Cherries are known before our era. Then they grew up in Greece. Then the range of their distribution expanded to Western and Central Europe. But for a long time, the sweet cherry was a southern tree that could not stand even a slight frost. In the past century, breeders have bred several frost resistant varieties. One of them - Leningrad black cherry.
She has a beautiful all, ranging from delicate flowers and ending with a high dark gray trunk. But sweet cherry enjoys a well-deserved popularity primarily because of its early ripening tasty fruits.
Cherry variety Leningradskaya Chernaya was bred at the Pavlovskaya Experimental Station at the end of the last century. Its main difference is high frost resistance.
The tree of this variety is of medium height with a wide spreading crown. The number of leaves is not very large. Cherries Leningradskaya black - very fruitful variety. The number of fruits depends on the age of the tree, care and weather conditions. But usually from 30 to 40 kilograms cherries give Leningrad black.
The description of the fruits indicates that they are round, heart-shaped. The average weight of each is from 3.4 to 5 g. The skin color is dark cherry, when ripe it is almost black. Hence the name. The pulp is also dark, fibrous, juicy, sweet, slightly sour, with a slight bitterness, which is typical of almost all cherries. Experts estimate its taste for 4.0-4.2 points. The fruit is easily detached from the stem.
Cherries Leningradskaya black begins to bear fruit in the third or fourth year after planting. Tree of medium ripening. In the south of Black Earth is the middle of June. In more northern areas, this happens a little later. Berries do not fall off, hang on a tree until September, without changing the taste. For this, too, the Leningradskaya black black cherry is also appreciated.
Unfortunately, it is a samobbled tree. It will bloom, but the harvest will not give. For the berries to start, you need to plant a variety of other cherries alongside. At the same time, it should bloom at about the same time as the Leningrad black black cherry. Pollinators have the same brand: Leningradskaya yellow and Leningradskaya pink.
For her good pollinators will be Fatezh, Chermashnaya or Red dense. There is an opinion that cherry may act as a pollinator for sweet cherries, although they are usually not pereopolyres.
One of the qualities for which the Leningrad Black Cherry is valued is winter hardiness. But still she can freeze, especially at a young age. Reviews recommend mulching pristvolny circle horse manure. Of course, if you can get it.
It is recommended to wrap the shafts of a young tree with a special covering material or to adapt old nylon stockings for this. The main condition is that the shelter needs air and moisture to pass through.
In early spring, the stem is treated with a solution of hydrated lime. It protects the bark from sunburn and destroys pathogens and small pests.
To protect from the sun, you can use the same stockings. And it is better to wrap them, as much as possible of the trunk and branches.
The black Leningrad black cherry grows well in the south of the Non-Black Earth Region and the entire territory of the Central Black Earth Region.
Sweet cherry prefers sandy or loamy soils with neutral acidity pH 6.5-7.0. A prerequisite for obtaining a decent harvest is the right place for planting. Sweet cherry Leningrad black loves to grow in a well-lit place. In the shade, it stretches upwards, there will be few fruits, and even those that are unsweetened. It will be difficult to get them, because the trunk will be thin and flexible, the branches are located at a great distance from each other. Given the tendency of young cherries to freeze, it is better to plant it before construction on the south side.
Groundwater should be at a depth of one and a half meters or more to the surface level. If it is smaller, then the cherry must be planted on a hill or drainage done. Stagnant water in the root system can lead to the death of the Leningrad black black cherry tree.
Planting and care
Cherries with bare root systems are planted in early spring, plants in containers until October. The root neck (grafting site) after planting should be located 5-7 cm above the ground. Branches can be cut at once for the correct formation of the crown. But the roots of the cherry when planting is not cut, only leveled.
The area occupied by the root system of the tree is 12 square meters.
