The first building that appears on any site is the toilet. We can somehow do without the house and the soul, but without this building - no way. For many, the toilet to give their own hands - the first construction experience. It's good that the structure is uncomplicated, so even without experience, it will be easy to handle.
The very first building in the country - a toilet. Often this is the first building experience with your own hands.
Although the cottage toilet is not the most difficult building, there are many features. Without a clear plan of action can not do. Let's write in steps how to build a toilet in the country:
- Choose the type of toilet.
- Determine the place on the site under construction.
- Determine the size and materials for construction.
- Start building.
Now about each item in more detail.
What toilet to do in the country
Before construction, you need to choose the type of country toilet. This is not about the house, but about its internal structure. According to the type of device, they can be divided into two large groups: with or without a sump. If the level of groundwater at the site is high - higher than 3.5 meters - your choice is limited only to toilets without a cesspool, otherwise the water will inevitably be the remains of waste products. Similar restrictions are imposed on areas with natural cracks at the base, as well as on shale rocks. On other soils with a deeper bedding of aquifers it is possible to install a cabin of any design.
The shape and dimensions of the toilet cubicle are not all differences that a toilet can have
When choosing this option, you need to consider that the depth of the pit should be 1 meter less than the highest level of groundwater (usually spring). Its volume is selected depending on the frequency of visits and the number of people. For example, in houses of permanent residence for 2-3 people, a volume of 1.5 cubes is sufficient. For summer cottages, visited mostly on weekends, the cesspool for the toilet may be less.
The shape of the tank is any, but more often it is square, sometimes round. The walls are laid out of brick, concrete, rubble masonry, tarred wood. Can make capacity of concrete rings. Only in this case will need to worry about the tightness of the joints and the bottom.
To ensure tightness, a layer of compacted clay (clay lock) 20-30 cm thick is made under the walls and sides. If there is no desire for tamping with clay, you can cover the finished brickwork with impregnation, which gives the materials a higher degree of waterproofing (bitumen or based on cement).
Drawing of a country toilet with a cesspool
The cesspool toilet for giving necessarily equip the ventilation system. A large-diameter pipe (at least 100 mm) is built into the pit, the other end of which rises at least 50–70 cm above the roof of the house (or house). Also, the ventilation window is made in the house itself. It can be on the door or on one of the side walls.
When filling more than 2/3 of the volume, the contents of the pit are pumped out by the truck. When planning a toilet for giving with your own hands, take into account that a car should drive up to the pit.
There are two types of cesspit organization:
- Normal - under the house.
- Play-closet - the pit is located on the side. With this structure, the toilet can stand in the house, and sewage through pipes laid under a certain slope, get into the tank.
The construction of the backlash closet at the cottage is a very expensive undertaking, unless you decided to do an extension or the cottage at your place is a full-fledged residential building where a lot of time is spent. You will need a complete ventilation system, flushing water, and the pipes will need to be laid below the depth of soil freezing. And since they have to go under an inclination, the cesspool also sinks to a decent depth.
Scheme backlash closet. If you like comfort, you can build a toilet right in the country house
When constructing a toilet of this type, it is important to withstand the slope of the pipe - it should be 2-3 cm per meter. No need to do more or less - in this range. If you make the slope less, there is a risk that the contents will stagnate. If you do more, the water will run away, and the hard and heavier inclusions will remain in the pipe and will distribute "flavors."
For the most part, toilets without a cesspool are built much easier and faster. In them, waste is collected in an airtight container, which is usually placed directly under the toilet seat. The difference is in how waste is processed and its smell is neutralized. There are the following types:
- Powder-closet. A container with peat, ash, sawdust, earth, or a mixture of these components is placed in the booth. After visiting the toilet, the waste is filled with a layer of this powder - it is powdered. Hence the name.
- Peat toilet. This is a kind of powder-closet. But for powdered only crushed peat is used. Peat toilets are also of industrial manufacture. They are very similar to the usual apartment toilet with a cistern. But in the tank there is not water, but a little peat. After visiting the toilet you need to turn the handle on the tank several times, from which peat will be sprinkled.
This is the simplest powder-closet or peat toilet. Build it yourself is an easy task.
The advantages of summer toilets without a cesspool (also called dry) are significant:
- you don't need to dig a hole and tinker with its sealing,
- you do not need to call the nightman (pay for it) and organize the entrance for the car,
- built quickly
- recycled waste can be used as fertilizer.
After processing waste from powder-closet and dry closet can be used as fertilizer
Cons, too considerable:
- Factory-made toilets are not so cheap.
- It is necessary to periodically change the capacity.
- It is necessary to monitor the availability of neutralization.
Which toilet to build: types and features
Actually there are only two options: with or without a sump.
- A toilet with a cesspool is a simple, time-tested construction, which consists of an equipped cesspool and a toilet hut above it. As far as filling with sewage, the pit is cleaned manually or ordered asynizator machine.
And sometimes they just transfer the house to another place. The old hole is buried, and after 6-7 years its contents completely rotten and you can put the toilet back again.
