to dilute it in the recommended proportions and pour it directly under the root. If fertilization occurs before sowing, then it must be thoroughly mixed with the ground.

Quite often, experienced gardeners use diammophos together with organic species. However, you need to remember that bird droppings need to be drawn for a long time and diluted with plenty of water in order not to burn the plant.

Nitrogen-containing phosphate fertilizers - which species are these? This question is asked quite often. It is ammophos that reacts to produce nitrogen, but its amount is small, but phosphorus, on the contrary, is released enough. This type is obtained by neutralizing orthophosphoric acid - during the process ammonia is added, which participates in the reaction. The resulting fertilizer is easily absorbed by plants.

This type of feeding is best suited for cucumbers, as it has the correct ratio of nitrogen, potassium and fluorine. If you bring it in time, the culture will not be afraid of temperature fluctuations. Such phosphate fertilizers do not contain nitrates and chlorine, which allows you to completely avoid allergic reactions and get an environmentally safe crop.

Apply mineral dressing in the fall during plowing or in the spring, just before planting. Recommended dosages:

  • large varieties of flowers - 15-30 g per 1 m 2, small - 5-10 g, respectively,
  • vegetables - 15-25 g per 1 m 2,
  • decorative lawns and plants - 20 g per 1 m 2,
  • berry bushes and fruit trees - 20-35 g per 1 m 2.

Superphosphate

Phosphate fertilizers that contain monocalcium phosphate (Ca (H2Ro4)2), sulfur, phosphoric acid, magnesium and other elements are called superphosphates. They are easily absorbed by plants, so they are widely used in the agricultural sector. It is possible to use such dressing for any crops, regardless of the type of soil.

Superphosphate has a positive effect on the growth and development of crops, promotes the development of immunity and strengthens it as much as possible. After processing, plants can tolerate even frost. Fertilizer is used, as a rule, in combination with other species, as well as individually. Productivity increases significantly.

Such phosphate fertilizers are intended for tomatoes and other vegetables, fruit varieties, cereals. It is worth noting that for tomatoes such an environment is most favorable. They not only begin to grow rapidly, but also significantly increase the number of ovaries. Top dressing is done in two ways:

  • before planting - 15-20 g under one bush,
  • during flowering - 0.5 liters poured into a circle near the trunk.

In liquid form, superphosphate is diluted in proportions of 100 g per 10 liters of warm water.

Double superphosphate

Phosphate fertilizers of this type contain concentrated phosphorus, in percentage terms it is about 50%. It is recommended to use double superphosphate in the fall, while digging the ground. If it becomes necessary to apply fertilizer during planting or directly under the stem, the solution should be diluted accordingly. As a rule, the standard dosage is divided by half.

High concentration of phosphorus in the composition affects the pricing policy. However, this is easily explained: a small amount of a double superphosphate substance is enough to completely replace another type of fertilizer. The effect will be the same.

Designed for fruit trees and shrubs. It is recommended to apply in the following proportions:

  • young trees up to 3 years old - 60-80 g,
  • adults from 5 to 10 years old - 150-220 g,
  • for cherries, apricots and plums, the dosage should not exceed 70 g,
  • gooseberry - 40 g,
  • raspberry - 20 g,
  • black, white and red currants - 50 g.

The use of phosphate fertilizers: features

Some of the elements that make up the fertilizer are quite difficult to digest, so it is recommended to feed in the fall. After that, it is necessary to dig up the ground well. During the winter period, a complex reaction occurs, during which the topsoil is enriched with nutrients that can create favorable conditions for the germination of plants.

Also, mineral fertilizers can be applied in spring and summer, however, in this way, it is necessary to feed cultures extremely carefully, as there is a chance to burn roots. It is necessary to dilute the concentrate with plenty of water.

In order to choose the right type of fertilizer, you will need to study the composition and characteristics of the soil in this area. It is on the basis of this information that the optimal dosage is selected, which will affect the yield.

Phosphate fertilizers are divided into types:

  • Hardly soluble mixture: most often used for soils with a high content of alkalis and completely depleted. As a rule, these are areas of northern black soil. It is recommended to fertilize the soil with such a view only in autumn.
  • Water soluble blend is a versatile option. Ideal for any crop. It can be used in various ways. The type of soil does not matter.
  • Lemon- and citrate-soluble phosphate fertilizers are recommended for areas with high levels of acidity.