Cherry is poured on once a week, but in two steps: a bucket of water in the morning and evening for one adult tree. It is especially important to do this in May and June. At this time, not only the fruits are poured, but the foundation of the next harvest is laid - flower buds for the next year. Therefore, the lack of moisture will be reflected both in the current and in the coming year.
In July, when the Leningradskaya black is ripening cherries, reviews advise it not to be watered so that the fruits do not crack. In addition, the growth of young shoots that will weaken the tree can begin. Return to the watering will need in the fall, if the ground by this time will be dry. This will help the winter sweet cherry.
In areas with close groundwater, water should be watered so that water does not stagnate.
Pristvolny circle near the cherries constantly need to keep clean from the weeds and loosen the soil there. So that it does not grow, you can separate it with a curb tape.
All root processes that form in spring and summer should be removed.
The Leningradskaya black black cherry does not need strong pruning. The description of the variety indicates that it is a tree of medium vigor. One-year-old at landing is cut off at the level of 1 meter.
In early spring, they spend the annual pruning, leaving no hemp (on the ring). They remove branches that are leaning low to the ground, old and broken. Cut vertically located, as well as those who rub against each other. Weak and uneven shoots are completely removed. Form a crown so that it is well lit and spreading. This will allow the fruit to be well lit by the sun and facilitate harvesting. Cut out and tops, which were formed at the site last year's pruning. But if necessary, they can also form a fruiting branch.
It is necessary to remove at a time not more than a fourth part of the mass of branches.
In August, very strong young shoots are shortened by 15 cm. After that, they become thicker and better tolerate winter frosts.
If in an adult tree the growth of young branches has been reduced to 20 cm, they are cut for two to three years, thus rejuvenating the crown.
The amount of fertilizer during planting and further care depends on the quality of the soil. If it is fertilized, it can be fed once every three to four years. On weak soils it is carried out every year.
Humus or compost, superphosphate and potassium chloride are placed in the pit for planting.
In the following years, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced in the spring, and superphosphate and potassium sulphate are added in the fall.
Organics contribute in spring or autumn.
In the fall, nitrogen is not added in order not to provoke the growth of stems that will freeze in the winter anyway.
Every gardener who grew young trees knows how to quickly see the fruits of a new variety. But no need to hurry with it. The main task is to get a strong healthy tree. And then enjoy the plenty of its sweet, cool fruits.
If the tree you planted bloomed in the first year, it is better to remove all the buds. Do not raise your hand? Well, if it is strong and well developed, you can leave about a fifth of the resulting flowers. There is no guarantee that at least one berry will reach, but there is still a chance.
Subsequently, in the spring, if possible, half of the ovaries that have formed (not flowers!) Are cut off. This will allow to get large and tasty fruits. Yes, and the load on the tree will be less. Usually, sweet cherry in the middle lane bears fruit in a year. If you normalize the number of fruits, then next year it can give a decent harvest.
Diseases and pests
What else is valued Leningrad black? Reviews gardeners indicate that it is slightly affected by disease. She has a few pests. In winter, they are hares and mice. To protect them from the bark will help the same stockings or a special mesh from rodents.
Young shoots are affected by aphid, which causes them to dry. How to understand that the Leningrad Black Cherry is struck by this pest? Description of the affected shoots: leaves twisted, sticky, unnaturally shiny. If you do not fight it, shoots dry up. It is easiest to destroy it with the help of a trichogram. These small insects, launched into the garden in the spring, themselves find and destroy the aphids. You can spray the tree with various poisons, including Agrofit and Fitoverm (on a natural basis).
Fruits of the Leningrad Black Cherry are composed of many useful substances. This is a whole series of vitamins, pectins, ascorbic acid, carotene, flavonoids, sugars, trace elements.
- kidney treatment
- strengthening the walls of blood vessels
- increased hemoglobin
- treatment of anemia,
- prevention of atherosclerosis,
- normalizes pressure
- dilutes the blood so that no blood clots form,
- relieves rheumatism, arthritis,
- juice stimulates digestion,
- decoction of the stalk helps in the treatment of neurosis and improves the activity of the heart.