- Play-closet is a type of outdoor toilet with a pit for sewage, but with the difference that it must be airtight. Such a toilet has to be built if it is located close to the house, the water source, or when the groundwater is high.
- A toilet without a cesspit or powder-closet is arranged if the groundwater is very high or if the toilet is used a little. In this case, the container for collecting sewage can be anything except a pit (bucket, barrel, plastic tank). The required volume determines the intensity of use of the bathroom.
After each trip to such a toilet, sewage is covered with dry peat, sometimes sawdust or ash is used, therefore a box for “masking powder” should be provided in the house. After filling, the container is removed manually, and the contents are evacuated into the compost pit. If the impurities were interspersed with peat, then in time they become a wonderful fertilizer.
Important! If the groundwater lies below 2.5 meters, you can build any type of toilet, but if they are located higher, then the cesspool will have to be abandoned.
Where to build a toilet
For toilets with a cesspool there are a number of sanitary and hygienic standards and restrictions on which their location on the site depends.
The minimum distance from the toilet to other objects:
- Water sources (wells, boreholes, lakes, rivers) - 25 m,
- To houses, cellars - 12 m,
- To summer shower or bath - 8 m,
- To the nearest tree - 4 m, and to shrubs - 1 m,
- To fences - not less than 1 m.
So that summer evenings on the terrace would not spoil the amber, the place is chosen taking into account the wind rose. If the site is located on a slope, the toilet is better to put in the lowest point.
After selecting and preparing the site, begin to dig a cesspool. As a rule, it is square in shape, at least 2 meters deep.
The cesspool is of two types:
- Hermetic. The bottom of such a pit is concrete, reinforced before pouring, and so that the reinforcement does not sink in concrete, it is placed on pegs. The walls are also sealed, filled with mortar or covered with seams with bitumen.
- Absorbing. Such a pit is better to dig to the sand, then the liquid fraction of sewage will quickly go into the ground. The bottom is covered with a layer of large crushed stone or pebbles.
There are several ways to strengthen the cesspool walls:
- Concrete structure,
- Reinforced concrete rings,
- Plastic tank.
From above, the pit is covered, with bars, slate or concrete, leaving only the area under the toilet seat open, and proceeding to the assembly of the toilet house.
Construction of toilet house
The optimal size of the country toilet is 1 × 1.5 m, height - 2.2-2.5 m. Otherwise, it will be just inconvenient, especially for people with large forms. It is not necessary to make toilet design drawings on your own, if there are no special requirements and ideas, you can use ready-made ones.
First of all, the scheme is convenient because it allows you to correctly calculate the amount of building materials and the preliminary cost of a courtyard bathroom.
The basis of the frame
The toilet house is recommended to move forward 2/3 over the cesspool, thus providing access to it for cleaning behind the rear wall of the structure.
The stability of the building can provide a shallow foundation. Between him and the frame lay waterproofing, 1-2 layers of roofing material. But for the easy construction of wood, it is not required. The base is enough to install on concrete blocks.
You can also put four pillars. To do this, in the corners of the future structure, four holes are dug about 60 cm deep, in soft soils up to 1 meter is possible, and asbestos pipes are lowered into them. The pit is filled with cement mortar by a third. After that, a support beam is installed in the pipe, and the pit is completely filled with concrete.
For the construction of the frame will be enough bars with a cross section of 50 × 50 or 80 × 80 mm, more dimensional material is impractical to take.
- First, a rectangular support with a lintel is assembled, from which the front wall of the toilet seat will rise, and fasten it to the foundation or support posts. Over the floorboard plank. The thickness of the floor board must be at least 3 cm.
- From the beam collect the frame of the front, rear and side walls. In this case, the front wall should be higher than the rear not less than 10 cm, this will provide the necessary slope of the roof.
- For greater structural strength on the side and rear walls, it is recommended to make diagonal stubs.
- On the front wall, be sure to make a reinforcement for the door, the appropriate size and draw a hole under the window.
- The frameworks of the walls are fixed on the base with metal corners, the top and level of the toilet seat are strapped.
- The next step will be the assembly of the toilet seat frame and its trimming, if no alternative options are provided, for example, a toilet bowl.
Sheathe frame with wooden planks. The vertical arrangement allows to save material considerably, and the horizontal one imitates a frame and looks more interesting. The boards fit tightly to each other and fasten to the base. Instead of wood, sheets of corrugated board, slate or any other material corresponding to the construction budget are also used.
Tip! It is desirable to process all wooden elements of the structure with a special antibacterial impregnation, which will protect the material from moisture and pests, and then coated with varnish or paint.
The roof should not protrude beyond the walls by more than 30 cm. Installation begins with the fixing of parallel boards at a short distance. After that, the visor is sewn up from the bottom, boards are attached outside the perimeter. A waterproofing layer is placed on the prepared base, usually it is roofing felt, and then the structure is covered with any roofing material (slate, metal profile, shingles).
