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We grow a pear: planting, care, pruning, varieties

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There are quite a few varieties of pears. There are elite varieties that are widely popular, and there are proven varieties that have won due respect from gardeners. In the latter, you can always be sure. A prominent representative of this variety is the cathedral pear.

Site selection and pear planting

Pear has several features. Culture belongs to the light-loving. Patient to the increased moisture content in the area of ​​the root, but does not tolerate long wet fogs. A few wet days and pear falls ill with fungal and bacterial diseases. Therefore, in mixed country gardens, it is better to plant it in the extreme rows, in the most luminous places accessible to the winds (but not drafts). When planting in lowlands, places with a high standing of groundwater, in the drafts pear trees do not develop well and quickly die. In areas occupied by the garden, it is wise to allocate space for pears on the south, west or south-west side. Pear belongs to cross-pollinated crops, therefore 2-3 trees of different varieties are usually planted.

Pear requirements for soil

Like other crops, pear normally grows and develops on fertile lands with good moisture and breathability. The clay layer does not affect the development of the pear, which requires some moisture retention at the base of the root system. If the soil is dense in physical terms, but is depleted in nutrients, then a mixture of humus or compost for loosening and mineral fertilizers are prepared from the upper layers of the earth when digging the planting pit.

The period of planting pear seedlings

Depending on the region, the pear is planted in autumn or spring. Spring planting is preferable in the northern regions and central Russia with cold winter temperatures. Planting of pears begins in April, when warm weather sets in without returning frosts.

In the southern and other regions, with snowy winters and relatively long warm autumn, pear seedlings are better planted in the autumn. The sultry spring of warm regions often oppresses a sapling, causes shrinkage of the aerial part and its death. The optimal period for planting seedlings in the south is the end of September, the first half of October. With a long warm period, pear saplings have time to take root and adapt to new living conditions. Culture does not like transplants, so the seedlings are planted immediately to a permanent place, especially 3 - 4-year-olds.

Preparation of landing holes

Under the spring planting of pear seedlings, a planting pit is prepared from autumn. Her dig enough capacious - 70x70 cm and a depth of up to a meter. At the bottom of the pit on light soils lay a 10 cm layer of clay to delay irrigation water or precipitation. From above place 10-15-20 cm layer of compost or humus (not manure). Layers are closed with the prepared soil mixture and left until spring.

For the autumn planting of a pear, a planting pit is prepared 2-3 weeks before planting the seedling. In the same way, a pillow is prepared at the bottom of the landing pit, the dimensions of which correspond to the volume of the root system. In the center of the pit establish a wooden support, to which the pear seedling will be tied after planting. Planting seedlings in prepared pits is carried out as usual.

Digging a hole under a pear tree. © Nelle Planting a pear tree. © Nelle Tamping the ground around a pear seedling. © Nelle

Soil mix preparation

The soil mixture for filling the pit when planting pear seedlings is prepared from the top most fertile soil layer, which is mixed with humus, compost or top peat, 50-60 g of nitrophosphate or potassium phosphate, respectively, 30 and 20 g are added to the bucket of this mixture, and about 100-150 g of wood ash.

Pear seedling preparation

For planting it is better to buy 1-2 year old saplings. When buying, you need to pay attention to the quality of the vaccination of the pear and the condition of the seedling itself. The bark should be smooth, monophonic. Pear seedling itself - elastic, not dried out. The root system is lively — at the cut, it is light, moist, in shades characteristic of the variety. The day before planting, the roots of the seedling are dipped in a bucket with a solution of a root or another root stimulator. It is also added to the water, which is poured into the landing hole.

Before planting, the central and lateral long roots are cut to 10-12 cm. If there were leaves on the stem, they are cut off, and the side branches are cut. The ready pear seedling represents a shoot 75-85 cm high without side shoots.

Pear planting rules

The roots of the prepared pear seedling are spread on the top of the soil mix (in the pit) and sprinkled with earth. The stem of the seedling is shaken or slightly trampled in the pit so that there are no air voids. Having filled up 2/3 of the pit, they pour out a bucket of settled water (so that it is not too cold). After the water is absorbed, backfilling of the landing pit to the top is continued. Be sure to monitor that the root neck of the pear seedling is 3-4-5 cm above the soil. The root neck is above the first roots and differs in the color of the bark on the stem.

The transition from the greenish bark of the trunk to the light brownish roots is the location of the root collar.

If the pear seedling is grafted, the grafting site is located above the root collar (for gardener beginners). After planting, the soil is lightly tamped with the hands, a roller is prepared 3-5 cm high in a circle with a diameter of 40-50 cm, where another 1-2 buckets of water are poured. After soaking, the soil around the trunk is mulched, not reaching the central shoot of 8-10 cm. At the end of the planting work, the young pear seedling through the eight is tied to a support. The whole warm period of autumn or, during spring planting, the entire growing season, the soil after watering is mulched. The mulch should not envelop the trunk of the pear: the rotting of a young trunk can begin.

Pear care

Under the crown of a young pear seedling and subsequently under an adult tree it is necessary to constantly keep the soil clean from weeds. The best neighbor for a pear is an apple tree. It is undesirable to have a rowan near a pear tree, as they are affected by the same types of pests.