General description of the fruit and tree
It is especially important to understand how the death of trees occurs during the winter period. It is necessary to consider several components. This is the root system, stem, branches, color buds.
Oryol Amber, Leningrad Black, Leningrad Yellow
- I would like to emphasize that sweet cherry, on the one hand, is a moisture-loving culture, and on the other hand, it does not tolerate stagnant water. She needs well-drained soil. Well, in order to get a high yield so that the fruits are poured, irrigation is, of course, necessary. Drip irrigation, which is arranged in industrial gardens, is now quite possible to equip and in amateur gardening.
- Very responsive to spring fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers.
- A special place in the creation of winter-hardy sweet cherry belongs to the Moscow breeder Anatoly Ivanovich Evstratov. In the selection and creation of new varieties of sweet cherries, he used modern non-traditional methods of selection — radiation and chemical mutagenesis, when the initial seeds of sweet cherries were affected by gamma radiation and some “doping” substances.
- The first varieties of sweet cherries for the Central Chernozem region and southern Russia were brought to Rossoshanskoy experimental station -
- "Tyutchevka" with high yield, cherries are fast-fruited and winter-hardy. The middle-growing tree has sweet, large, spherical fruits of dark red color. Cultivators include the iput, jealous and Bryansk pink cherries. "Tyutchevka" is good both fresh and processed.
- Also, do not prune the branches in the fall. The main period of pruning is spring (until the first buds appear). Trimming in mid-August is also possible with strong growth.
- The ideal combination is a combination of mineral and organic fertilizers in small quantities to compensate for the existing deficiencies in the soil.
- It has a positive effect on the joints.
Sweet cherry is one of the few cultivated plants that appeared before our era (in Greece, after which it was brought to Europe and further around the world). Initially - a heat-loving plant, not resistant to frost. But a little more than 100 years ago, a variety of Leningradskaya black was bred at the Pavlovskaya experimental breeding station, which will be discussed in this article.
1 Root system
(This is just the parent of our varieties Fatezh and Chermashnaya). Of course, their winter hardiness, adaptability of the northern places was passed on to descendants even to a better degree than their parents. Have
Photo on the right - Fatezh variety.
Useful properties of sweet cherry
For this purpose, you can use either soluble or granular embedded in the soil. Sweet cherries grow quickly from good nutrition, can give a gain up to a meter over a season, and up to one and a half meters for individual varieties. But you can not overfeed the plant with a large number of mineral fertilizers. Overfeeding leads to the freezing of strong undigested growths in the winter.
The experiments were carried out on cherry plantations of several hectares in the Kursk and Tula regions. As a result, the most hardy were selected from several thousand seedling trees, later they were tested for many years in the Moscow region. That is how sweet cherries appeared
- Julia, Early pink, Rossoshanskaya large.
- The tree is of medium size, fast-growing, medium density, pyramidal crown, branches depart at a large angle.
- After the fifth year of flowering, this process is terminated, and only sanitary cleaning of the tree from dry and drying branches remains. Do not miss the moment at the very beginning, trim regularly, and you will have a great, beautiful and, most importantly, fruitful tree crown!
- It is usually recommended to finish the fertilizer before the end of spring, and digging with the addition of mineral fertilizers before the end of September, in order not to provoke before the frosts a new round of rapid growth, which we have already mentioned.
- Cherry has acquired all these properties due to its rich natural composition: vitamins of group A, B, E, PP, ascorbic and malic acids, carotene, flavonoids, pectin, many useful micro and macro elements.
The main differences of this variety are increased (although not high compared to other plants) resistance to temperature extremes, a low stem, convenient for picking berries and high enough yields.
It suffers not so much from frosts, as from the level of groundwater, the root collar podpryvaniya (finding a plant in the fall).