How do mineral fertilizers affect the soil and plants?

The value of phosphate fertilizers for plant growth is quite weighty. They strengthen the immune system, promote full development and increase the amount of the crop. Lack of phosphorus leads to disastrous consequences. If it dries out, then there is absolutely nothing alive on the planet, the reproductive function will be completely impaired. First of all, plants growing in soil with a lack of phosphorus, no longer develop seeds, melons and varieties slow down growth and throw off leaves, grain crops turn into rare grassy bushes.

Some fertilizers contain nitrogen, which is most effective in black earth soils. In combination with phosphorus, it contributes to the good development of the root system. Due to this, the plants do not need abundant watering.

Depending on the type of soil, the impact of phosphate fertilizers can vary considerably. For example, in forest areas there is a shortage of nitrogen, and this will lead to a decrease in the effect of phosphorus. In this case, it is better to prefer a complex fertilizer. The same technique is used for low-fertile lands with high acidity.

Although phosphate fertilizers, the names and types of which are very diverse, can be used at any time of the year (except for winter), the autumn season is considered to be the most productive. Just before spring sowing, the soil will be enriched with nitrogen, which will lead to a good rich harvest.

Fertilizer Technology

The production of phosphate fertilizers occurs according to a certain technology, which comprises several types of treatments.

Let's start with the composition. The raw material for the manufacture of mineral fertilizers is natural phosphoric ore. As a rule, these are phosphorites and apatites. In the manufacturing process it is necessary to rid the ore of impurities that significantly reduce the effect of these substances. The fluorine content in the region of 15% is considered very low, if this indicator reaches 35%, it means that the minerals are well enriched.

Raw materials processing methods:

  • crushing the ore, followed by grinding to the consistency of flour,
  • enrichment of nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acid,
  • phosphate recovery using electrothermal equipment,
  • high temperature processing.

Using such processing methods, certain groups of phosphate fertilizers are obtained. Which ones, consider below.

Phosphate Fertilizer Groups

Such fertilizers dissolve well in water and strengthen the root system. This includes such types as:

  • Simple superphosphate. Composition: 20% - phosphorus, 50% - calcium, 30% - sulfur. It is made in the form of granules and powder. Ideal for cabbage, potatoes, swede and other vegetable crops.
  • Double superphosphate. It is made only in granules, contains up to 50% of phosphorus. It can be used for feeding any crops. Refers to the universal species.
  • Superphos Mixed type of fertilizer, concentrated, made in the form of granules. Rather effective, however it is necessary to apply it accurately, just observing a dosage.

Citrate and citric soluble phosphate fertilizers

Designed to enrich the soil before sowing. Agronomists recommend using this species in soils with high acidity. Can be used for any plants. The drug is not soluble in water.

  • Bone meal is an organic fertilizer that contains nitrogen in addition to phosphorus. However, its amount is very small - about 1%, when phosphorus - 35%. Does not contain nitrates and chemicals. Disadvantage: a long period of time is required to start the reaction.
  • The precipitate contains up to 40% phosphorus. It is made in the form of a powder of gray or white color.
  • Thermophosphate consists of alkali salts and phosphates, contains phosphorus up to 30%. It is made in the form of slag granules.

They interact well with nitric and sulfuric acid, but do not react with weak ones and do not dissolve in water.

  • Vivianite Made from marsh ore. Powdered, which makes it easy to disperse on the ground. Organic fertilizer, often found in nature. It has a light shade, almost white, but when interacting with air it changes color to blue. Contains phosphorus up to 30% in pure form.
  • Phosphoric flour is of four types, differs in the amount of the main substance (20%, 23%, 26%, 29%). Most often used for winter crops. Fertilizer is applied in the fall. A mixture of powdered dark gray.

Such fertilizers are mixtures that contain several important substances.

The role of phosphorus in plant life

This chemical element is rightly called the source of energy. Its value for living organisms is difficult to overestimate. Without it, the green planting will not be able to grow steadily and quickly, fully develop and resist the negative environmental factors. If there is a shortage of this substance in the ground, the planting will soon die.

Phosphorus - life for plants, thanks to him the work of the reproductive organs proceeds in a normal way.