Pears, even winter-hardy, planted in regions with long frosts, need a winter shelter at a young age. The trunk of a young tree is wrapped with burlap or other materials previously processed with anti-mouse preparations (diesel fuel, dust, birch tar). Insulation uses straw mixed with stems of black root, wormwood, tansy, elderberry black, red, herbal, mint and others that scare mice away. The lower end of the insulation is instilled 3-4 cm in the soil and fresh snow is trampled around in the winter.

Watering pear

In the first year of watering pears carried out once a week. Enough 1-2 buckets per plant. In subsequent years, the rate of water is increased, and the irrigation time is reduced to 1 - 2 per month. 1-2 grooves are dug around the tree and poured from the hose with water. Adult pears preferably watered sprinkler. After watering, loosening and mulching are necessary. The plant needs oxygen and a moist, crustless surface.

Feeding pears

Pear does not like increased amounts of nitrogen. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers contribute annually in small doses in the first 2-4 years when the leaves bloom. In the future, nitrogen supplements are carried out only with obvious nitrogen starvation, when the tree is lagging behind, annual growths are insignificant, leaves are clarified (the varietal color of pears is an exception), plastic sheet is insufficiently developed.

For dressing pears organically contribute once every 3-4-5 years, depending on the fertility of the soil. Mineral supplements, including micronutrient fertilizers, are necessary for crops every year due to the large nutrient yield of the crop.

It is more rational to organic and mineral fertilizers not to scatter over the surface of the soil, but to be dug up around the crowns of the tree in shallow trenches. In the year when organic matter is introduced, a phosphorus-potassium mixture is first introduced into the trench, 40 and 20 or 60 and 30 g per meter, respectively, depending on the age of the pear, mixed with the soil so as not to burn the roots, then poured on top with humus or compost (0 , 5 buckets) and cover with a layer of soil. In the remaining years it can be limited to the introduction of a complete complex fertilizer with a minimum nitrogen content.

Gardeners often use nitrophoska or kemira, which also contains a number of trace elements. Instead of microelements, it is possible at the beginning of the growth phase of the fruits to bring under loosening of 1-2-3 glasses of wood ash under the tree around the circumference of the crown. Under the autumn digging make a complete mineral fertilizer, you can add humus or use individual recommendations for a particular crop.

It is good to use green manure green manure in garden plantings. Siderats can be sown between the rows and mowed or left until spring under the digging.

Pear protection from pests and diseases

Pears, like other pome fruit crops, are affected by fungal, bacterial and viral diseases and pests - sucking and gnawing. Moreover, diseases are affected separately pear leaves and fruits.

In order to harvest a full-fledged crop, the protection of a crop must be started in early spring, using all recommended agrotechnical measures, and carried out before harvesting. A huge role in preserving the health of pears, and therefore in obtaining high-quality crops, is played by preventive protection measures.

Growth direction of young fruit trees. © Stark Bro’s

Preventive actions

Prophylactic and agrochemical measures of protection include: maintaining a plot without weeds, timely feeding, watering, and treating trees. Timely cleaning of the windfall and leaf litter. All leaves are taken out of the garden area and are used: healthy - for laying on compost, for digging, and patients burn or put in a separate compost pit for rotting, pouring layers or spilling solutions against diseases. When pruning, all waste should be taken out and burned. Trees after complete leaf fall process with copper or iron sulphate (2-3%) or 3% Bordeaux mixture. Repeat the treatment in the spring before waking up the kidneys from the winter holidays. Timely and high-quality implementation of preventive measures reduces the likelihood of diseases or damage to trees by pests by up to 70%.

Types of pear diseases and protection measures

Pear is affected by diseases peculiar to other pome crops. The most common and malicious are:

  • scab (leaves and fruits),
  • monilioz (leaves and fruits),
  • black cancer (leaves and fruits),
  • stem rot (cytosporosis),
  • bacterial burn,
  • powdery mildew,
  • leaf rust
  • white spot (septoria),
  • milky luster.

Of the measures of protection, the most secure in private possessions are the processing of garden crops with biologics. They can be used for processing the entire growing season from leafing and before harvesting, and some biological products process the fruit during winter storage in order to prolong their preservation.

Some gardeners-hustlers use chemicals. Yes, using chemicals, it is enough 2 - 3 treatments and the disease will be defeated, but ... With the wrong or inaccurate use of chemicals you can get poisoning and damage to internal organs and the handler, and family members, cause the death of pets and beneficial insects.

Therefore, it is practical and safe to use the following biopreparations in tank mixtures from diseases: trichodermin (glyocladin), phytolavin, gamair (bactericide), planriz, pentofag-S, phytosporin-M, farmoid, alirin-B, gaupsin. The last drug has a double effect. It is a good fungicide and insecticide. All of these biological products interact well in tank mixtures and are preparations of a wide spectrum of action, destroying up to 4-9 types of diseases. They destroy, in particular, fungal, bacterial and viral infections.