Cherry planting: a phased description
Since the end of the 90s, they first appeared in the domestic State Register of breeding achievements.
- As mentioned at the beginning of the article, the Leningrad Black Cherry is weakly affected by pests and diseases.
- In the autumn, to feed the cherries better with phosphorus-containing feedings, which strengthen the resistance of the plant to frost.
- Because of the high sugar content of this variety, diabetics are not recommended for use, at least in large quantities. In other cases, there are no contraindications, some positive properties. Therefore, we can say that Leningradskaya black black cherry is a “golden” product!
- Features of a sweet cherry variety:
- 1.1 The creation of lawns, sewage disposal, by digging under the slope of the grooves in the lowland.
Very high winter hardiness of flower buds. Proved its vitality variety
Sweet cherry reacts negatively to the proximity of groundwater
And, if the territory permits, 7 meters should be left between the trees. You can, of course, reduce it with pruning, but this power of growth still can not be ignored.
Sweet cherry care
. It would be more fair to call the latter Moscow one, since it is distinguished by good winter hardiness and is used in the Moscow region as the best pollinator of other cherries.
The main variety for resistance to winter damage in our lane is
- : The average size is 4.7 g, the fruits are beautiful, sweet, juicy, the taste is 4.9 points, the separation from the stem is dry, the transportability is high, it is good for the purposes. The best pollinators are Tyutchevka, Iput, Ovstuzhenka, Raditsa, Compact, Venyaminova. Winter hardiness of the tree and flower buds is high, the trunks and base of the skeletal branches are resistant to sunburn and freezing. Highly resistant to fungus diseases.
- Sweet cherry pests:
- Also, once every three years it is possible to carry out the digging of the near-wellbore soil with the addition of eight kilograms of fermented organic fertilizers (manure or chicken manure). Fresh material is definitely not suitable, since fermentation takes some time, and the cherries need nutrients immediately after digging.
- Since sweet cherry is a thermophilic plant, the landing site for the seedling should be open to sunlight. If you plant a tree in the shade, the trunk will stretch, the sugar content of the fruit will decrease, and the overall yield will also suffer.
- Size, weight of the fruit - large, up to 5 grams. Go
- 1.2 Low or no snow cover. Creation of snow retention.
. Determine the depth of occurrence with a shovel. Adapted to the conditions of the Moscow region varieties Chermashnaya and Fatezh, derived in the Institute of those of the garden-va (VSTSP, Biryulyovo). In noble areas, the Bryansk varieties show themselves well, they are sold in Sadko, as well as the old St. Petersburg-type Leningradskaya black.
The last 12-15 years have shown that
- The undoubted leader is the new variety Fatezh - one of the seedlings of the Leningrad yellow F. K. Tetereva. The tree is not high - up to 3 meters, with a spreading crown, large branches, winter-hardy, almost the same as Vladimirskaya cherry - so far it has not been possible to achieve this. High-yielding - over the past four years has yielded up to 16 kilograms of fruit from a tree. Плоды средние (по 4,3 грамма), розовые, с плотной мякотью, отличного десертного вкуса (на всех дегустациях неизменно получают 4,7 балла по пятибалльной шкале). Сейчас Фатеж успешно проходит госсортиспытание и наверняка будет рекомендован для Подмосковья и других областей средней полосы.
- Фатеж (фото справа).
- Деревья среднерослые около 4 м высотой. The crown is spherical, sprawling, drooping, of medium thickness, the skeletal branches depart from a straight or obtuse angle.
- The main enemies of the tree are birds that are able to destroy almost the entire harvest in an hour. To eliminate this threat, special networks covering the crown are used. They have proven themselves better than any other "popular" methods of scaring, because they are able to protect almost all the berries.
- It is also worth remembering that nitrogenous fertilizers can be added only in the spring and in no case in the fall. The best option is to add liquid nitrogen solutions to the "diet" of the tree around mid-spring. But it is better to add “green” fertilizers in the fall: previously, in the beginning of summer, peas, sainfoin or mustard are sown, and then they are mowed (in September) and added to the cherries circle.