Summer residents, whom the standard house scheme does not suit, can find drawings of more interesting options, make them themselves or purchase ready-made toilet houses, they are assembled according to the type of designer, and for convenience, instructions and all accompanying drawings are always attached to them.
Exhaust ventilation in the dacha toilet - is a pipe that removes odors from the cesspool. The bottom edge of it is slid into a hole, and the top should rise no less than 20 cm above the roof.
A plastic pipe with a diameter of 100 millimeters will be suitable for arranging ventilation. It is attracted to the back wall from the inside or outside of the building and fixed with iron clamps. To increase traction on the tip set nozzle-deflector.
Installing the toilet door
Doors install the usual wooden, ready-made plastic or homemade, from the material that was sheathed frame. Hang the door on 2 hinges. The method of closing, in principle, can be any, traditionally it is a latch, bolt or hook, inside and out. It is better to refuse more cunning lock systems, for example, with latches, since their mechanism will be exposed to moisture and will quickly rust.
For a more comfortable use of facilities, it is better to take care of their lighting in advance. This may be a wall flashlight that runs on battery power. As an option, you can lead the wiring and connect a small lighting device.
A daylight will illuminate the inner space of a small window. It is usually cut above the doors or at the top of the door, but there are actually more options, from figured windows on the walls to the transparent roof.
Tip! A cesspit will last longer if you do not throw toilet paper and other sanitary or household supplies into it, so there must be a bucket in the toilet. If dimensions allow, it is convenient to install a conventional washbasin with a suspended spout here, especially since you are already ready for the rowing pit.
Powder-closet: features of construction
Lack of a cesspool is the main difference in construction. But there are some differences in the design of the house. We'll have to think about how to remove the tank, in which the impurities are collected.
Door, usually, equip the back wall of the house or the front wall of the seat. Inside the booth set a special box for peat (ash, sawdust). Without ventilation here just can not do, only the pipe does not fall into the pit, but directly under the toilet seat.
How to build a summer toilet with your own hands: photo
- Summer shower in the country, built with your own hands: step by step instructions, drawings, photos
- Choosing a washbasin-sink with heated water to give
- How to choose the best biotoilets for home and garden
- What is the easiest way to get rid of flies and maggots in the cesspool at the cottage
So everything is available. Virtually every version of the construction of the toilet is good in its own way. And even in this the eyes run up, and the hands are ready to create! This time has come before a choice: either buy a septic tank, or just dig a hole and impose a brick in a checkerboard pattern on the inside. I will definitely listen to the advice of those who have done something similar. For the information in the article special thanks!
As soon as the pit is filled to two-thirds of its depth, the site owner cleans it by hand or machine. You can preserve the object by filling the pit with earth. True, it will have to look for a new place to accommodate the toilet. If the area of the suburban area is large, then the option of conservation and transfer of the object can be considered. If the site is small, it is better to clean the pit from the accumulated waste.
This video demonstrates the process of building a country toilet. After viewing the video, you will understand how to make the toilet in the country on their own, as well as decide on the choice of the necessary building materials.
The simplest and most reliable way is a cesspool, of course its varied options, but the meaning remains the same. Now on sale a lot of tools to eliminate the smell of cesspools and the fastest processing of the contents into fertilizer, many actually work.
Outdoor toilet, and even more so in the country for many does not represent a serious structure. Therefore, it is very often possible to see this house, made in haste from sheets of old slate, from four pillars covered with tarpaulin or black film, and of the roof with a door from something like that. On our backyard, my husband decided to move away from the above-mentioned types of this structure and built not a house in a hurry, but a building. I will not list all the technical details of this structure, they are perfectly described in the article, and I will describe the external and internal appearance. Our toilet itself is built of white silicate brick, the husband laid the brick neatly, paying attention to each seam. The roof was made of metal profiles, the ceiling was insulated, trimmed with plastic panels. Inside the wall poked and applied liquid wallpaper of their own making. Tile laid on the floor. On the right wall made a small window. По ширине туалета сделал сиденье с прорезью, на которое уже положил сиденью из пенопласта, оно и мягкое, и нехолодное. На дверной проем повесил тюлевую занавеску, чтоб мухи летом не залетали. Саму дверь сделал из фанеры, а со стороны улицы облицевал металлопрофилем.Near the toilet put tile. It turned out very cozy, bright toilet. Friends sometimes ask: “Do shoes take off when to go to your toilet?” Summing up, I want to say that even the structure of such an appointment requires proper attention.
Best of all, to arrange a toilet at the dacha, backlash-closet design. The cesspool should be hermetic so that untreated drains do not fall into the ground. The pit must be equipped with exhaust ventilation, in this case there will be no odors in the toilet.
All my life I live in the village, and this topic is very familiar to me)) Usually people do not bother about it, dig a hole, put a booth on top, a hole in the floor, that's the whole toilet! Now, however, they began to make very beautiful houses and inside, for convenience, put a toilet seat, so that the eagles do not sit))
A very useful illustration about how far you need to place from the living quarters ..