The use of biologics to protect the pear from pests

The main pests of pears are:

  • green aphid
  • moth,
  • listobloshka (pear sucker),
  • pear mite,
  • leafworm and others.

To effectively protect the pear from pests, it is enough to have 2 biological products in the garden first aid kit - actophyte (akarin) and bitoxybacillin. These 2 biological products destroy almost all of the above-mentioned pests. Biological preparations of fitoverm, verticillin, lepidocide are also effective. Bioinsecticides and biofungicides can be used in tank mixes. Mixtures can reduce the number of treatments and increase their effectiveness.

Using biological preparations it is necessary:

  • clearly maintain the recommendations in the preparation of working solutions, when spraying adhesives (soap, etc.) should be added to the solution,
  • carry out treatments only in warm weather (air temperature is not lower than +16 .. + 18 ° C) biologics are effective up to + 32 ° C,
  • treatments should be carried out in 7-12 days, unless otherwise recommended,
  • the effect of a biological product is manifested at 3-6 days under optimal conditions, if precipitation has passed, abundant dew falls, the treatment must be repeated.
Pear tree in bloom

Pear Forming Pruning

Formative pruning used in the early years of growth and development of seedlings. It aims to create a crown. Pears form high yields, but with an incorrectly formed crown, the skeletal branches can break off, the tree will bend or develop one-sided. There are many types of forming pears in the gardening of pears - palmette, column, pyramid and others. To properly form a crown, it is better to invite a specialist. When self-shaping pruning, the most accessible and easy-to-use types are usually used:

  • without deck,
  • whorled-tiered or rarefied-tiered.

When forming the crown of a pear, it is necessary to strictly observe several rules:

  • main skeletal branches should be directed evenly in different directions,
  • the angle of divergence of the skeletal branch (first tier) from the trunk must be blunt and be at least 90-120 degrees,
  • the optimal number of skeletal branches during longline formation is 3-4 in the first and 2-3 in the second,
  • branches of the second tier should always be positioned so that they grow in the free space of the branches of the first tier so as not to obscure it.

Dumpless crown formation of pears

The following year, after planting in the phase of swelling of the kidneys on the central stem, all shoots are cut to a height of 40-45 cm. This is a stem. Above will be located the branches of the crown. At the top point of the trunk, a well-developed eye is left. This will be the lowest skeleton branch of the first order. From this kidney measure 25-30 cm and find the next kidney for the second skeletal branch. It is necessary that this kidney be located spiral on the other side of the central escape and, as it were, balance the future load of the branches with the fruits. If the height of the pear seedling allows, you can arrange in a spiral and the third kidney - the third skeletal branch and leave the escape to continue. He is the leader and provides growth of culture. So that the tree is not too high (preferably no more than 3 m), over time the central shoot is shortened by 20-25-35 cm and the nearest well-developed bud or branch is left in the lead. The pear with this technique suspends growth in height. With this formation of the crown, all the branches between the main skeletal branches are cut into a ring. Form 2-3 shoots of the second order. Adhering to the same rules - uniform load of the tree from different sides. In subsequent years, perform sanitary, thinning and rejuvenating pear pruning.

1st year after landing.

In the spring, in the phase of swelling of the kidneys, a shtamb of a pear with a height of 40-45 cm is formed. All lateral shoots on the shtambe are cut into a ring.

Then measure on the central shoot up from the trunk 70-90 cm for the first tier. In this space, 3-4 most developed buds of pears are noted, located 15-25 cm on opposite sides of the central stem (90-120 degrees). These branches are cut to 1 / 2-1 / 3 so that they are approximately the same length. The remaining intermediate branches are removed on the ring. Some gardeners prune shortly and leave them on a fertile link.

After 15-20 cm above the third bud of the first tier, the central pear shoot is cut, which serves to continue the growth of the tree.

3rd year after landing

In the spring, in the phase of swelling of the kidneys from the upper skeletal branch of the first tier, they measure about 40-45 cm and cut all the sprigs of pear into a ring.

From the buds, 2 buds, located 20-25 cm apart from each other on opposite sides, are selected above along the central shoot. They should not coincide with the branches of the first tier in order to not shade them in summer. Branches of the 2nd tier of pears are located in intervals with respect to the skeletal branches of the first tier.

All branches between the skeletal branches of the second tier are also removed or shortened, as in the formation of the first tier. Skeletal branches are cut to 1/3, aligned in length. The central stem is shortened by 15-20 cm.

4th year after landing

The central stem of the pear is shortened to the side branch to weaken the growth of the tree upwards. Pruning is carried out at the level of 40-45 cm from the upper skeletal branch of the second tier. Укорачивают все скелетные ветки на 1/3-1/4 и некоторые ветки, что выросли между ярусами. Остальной прирост в ярусах, на штамбе и загущающий ярусы, удаляют на кольцо.

5-6 год после посадки

К этому времени высота груши достигает 2,5-3,5 м. Над верхней скелетной веткой нужно обрезать центральный проводник, чтобы дерево прекратило рост вверх.

In the formed crown of the branch of the 2nd order should be located at a distance of 90-100 cm from the central trunk and 50-60-70 cm from each other.