- To save a tree from strong winds and a cold winter, you can pick up a place next to a brick building that will close the cherry tree on the north side.
The color of the fruit - burgundy, rolling in black
- 2 Barrel.
- . True, after this mild winter, the stone units had damaged the kidney nodes. That is, that vascular system, which connects the buds, flower buds with the escape. Therefore, in some varieties, the drying on individual branches of already blossoming buds was noted.
- As soon as the sweet cherry comes into fruiting, we
- The garden can be successfully grown in the Moscow region
The fruits of cherries and sweet cherries are most popular in Russia due to their high palatability and healing properties.
Pruning young shoots
The high resistance of flower buds, bark, wood allows you to wait for the annual harvest.
Rodents are also dangerous for cherries to some extent, from which special nets also protect.
The Leningradskaya black cherry itself is prone to the formation of basal shoots, which may seem promising, but in fact do more harm than good, since they consume a significant proportion of the available nutrients, not giving almost no yield as a substitute. Therefore, such branches should be immediately cut, without fear and without hesitation.
Pests and diseases
The soil in which the tree is planted should be light, preferably medium sandy or loamy with the most neutral acid-base indicator (pH = 6.8 - 7.0).
Fruit shape is heart-shaped.
- What happens in the cold. The trunk freezes and at the slightest wind, internal vibrations arise that tear all molecular bonds in the wood. In northern plants in the trunk is less water, wood cells are filled with resin and other antifreezes of natural origin.
- We regularly conduct experiments to study the hardiness of both cherries and cherries in controlled conditions of freezers, we set different modes. We model such a component as maximum frost resistance, and such as resistance to low temperatures immediately after a thaw, frost resistance. It turned out that the winter of 2005-2006 was a recheck of all our works on artificial freezing. After the winter of 2005-2006, all our results were fully confirmed. And the most winter-hardy, we can now safely call such varieties of cherries, as P
Remove the central conductor, translate it to the side branches
. It winters well and can produce an annual harvest. But it is desirable to grow sweet cherries in the places protected from northern winds and having a convenient location. Better at the southern wall of the house. It will serve the tree as a wonderful cover from the northern winds. Moreover, the wall itself will create a thermal background and give heat to the tree during the day. The distance between the trees should be 3-3.5 meters. In the conditions of the Moscow region, the following varieties favorably feel: "Victory", "Golden loshidinskaya", "Leningradskaya black", "Zorka", "Compact", "Symphony", "Iput", "Revna", "Tyutchevskaya", "Ovgozhinka", "Chermashnaya", "Senyavskaya" and "Fatezh".
Fresh cherry contains a large amount of iron, biologically active substances and vitamins, has a tonic, capillary-strengthening and antihypertensive effect, improves blood composition, prevents the formation of blood clots. Fruit juice is drunk for colds and arthritis, and a decoction of leaves is used for bleeding and jaundice, and is also used as a tanning agent for canning.
We collect from 14-year-old trees of this variety up to 50 kg each, and up to 25 kilograms from younger, 7-8 year olds.
Average weight 4-6 g, one-dimensional, rounded, red-yellow. The taste is sweet-sour, dessert, the flesh is dense, juicy, light pink, the bone is of medium size, oval, well separated from the flesh. The best pollinator is Chermashnaya, Iput. Winter hardiness is higher than average (at the level of Vladimirskaya Cherry), resistant to the most dangerous fungal diseases - moniliosis and coccomycosis.
Iput cherry is one of the most popular varieties.
If we talk about diseases, then Leningradskaya black is sick only in adverse conditions, for example, with high humidity (from rain and fog). But in any case, standard sets of fungicides and insecticides (from aphids), as well as the removal of the affected branches and shoots, are excellent for healing the tree.