With sufficient content in the soil it becomes possible:

  • rapid seed germination,
  • growth and development of seedlings
  • better survival of planted plants,
  • the formation of a powerful underground part,
  • effective flowering
  • raising immune forces in cultivated crops.

Phosphorus exhibits its activity as much as possible on chernozems, where there is a lot of nitrogen, which facilitates the process of assimilation of plant-based fertilizers by plant organisms. Here it will be relevant to apply the classic versions of phosphate dressings. But on forest soils, where there is a nitrogen deficiency, the use of complex fertilizers is recommended.

Signs of phosphorus deficiency in plants

In order to respond in time to the growing degradation of plant organisms, you need to know which symptoms indicate a phosphorus starvation of plantings. Among the obvious signs note:

  • Change in normal leaf color. At the initial stage of plantings, the aerial part first becomes a dark green color, and then a purple-violet color is already a neglected form of the disease.
  • Deformation of the sheet plates. They acquire an irregular shape, the edges curl.
  • Premature dropping of leaflets.
  • The appearance of necrotic changes, dark formations.
  • Growth of plantings is suspended, the development of bushiness is observed.
  • Weak formation of the root system, which leads to the "loss" of the stem from the ground.

With the timely application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, it is possible to avoid such manifestations. But before using the agrochemical, one should find out what could have provoked such a serious shortcoming.

Causes of Phosphorus Deficiency

Among the negative factors provoking the oppression of plantings, gardeners distinguish:

  • Non-compliance with the rules for the use of phosphorus-potassium compounds.
  • Intensive soil treatment, leading to poor functioning of the microflora of the earth.
  • Concentration of phosphorus in the surface layer of the soil and its transformation into a difficult digestible compound.
  • Failure of the item after harvesting grown crops.
  • Use of agrochemicals with the wrong composition.

Phosphate fertilizer classification

All nutrient mixtures, where phosphorus acts as the main component, should be used during the digging of the site, and not distributed over the ground surface. These activities are produced in the fall, because this chemical compound has a form that is difficult to reduce. During the winter, fertilizer will penetrate the soil layers and by the planting season will be well absorbed by the roots of plant organisms.

Если использовать агрохимикат в жидкой форме, подкормки можно делать весной и на протяжении всего вегетационного периода. Существует много разновидностей фосфорных удобрений:

  • Водорастворимые, которые составляют большую часть минеральных смесей. Their main advantage is an easily digestible form. The working solution is prepared without any difficulties, the precipitate is not formed. This group includes superphosphate, double superphosphate, ammophos, nitrophoska, nitroammofoska, carboammofoska.
  • Citrate-soluble, where phosphorus compounds are contained, which begin to show their working qualities when used in combination with ammonia solution of ammonium citrate (ammonium citrate). The excreted phosphoric acid is simply absorbed by the planted crops. Representative of this group is dicalcium phosphate (precipitate).
  • Lemon-soluble, which do not interact with water, ammonia solution, they need to be combined with 2% citric acid solution. Such compositions include phosphate rock, tomasshlak, and defluorinated phosphates. Despite the poor solubility, these chemical compounds are considered highly effective nutrient mixtures for treating areas with high acidity. Due to the slow transition into the soil solution, fertilizer has been active for many years. It will be a good source of saturation of the earth with beneficial trace elements for many years.

The composition of phosphoric additives include ammonium and calcium salts of phosphoric acid. Due to the ability to firmly hold in the ground, water does not wash them out, which is not only convenient, but also effective. Water-soluble compositions are in powder and granular form, and sparingly soluble formulations are in the form of highly dispersed powders.

Potassium Methophosphate

The drug belongs to the phosphorus-potassium group. Available in white powder form. In its composition are phosphorus oxide (55-60%) and potassium oxide (35-40%). Especially well absorbed by plant organisms on earth with high levels of acidity. High results from the use of fertilizers are observed when feeding grapes, legumes and other crops that differ in their susceptibility to chlorine.

Phosphate rock

Agrochemical additive in powder form contains phosphorus (20%), calcium (30%) and other useful components. Given that calcium phosphate is poorly diluted in water, it is better to make it on acidic soils. Alternatively, combined use with organic compounds is allowed. Phosphate flour is recommended to be added when processing the site before sowing agricultural plants in the form of liquid top dressing (1.5-2 kg per 10 m 2). In addition, phosphorus flour is an excellent base for compost.