With normal growth of adult trees, crown thinning is carried out in 5-6 years (if necessary, the branch is cut into a ring) and the limiting pruning of the skeletal and semi-skeletal pear branches. Growth and branches shorter than 25-30 cm are not cut and not shortened, leave for fruiting.

In order for a tree to form properly, it is necessary to create a solid crown, on the skeletal branches of which annual growths and fruit links will develop. To do this, at the beginning of summer (July 10-20), by the middle of 1-2 summer skeletal branches, pears are tied, without tightening, strong twine, bend downwards and tied to the central trunk. Skeletal branch should form a horizontal line, and not bend the arc. The following year, the same procedure is done with the skeletal branches of the second tier. In the attached state, the branches are lignified. Twine removed, and the branches of pears remain in a horizontal position. Some gardeners tie the lower end of the twine to heavy objects at the base of the trunk (bricks, cauldrons, etc.). With this method of folding, you need to monitor the preservation of the horizontal arrangement of the branches. Some gardeners cut branches with a small angle of deviation annually on the outer bud. The skeletal branches of the second tier of pears are subordinated to the length of the branches of the first tier (left shorter).

Pear trees. © own

Pear Rejuvenation Pruning

Pear rejuvenating pruning is carried out when the tree is heavily thickened, the annual growth is greatly reduced. Skeletal and semi-skeletal branches of the culture on both tiers are little covered with overgrowing branches and stand bare. During this period, the crown is greatly lightened, removing some skeletal branches. The central trunk of the pear is shortened to the side branch, which allows redistribution of nutrients to longline branches and overgrowing branches. Shortening and thinning contributes to a more intensive supply of nutrients to the fruit-forming branches, which contributes to the improvement of fruit set and improvement of their quality indicators.

Varieties of pears for different regions of Russia

Varietal variety of pears breeding in recent years has allowed to promote the culture even in the northern regions with frosty winters. The success of growing and obtaining good yields of excellent quality depends on properly selected zoned varieties and culture hybrids. For the northern regions, it is necessary to select frost-resistant pear varieties with early fruit ripening.

For the northern regions, the most common are frost-resistant pear varieties: “Cathedral”, Severyanka, Fields, Lada, Otradnenskaya.

In the Moscow region and other regions of central Russia, good yields form pear varieties: Lada, Hilly, Chizhovskaya, Tenderness, Moskvichka, Fairy Tale. Muscovites especially distinguish the Fairytale variety for large-fruited and keeping quality, good taste and transportation qualities. The “Chizhovskaya” pear variety is self-fertile, does not require a partner for pollination, is resistant to fungal diseases and begins to bear fruit early. Good yields form pear varieties “Just Maria”, “Avgustovskaya dew” and others.

In the southern regions, the varietal variety of pears is much larger than the northern ones. There are cultivated varieties that form the crop from July to late autumn (October). Gardeners consider early-maturing varieties of Ilyinka, Swallow, and Melting pearls to be the best for dacha cultivation. Of late winter varieties, the Dicolor pear variety is necessarily grown, it ripens in October and is stored until January. Fruits are large, bright, juicy. High-quality yields are obtained from the pear varieties "Dushes Summer" and "Favorite Klapp", "Rosie Red Bartlet" and others.

What kind is it?

The pear belongs to the Rosaceae family. This family includes many fruit and berry crops. Inflorescences thyroid or in the form of a brush.

Pollinated by insects or wind. Pear cathedral refers to skoroplodny table grade.

Ripening occurs summer early August. Differs in regular fruiting.

Breeding history and breeding region

The Cathedral Pear was bred at the Moscow Agricultural Academy (ICCA). The authors of the variety are breeders S.P. Potapov and S.T. Chizhov. This variety was obtained by crossing two varieties - Forest Beauty and the hybrid "Forest Beauty with"Duchess Thigh».

Bred for breeding in Central striphowever, due to frost resistance, it can even grow in temperate northern regions. Passed a state test in 1990, and in 2001 - included in the State Register in the Central Federal District.

Pear "Cathedral": a description of the variety and photos

Tree reaches average height. Krone of the correct conical shape. Density - from medium to large. The bark is smooth, gray. Predominantly straight branches are directed upwards, not very often located. Fruits, mainly on annual shoots.

Shoots rounded, straight, reddish-brown, slightly pubescent. The leaves are green, smooth, medium to large.

Oval-shaped, medium-pointed, concave, at the edges there are fine teeth. Blooms cupped large flowers in white.

The fruit of the pear "Cathedral" medium size or lower weighing from 110 to 130 g

Pear-shaped regular shape, with tubercles on the surface, greenish-yellow color. At full ripeness, the color can change to a light yellow with a reddish blush.

The stem is of medium length, curved. The heart is small, rhombic, with small closed chambers. In fruits ripen dark brown egg-shaped seeds. The flesh has a sweet and sour taste, white, fine-grained, medium density.

Great taste demonstrate varieties of pear Krasnobokaya, Lada, Nursery and Ilyinka.