As for irrigation, one should also focus on the condition of the soil:
Groundwater level: 1.5-2 meters. There should be no accumulation of moisture, as the plant does not tolerate it and may die. It is recommended to plant a sweet cherry on an elevation or flat soil, but not in a lowland, where it can be flooded. In general, the ideal place for planting Leningrad black cherries is an even, free, illuminated area of fertile, ventilated soil. This will certainly be found in every gardener!
Maturing term - July 15 - July 20
The way out. Top dressing in autumn with potash and sodium fertilizers, creating alkaline and hydroxide groups in plants to increase winter hardiness. Avoiding wind. We plant a plant near fences or other wind obstacles. Fix the barrel, tying it to the support. We leave in the stansevy form. Plant, ablaktorovkoy, to the northern, adult plants. And create chimeras.
Amaat Syubarova, Severnaya, Gastinets, Tyutchevka, Revna, Fatezh.
, To stop a little bit of growth and thereby stimulate the creation of new fruit formations. Pruning is a creative work; a person can prune a tree for his own purposes: to shorten a crown or give it some form. All this can be done with desire and skill. The basic rules for sanitary pruning for cherry are the same as for other fruit crops. But in the formation of cherries it is necessary to take into account the biological characteristics of this culture. Sweet cherry is a poorly branching breed. For almost all varieties of cherries, a longline arrangement of the branches is characteristic, with 5-8 forming in one tier. Of course, it is undesirable to leave such an amount, since as they grow, weak branches are replaced by strong ones and die. Therefore, the extra branches should be removed when they have a small diameter. In addition, we must bear in mind this
There are two ways to grow a cherry tree
Cherry contains easily digestible sugars, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. This berry has a great taste, is widely used in cooking. This sweet cherry is very decorative: at Fatezh a drooping crown, branches grow at an obtuse angle and sometimes lean to the ground. And the branches that will be inclined, you can not remove. In case they are covered with snow during severe damaging winters, what will remain under the snow will be with the harvest. This is a forgivable feature of amateur gardening: what a person does not have time to do by the rules, sometimes even looks happy.
Early ripe variety. The tree is of medium size (4-5 m), with a wide pyramidal, well leafy crown. The fruit has an average weight of 5.3 g, a maximum of 9.7 g, the color is dark red, when fully ripe it is almost black, the pulp and juice are dark red, the pulp is of medium density. The fruits are beautiful, juicy, sweet, taste 4.5 points, come off the stem well. The best pollinators are Revna, Tyutchevka, Raditsa, Bryansk Rose, Ovstuzhenka. Winter hardiness and resistance to mushroom diseases is good.
Sweet cherry variety can be called a fairly healthy, plant with strong "immunity", which is easy to maintain in excellent condition.
Sweet cherry Revna.
If at a depth of 40 centimeters the ground is already dry, or vice versa too wet, then it is worth making changes in the irrigation schedule.For maximum effect, the landing site must be selected in the fall. Since ideal conditions are pre-digged and fertilized soil, the humus in which the winter lay and managed to completely decompose. In the spring, superphosphates (0.5 kg) and about 100 grams of sodium sulfate are added to such a hole. Mixing this mixture with humus at the bottom of the pit, you complete the work on preparing the site for landing.Productivity on a tree - 30-40 kg
Sweet cherry Iput
: Graft on a cherry or sow seeds. In the first case, you should use a seedling or a cherry seedling of 2-3 years of age. Cherry is grafted onto it, but 2-3 branches of the cherry itself, as a stock, should be left. The inoculation is carried out at a height of one and a half meters from the ground level. If you sow cherries with stones, then you should do this as follows: first we bury them in the ground mixed in half with sand. You can do this in the garden, but better in pots or in small containers. And in the spring, as soon as the soil is thawed, we transfer the already “nested” bones into a cold place (cellar or refrigerator). In late May, when the earth warms up, proceed to landing. To do this, we make the grooves, and with an interval of 15 centimeters we expand these "naklyuvshiesya" sprouts cherries. Let the resulting seedling grows up in the garden. When it gets stronger (and this is not until next spring), it can be planted in a permanent place. Cherry prefers a light, breathable, well-fertilized soil with a neutral acidity reaction. In the autumn, trees must be whitened. This is best done at an air temperature of + 5 ° C, but not lower. Frost-resistant sweet cherry varieties can be purchased at the Moscow Society of Nature Testers or at the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery.