Another option for highly effective fertilizer with phosphorus. The natural substance is mined in the swamps, it contains a large percentage of phosphorus - 30%. Highly concentrated fertilizer has a beneficial effect on all types of agricultural plantations. The principle of operation and performance indicators of vivianite and phosphate rock are the same.

Bone flour

This is a universal nutrient mixture with a prolonged action. It is noteworthy that bone meal can be made by hand. It is not diluted in water, the process of assimilation by planting occurs slowly, with the introduction of small doses, the action is observed for 5-8 months. When growing agro-plantings, it is important to know which organic fertilizers contain phosphorus. This will prevent the inhibition of plant organisms.

Bone meal as a natural compound can be used on acidic soil during planting:

  • For vegetables - 2-3 tbsp. l
  • To replenish phosphorus in the area where shrubs grow, add 1 square. m 60-100 g
  • To maintain immunity in fruit on 1 square. m take 200 g of funds.

Causes of phosphorus deficiency

  1. Fixing it in the soil-holding complex (transition into difficult-to-digest compounds),
  2. Incorrect application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers,
  3. The weak work of the microflora of the earth, as a result of intensive farming,
  4. The removal of phosphorus with the resulting products, without subsequent renewal,
  5. Inorganic type of land cultivation,

To eliminate the various causes of phosphorus starvation, it is necessary to apply fertilizers that are best suited to solve the problem. Phosphorites - the basis of the production of mineral agro-bows with different properties, from a wide range of which you can choose the one that is suitable in this particular case.

Types and application of phosphate fertilizers

Phosphate mineral fertilizers are recommended to be applied in the autumn, as in many of them the main element is contained in a form that is difficult to digest. During the winter they will have time to go into the soil-holding complex, and in the summer they will begin to fully nourish the roots of the plants.

In the spring, phosphorus is applied to the soil, too, but for this purpose, tuki are used, which include high-speed compounds.. In order to choose the right fertilizer, you need to know what it represents. Usually the name is given to the agrochemical according to the elements of its composition. Here are the most common types of phosphate fertilizers containing the above chemical element:

What plants contain phosphorus? Organic fertilizer with your own hands

Usually, when composting, ready-made phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used, which are simply sprinkled on the components of the substrate. The basis is any garden grass, which contains mostly nitrogen, and contains almost no phosphates. But such a pattern is not necessary for all weeds. Among them there are those that perfectly retain this element in their biomass, and their inclusion in the compost will enrich it with natural substances of plant origin.

We offer you a short list of herbs that are natural phosphate fertilizers:

  • Wormwood - 1% of the composition,
  • Feather Grass - 0.9%
  • Creeping Thyme - 0.7%
  • Rowan berries - 1%,
  • Hawthorn - 1%.

Using these herbs, you can do your own compost, without resorting to chemical fertilizers, and get a completely natural composition.

When fertilizing your plantings, you should never forget about phosphorus, since this element is necessary for a plant as well as air, water and soil. By producing timely feeding, you can avoid various unpleasant consequences, and grow a great harvest.

Fertilizers with phosphorus do it yourself

The basis of phosphate mineral fertilizers is phosphorite. To make your own nutrient mixture of the type of superphosphate, you need to ignite bones on the fire in order to rid the material of organic compounds. After the calcination procedure is completed, calcium phosphate and phosphorite will end up. The next step is the separation from the total number of clean pieces of calcined bone, followed by grinding into powder. For convenience, use a hammer, and then put it in a mortar and grind to a powder.

Pounded bones in the amount of 50 g are combined with chalk (3-5 g), the mixture is placed in a clean glass container and poured into it 70% sulfuric acid (20 g). When adding acid, gradually stir the mass with a stick. As a result of heating the mixture, you first get a paste, and then a dry white powder called superphosphate. Cooking time 1 hour.

Phosphorus-containing fertilizers show their effectiveness on acidic soils (podzolic, peaty). It is best to put them in the wells when planting crops.

Phosphoric fertilizers for cucumbers, tomatoes and other garden and vegetable plant organisms are a vital composition of useful elements. When using them, one should take into account the type of planted crops and the condition of the land in a particular plot.

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