Full characteristics of the properties of pear grade "Cathedral":

For more information about the variety and see the “Cathedral” pears can be seen in the photo below:




Specifications

The fruits are harvestable during August, but, like most summer varieties, stored for long, no more than two weeks. The transportability of fruits is average. Variety pears "Cathedral" is great for fresh consumption.

In future it is better to harvest in the form of dried fruit, for the subsequent preparation of compotes. In the raw form of the fruit can be cooked excellent jam or compote.

It tolerates frost well.Regular fructification which is one of the advantages of this variety. Also the grade possesses highly resistant to scab. The yield is about 85 centners per hectare, on average from each tree 35 kg. Fruiting begins already in 3-4 year.

Planting and care

Cathedral Pear very sensitive to the ground. The best option for planting would be fertile sandy black soil. If the area is dominated by loam or sand, in this case it is especially important to apply fertilizer annually.

It is very undesirable to plant a wet area with stagnant groundwater. If, nevertheless, it is decided to do this, then it is necessary to plant it on a specially prepared hill. Alternatively, drainage can be prepared around the landing site.

When planting a seedling can not be too deep, root neck should be 5 cm above ground level. Pear another pear pollinator is neededtherefore it is better to acquire it immediately by planting a second sapling not far from the first.

In the landing hole It is necessary to add organic fertilizer (humus, humus.) If this is not done, the tree will slowly grow, become weaker and more susceptible to disease.

Other fertilizers can be used instead of humus:

In the future, the tree will also need additional feeding, the frequency of which depends on the soil.

Fertilizing is done on fertile soils if a visual inspection of the tree indicates its expediency. If the soil is poor, then annual feeding is necessary. Mineral fertilizers are used for this purpose.

Approximate amount of fertilizer per 1 m² of cultivated area:

For the survival of the tree is sometimes recommended in the first year of flowering to tear 80% of the flowers. In subsequent years, some gardeners do the rationing of the crop.

For this they pick off half of the newly born fruit. As a result, the remaining fruits become larger and sweet when ripe. It is also believed that because of this, the tree will better tolerate the winter.

Pruning pears of the Cathedral is best done in April, before bud break. Circumcision aims to improve the quality of the fruit and protect the tree from diseases.

For such a procedure, there are several rules:

  1. The branch is cut at the very base (no hemp).
  2. Branches on the ground should be removed.
  3. Only weak shoots are cut.
  4. You can delete no more than 14 of the total number of branches.
  5. At a young sapling, before planting, the branches are cut to 1/3.

Watering a pear is enough once a week., 1 bucket 2 times a day for each tree. During the fruiting period, the amount of watering should be increased, as in the case of drought.

The lack of moisture threatens significant crop losses not only this year, but also next year. But after collecting the fruit watering should stop. An exception can only be a drought at the end of August and September.

Diseases and pests

When breeding a pear cathedral, one should keep in mind the probability of infection of certain types of diseases:

Pear of this variety little prone to moniliosis and related rotting. But if it did happen, it’s necessary remove all affected fruit from both the tree itself and the soil.

The source of infection with moniliosis is the fruits that remained on the branches in the winter and hung there until spring. If they have cracks, then there is a high probability of infection.

Therefore, from pears hanging on the branches from last year, you need to get rid of as soon as possible. To avoid cracking fresh fruits that may also become infected, you need to monitor soil moisture during the season.

The likelihood of moniliosis is significantly lower if the crown of the tree is well ventilated.

Other means may be used:

  • iron or copper sulphate,
  • solution of potassium permanganate,
  • Bordeaux mixture.

Cytosporosis can only affect a weakened tree.. Manifested in certain areas of the bark, which gradually begin to dry out.

At the same time on the affected areas are clearly visible black rough points - spores of the fungus, the pathogen.

Whole branches may be affected. In the fight against cytosporosis, it is necessary to cut and burn all diseased branches.

Using a knife, completely clean the area of ​​the spread of the fungus, then disinfect with the prepared solution. Wounds should be smeared with garden pitch. The best prevention of this disease is proper care: timely feeding and cutting.

Black cancer - A very dangerous fungal disease, leading to the death of the entire tree. The disease is most common in southern areas with a warm climate. First, red-brown spots appear on the leaves, which gradually grow. Sick leaves on the branches do not hold for a long time and soon fall down.

On fruits, the presence of the fungus manifests itself in the form of rot, just before maturation. First, the fruit turns brown, gradually darkens and finally dries out.

The affected bark signals a red-brown spot, as on the leaves. Next, the lesion grows, and cracks are formed between the patient and healthy tissue.

With the defeat of the leaves the most effective means of combating black cancer is Bordeaux mixture, which should be sprayed after flowering.

Infected stem subject cleaning and processing of copper or iron sulphate solution.

Affected leaves and fruits must be destroyed. (burned), even if they are on the ground. Black cancer usually affects weakened trees.

The absence of various pests, reliable protection against sunburn, compliance with agricultural engineering will significantly reduce the likelihood of infection.

If it was not possible to acquire such material, then for this purpose quite suitable for ordinary nylon pantyhose.

In addition to protection from winter pests, they will perform the function of insulation. Although the cathedral variety and has good frost resistance, but sometimes there are severe and at the same time snowy winters. If the tree is young, then such a measure would not be superfluous.