Varieties of sweet cherries for the Moscow region
It is an early variety, ripening one of the first, simultaneously with the strawberries, at the end of June, just after honeysuckle. Yellow fruits are distinguished by tender, very juicy pulp, for taste and appearance they are so popular in amateur gardening.This article is a selection of materials on sweet cherries and its varieties cultivated in the Moscow region (Central Russia). The material is compiled by administrators TREELAND.ru including for personal use - to plant a sweet cherry on your site.
By following the above tips and instructions, you will easily understand the principle of growing trees of this variety and can even break your own little garden! The main thing to remember is that the Leningrad Black Cherry is a paired plant that requires "neighbors" of another variety.Later, watering the cherry is not worth it, since it can lead to a "glut" and rupture of the fruit. Watering is done only when the summer is clearly dry and there is not enough moisture in the soil.Standardly, the fossa is dug out in the fall about half a meter deep and about 80 cm wide.
Pollinators- other varieties of cherries (Veda, Michurinka, Tyutchevka, Leningradskaya red / pink, Revna) and cherries. Go4 Whitewashing plants with clay.What other difficulties can trap cherries?
Formation and trimming should be carried out annually:
. For successful wintering of sweet cherries, the most important is the active growth of trees in summer and its timely termination at the end of the growing season. In this case, the plants accumulate the necessary nutrients, and the shoots will have time to mature.
‘Raditsa’ - low growth tree, good winter hardiness. The variety is skoroplodny (enters fruiting on 4–5th year), fruitful. The fruits are very early ripening, of medium size (4.4 g), oval, dark red, almost black. The taste is very good (4.5 points).The place of landing for sweet cherry, microrelief plays a very large role. Sometimes, in the open, even in the more southern areas of the Tula and Kaluga regions, our cherries feel a little worse. In addition, sweet cherries must be planted in areas slightly elevated, but not on a hill. It will not grow in lowlands or on moors. The culture is very light-loving. The soil should be light, best of all - medium loam. If the soil is clay - you need to add sand, if sandy - add clay.
More information can be found in the video.
Description of the Leningrad Black Cherry
The fruits of Leningrad black are rather large, dark maroon, almost black, weighing about 5 grams. Heart shape. The taste of berries is sweet, with a slight noticeable bitterness. According to the tasting estimates, they rightly deserve 4.2 points.
Harvest ripens in mid-July, uneven, so it can hang on the cherry until mid-September, without losing its taste and appearance. The pulp of the berries is fibrous, very juicy, dark red and tender.
The fruits of this variety can boast a wide range of use - they make excellent juices, jams and compotes, as well as they can be used for long-term freezing and cooking wine.
Trees of the Leningrad Black variety belong to medium sweet cherries, their maximum height does not reach even 4 meters. Have a thin, wide, sprawling leafy cap. With very good care and favorable conditions of fruiting - the first harvest can be gathered already in the 3rd year after planting.
Sometimes they start to bear fruit only in the 5th year of growth. Crops differ in abundance and long period of storage on a tree.
In the early years after planting, the cherries will surprise you with their rapid growth. But this is not always good, as it is necessary to have time to correctly form its crown. Pruning young shoots should be carried out annually in early spring, always before the buds swell.