So, the pear of the Cathedral has a number of undoubted advantages.

  • High frost resistance.
  • Excellent yield.
  • Annual fruiting.
  • High resistance to most fungal diseases.

The disadvantages of this type include only a small shelf life and relatively small size of the fruit. However, those who have a cathedral pear in the garden never regret their choice.

The tree is suitable for cultivation in almost any region of Russia (except the far north). If you comply with all the conditions of care, the tree will annually please its owner with tasty and healthy fruits.

Description and characteristics of the pear Cathedral

Trees of this variety grow to 10 meters in height. The correct conical shape of the crown has an average density. The bark on the trunk and the main branches, growing straight and rarely, is colored gray, smooth to the touch. Fruiting occurs on simple kolchatka and annual shoots.

The history of the cathedral variety began in the Moscow Agricultural Academy. Authorship belongs to two breeders - S. P. Potapov and S. T. Chizhov. In 1990, the variety was tested and in 2001 was included in the State Register.

The sheet plate is oval, leathery, curved, with a finely toothed edge. Color is saturated green.

Blooms with large white cupped flowers. Fruits are small, pear-shaped. The surface is covered with small tubercles. The mass of one fruit ranges from 110 to 130 g. The skin is smooth, delicate and shiny. There are many hypodermic points, but they are hardly noticeable. Coloring is greenish-yellow. It usually changes when it reaches full ripeness, becoming a light yellow color with a light pink-red blush. The peduncle has a slight bend and average length. Seeds are small, dark brown.

The pulp of the pear is white, juicy, tender and semi-oily. The structure is slightly dense and fine-grained. The taste is sweet and sour with a medium aroma.

Tasting grade grade - 4.4 points on a five-point system.

Distinctive features of the Cathedral cat:

  1. Skoroplodnost and regular fruiting.
  2. Self-fertile, can produce yields when pollinated by insects.
  3. The variety can be grown in almost any region of Russia, with the exception of the Far North.

Landing features

Planting pears can be carried out in the spring and autumn periods. In the southern regions, professionals advise planting the Cathedral in the fall, in late September - early October, while the weather is still warm. Planting during this period has the advantage: there is enough moisture in the soil, which improves the formation of new roots and contributes to a better survival rate of the plant. In addition, the pear, planted in the fall, better tolerates the vagaries of nature and is more resistant to diseases and pests.

In the conditions of Central Russia and in the suburbs it is best to make a spring planting - in late April or early May. It will enable the roots to successfully take root before the onset of cold weather, which will ensure a good wintering of the plant.

It is necessary to plant a pear immediately to a permanent place, she does not like transplants.

The cathedral is selective regarding the soil on which it grows. Prefers fertile, domesticated soil without clay. The ideal option for planting will be sandy-chernozem soil, which allows air and moisture to pass through well.

It is not necessary to plant the cathedral on a plot with stagnant groundwater. In winter, accumulated moisture in combination with frost can greatly harm the pear. If there is no other option, you should take care of drainage or plant a tree on a specially constructed hill.

The trick when planting pears - video

The Cathedral Pear loves light and warmth - in the southern part of the garden she will feel great. The site should be spacious, not located near buildings and other fruit trees. In case of uneven illumination, pear branches will stretch towards the light and over time will easily break even under their own weight. You should also take into account the direction of the prevailing winds - the tree must be protected from them.

By choosing a seedling should be taken seriously enough. The best age for planting material is 2-3 years. The tree should be without visible damage, have a smooth and resilient bark. The root system is well developed, without rot, with the least number of damaged roots. The more extra thin roots, the faster the seedling will grow.

The pit for planting is prepared in advance. For spring landing, it is dug out in the fall, for autumn - a couple of weeks before the intended landing. The dimensions of the pit depend on the root system - as a rule, it is 80 cm in diameter and 1 m in depth.

When digging, the upper fertile layer of the earth is laid aside in order to mix with 2-3 buckets of peat and humus, 1 bucket of coarse sand (if the soil is heavy). Potassium sulfate is poured at the very bottom of the pit - 3 tablespoons, superphosphate - 1 cup, mixed with top dressing so that the roots do not get burned. The earth fertilized with organic additives is poured into a hole and 2 buckets of water are poured into it. After 2 weeks, the soil is slightly compacted - you can start planting.

Step-by-step process

    Отступив от центра посадочной ямы 30 см с южной стороны, вбиваем будущую опору для саженца. После посадки она должна выступать над землёй не менее чем на 50 см.

Soil shovel collected around the stake in the form of a hill.

At a sapling we cut off foliage and we delete the roots having damages.

The root system is dropped into the mixture of heteroauxins with an earthen talker, and then placed on the sides of the knoll so that the roots do not break. Fall asleep ground.

The seedling is sometimes shaken so that there are no voids between the roots. For better shrinkage, the ground can be shed with water and fill up the remaining soil.

The root neck should be 5-7 cm above the landing level.

After disembarking, we tie a pear sapling to a support and build a roller around it from the earth with a diameter of 30 cm, which will not allow water to spread during watering.

On the good self-fertility of the cathedral pear, it has already been mentioned before, but pollinators still need to be taken care of. With cross-pollination, the yield and quality of the fruits increases markedly. Ideally coping with this task varieties Lada, Children, Chizhovskaya and Rogneda.

Plant Care

Pruning should be carried out before the onset of sap flow - in April, using a sharp garden pruner. This procedure forms the crown of a young tree in the first 4 years, and subsequently protects the pear from diseases and improves the quality of the crop.

When pruning, you must follow the following rules:

  1. You need to leave strong, developed branches, and remove the weak. Also, branches relating to the ground are removed.
  2. The branches are cut into a ring, do not leave stumps.
  3. In one procedure, delete no more than 14 branches.
  4. Pruning can be carried out at a two-year sapling. Annual saplings do not need this procedure.

For an adult tree of this variety, it is enough to hold annual sanitary pruning and slightly thin out the crown, removing tops and weak shoots.

Despite the fact that the adult pear is able to survive the drought, the young tree must be regularly watered. Watering is carried out in the plant near the stem at the rate of 2–3 buckets of water for each year of the plant’s life.

You need to water it once a week, pouring water in 2 steps - in the morning and in the evening. Water should be poured very carefully so as not to wash the roots. The best way to watering is sprinkling.

During the fruiting period, watering increases a little - this will help preserve this year's harvest and the next. After collecting the pears, watering is stopped. The exception may be dry weather in late August and early September.

After watering, loosening should be carried out, which will eliminate the formation of earth crust and open access to oxygen to the plant roots. To reduce moisture evaporation, the tree trunk circle should be mulched with peat or mowed and dried grass.

When and how to fertilize

The frequency of application of fertilizers directly depends on the state of the tree and the quality of the ground. If the plant is planted on fertile soil and gives a good increase, then there is no need for annual fertilization.

If a pear grows on poor sandy soil - fertilizer will have to be applied every year, slightly increasing the dosage.

Fertilizing begin pear immediately after the snow cover, a year after planting. Top dressing bring seasonally: in spring, summer and autumn.

Fertilizer application schedule - table

After flowering pear: infusion of chicken droppings and green grass. 2 buckets of weeds are poured with two buckets of water and add 1 kg of litter. Insist week. Use 1 liter of infusion per bucket of water. Application rate - 25 liters under one tree. Bring only after watering.

Add when digging.

When applying fertilizer, stick to the indicated norms. An overdose of nitrogen will give the plant the power to build up the green mass, but it will have a bad effect on the laying of flower buds. Busting with trace elements will not allow the pear to absorb other beneficial substances.

Weeding wheel circle

Keeping the circle close to the trunk is a procedure not so much of an aesthetic nature as sanitary. This is especially true of the young sapling. Weed grass takes moisture and nutrition, so necessary tree. In addition, pests infest very quickly in it, which then attack the fragile pear. Timely weeding will rid the tree of many problems and help oxygen to reach the roots without obstacles.

Shelter for the winter

When preparing a pear for the winter, do not forget to water the tree abundantly so that the roots are saturated with moisture. After that, cover the trunk circle with a layer of mulch, not less than 30 cm.

The adult pear of the Cathedral perfectly tolerates frosts and does not need a special shelter. But young, immature plants can easily suffer in the winter. To prevent this from happening, they are tied at the end of autumn with thick paper, cloth or fir branches, which are tied down with needles (this is also a way to protect the plant from rodents). In addition, experienced gardeners bind the branches of young pears together, which saves from possible damage by the winter wind.

If heavy snow has fallen, you can build a snowdrift in it.

This important event will protect the bark of pears from bright spring rays. The solution for whitewashing can be bought at the store or prepared by yourself. To do this, mix 1 kg of clay and 1.5–2 kg of lime in a bucket of water, dilute the composition with water. Whitewashing is applied on the trunk from the very ground to the lower branches of the tree.

Description and characteristics of the variety

The mid-summer variety Katedralnaya was obtained by breeders Potapov S.P. and Chizhov S.T. at the Moscow Agricultural Academy. This pear was originally intended for cultivation in the central zone, but its frost resistance is sufficient to withstand the climate of colder areas.

The tree is of medium height, with a thick conical crown. Branches with smooth gray bark grow straight, are relatively rare. Straight shoots are red-brown in color. Oval leaves of green and medium size, with a smooth surface. Fruit wood are, as a rule, simple people and young shoots. The pear blossoms with large flowers of white color.

Fruits are green-yellow, medium-sized (medium weight 110–130 g), with a glossy smooth skin, the surface is slightly bumpy. At the onset of full ripening, the pears acquire a light yellow color with a faint red blush.

The flesh of the fruit is white, sweet-sour, has an average density, a slight lubricity and unsharp aroma. The sugar content in the fruits of the Cathedral is not too high - 8.5%.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety - table

  • precociation (the first 2–3 dozen pears can be obtained from the 3rd – 4th year after planting),
  • regular good yield - 35–40 kg per 1 tree,
  • high frost resistance - can withstand temperatures as low as -30 o C,
  • resistance to scab damage.
  • small sizes of fruits,
  • poor keeping quality (only about 2 weeks),
  • average transportability.

Tree care

For normal growth and development of pear trees and ensuring high yields, an optimum amount of moisture in the soil is required. Also, the plant must be formed and fed.

An excess or lack of water adversely affects the state of the foliage and the whole tree. The maximum amount of moisture trees required before and during flowering, as well as the appearance of leaves. If it is not enough in the early spring period, most of the leaf buds are not revealed, it remains at rest. The development of young leaves is slow, the growth of shoots is weak. If the lack of moisture in the spring-summer period is accompanied by excessive heat, the general condition of the trees worsens. In summer drought, the lack of fluid to the root system causes the die-off of the suction roots. If the required amount of water is not accumulated in the fall, the wood and roots begin to dry out, and the frost resistance is reduced.

Excess moisture reduces the air content in the soil, which violates the respiration of the roots, weakens them and, eventually, leads to their death. At the same time, the shrinkage of the tree begins - first the central conductor, then the main branches.

Pear should be moistened regularly, but moderately, proportioning the number and volume of irrigation with weather conditions. Usually mature trees are watered 4–6 times per summer, spending 50–70 l of water per tree. Young trees are moistened more often: in the first year - once a week, then once every two weeks at a rate of 20–30 liters of water per 1 tree. Good results are obtained by sprinkling, but it is possible to inject fluid into small temporary furrows.

Soil care

During the first year after planting, the soil in the trunk circles and aisle should be kept under black steam. From the second year you can use the soil between the trees for growing vegetables, mustard, buckwheat. It is not necessary to plant late varieties of cabbage, because of them the autumn digging of the earth is delayed. It is impossible to plant corn - it dries the substrate strongly and inhibits the growth of the pear tree.

Pristvolny circles need to be kept in a loose state, weed regularly and weed out and mulch. Peat or peat compost (20–25 kg per 1 m 2) is used as mulch, which is laid with a layer thickness of 6–8 cm.

Pruning is necessary to remove dried and diseased branches, to improve the illumination of the crown and the formation of a tree. For pear trees, formative pruning is not necessary, as they are usually well formed naturally.

Sanitary and thinning pruning is desirable to carry out in March-April, before bud breaks, or in the fall after leaf fall. Cut branches should be at the base, not leaving hemp (they interfere with the normal healing of wounds). When pruning can not remove more than a quarter of the total volume of the crown.

In addition to normal pruning, rationing of the ovaries may be required. Often the number formed on the tree ovaries is redundant.

It is known that for good yields of pears there is no need for the huge number of flowers that form one tree during the period of full fruiting (more than 50 thousand). It is enough if there are 5 thousand flowers on the tree.

Zvonarev N.M.

All about pear. Varieties, cultivation, care.

The tree spends a large amount of nutrients on the extra fruits, most of which do not gain the required size and quality. As a result, the annual growth is too weak, an insufficient number of flower buds is formed (the harvest of the next year will be small), the winter hardiness of the tree decreases. The best time to ration fruit is June (at the end of the natural abscission of the ovary). First of all, it is necessary to remove the underdeveloped and damaged ovaries, in each inflorescence you need to leave 1 fetus so that it is provided with good nutrition. On average, after thinning, 1 fruit per 20-30 leaves should be left.

In the practice of growing pears on dwarf rootstocks, the fruits are left at a distance of 25 cm during rationing. Fruits of less large-fruited varieties, such as Bessemyanka, Tonkovetka, Leningradskaya, Petrovka and others, leave 5–6, but not more than 10 fruits per 1 linear meter branches. Rationing helps to obtain high-quality large fruits with a stronger aroma and better taste.

Zvonarev N.M.

All about pear. Varieties, cultivation, care.

In case of a weak harvest, the rationing of fruits is not carried out. To facilitate this work, you must first shake the branches to remove dead ovaries that have not yet had time to fall off themselves.

In the summer, a special type of pruning may be performed - pinching, designed to stimulate the growth of shoots. Conduct it should be in mid-June, while the shoots are not woody.

Pinning is also called summer pinching; it consists in removing the growing point of strongly growing shoots above the 3-6th well-developed leaflet. As a result of the procedure, the growth of the shoot stops, but after 2–3 weeks, it usually starts to grow again from the lateral kidney, which should be pinched again.

Trimming Techniques - Video

Egor. The cathedral is very similar to Lada, but the second term of ripening is late and the fruits are larger. In my garden, they grow nearby, so the yields are always very good. Pruning spend the fall, remove all unnecessary and form the crown. Trees I spray only from aphids and mainly experimenting with folk remedies; a decoction of wormwood with a little soap is good for showing itself. I live in the middle Urals, the variety winters fine.

Pauline. I read that the Cathedral is not suitable for making jam. It is not true, I take off pears a little underripe, it does not affect the taste, but the jam is beautiful, the pieces of fruit remain intact. Ripe pears are stored poorly, tried different ways, in the refrigerator they are no more than 10 days. There were no illnesses even in the worst years, but the weevil was chasing, using the drug Fufanon (10 ml per bucket of water).

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