This event will slow down the intense growth a bit and allow you to create the shape of a tree as you planned. Trimming scheme sweet cherries are pretty simple. Shoots on annual seedlings pruned on 1 / 5th part of the twigs. It is mandatory to remove shoots growing in the direction of the trunk or at right angles. Twigs, creating excessive thickness of the crown.
Upon reaching 5 years of sweet cherry, the need for such pruning is no longer necessary, since this tree is not distinguished by excessive crown density. Only sanitary pruning of old and diseased branches remains.
Insofar as bark cherries are soft and brittle, the level of inclination of the twigs should be kept within 45–50 degrees by tying if necessary. This will reduce the risk of breakage of the branches, which often leads to damage to a large section of the trunk, and, consequently, to disease, and sometimes the death of a tree due to increased penetration.
In the fall, you should not prune the shoots, since this event will contribute to their intensive growth and, as a result, will reduce the hardiness of the tree.
Advantages and disadvantages
Merits This variety is set. It is very beneficial for commercial purposes, as the trees early in fruiting and immediately give a great harvest. It is worth paying attention to the uneven ripening of fruits - in large gardens, when there is no possibility to immediately sell all the products - this is an indisputable advantage for the owner.
For a small garden, this can be a significant disadvantage.
These cherries have a low growth, which greatly simplifies the collection of berries, quite cold-resistant and not afraid of drought. In addition, the Leningrad Black has a high level of resistance to various pests and diseases, which undoubtedly facilitates the care of it.
All of the above advantages significantly expand the ring of regions where this variety can be planted, from the warm climate of the Crimea to the Leningrad and Moscow regions.
Planting cherry trees
When landing worth paying attention to the depth of groundwater, because the cherry is a tree that does not tolerate stagnant water in the soil, even for a short time. Thermophilous enough, can not develop favorably in the lowlands, where, perhaps, the accumulation of cold air in the spring.
The root system is very well developed, so the turtle can extract moisture from the deep layers of the soil.
Leningradskaya black variety trees grow favorably on light, fertile soils, medium-loamy with a neutral environment and excellent breathability. Very poorly adapted on heavy peat soils, rocks with a high content of clay and deep sandstones.
The tree is light-loving enough, so when choosing a place for a seedling it is necessary to take care that no buildings block the light access to it.
Vegetation period maybe more than 8 months, which is why it is recommended to plant saplings of cherries in the beginning of spring, thereby providing her time for rooting and adaptation before the onset of cold weather. It’s necessary to prepare a place for your tree in autumn.
Для этого требуется выкопать яму глубиной 60см и шириной 80см, дно ямы разрыхлить и высыпать в неё до 2 ведер перегноя, который предварительно смешать с небольшим количеством земли. В таком состоянии оставить ямку зимовать. Ранней весной добавить туда же такую смесь: 0,5кг суперфосфатов + примерно 100г сульфата натрия, последний можно заменить древесной золой. Полученную подкормку перемешать с перегноем на дне посадочной ямы. Сама яма готова.
Now you need to pay attention to the roots of the seedling. In the event that they have dried up a little, it is necessary to cut them slightly and leave them in water for up to 10 hours to update. When the seedling is installed in a hole, it is necessary to make sure that the root neck of the tree rises above the soil level by no less than 5 cm.
Otherwise, with further shrinkage, it may be underground, which will inevitably lead to the death of the tree.
The tree is planted, we make a hole around it and watering 1 with a bucket of water to soak the ground well, after making a mulch of peat or humus around the seedling. The distance between sweet cherry must be at least 3m, since these trees have a very powerful deciduous crown.
This cherry belongs to the self-pollinating varieties, so if you decide to create a cherry orchard, you need to ensure that pollinating varieties such as Dawn, Red Dense, Bryanochka, Tyutchevka and Leningradskaya yellow or pink are present on the site. Cherry trees can also become a good pollinator, provided that their flowering period coincides with the cherry flowering period.
Winter and summer care
Despite the fact that the cherry is a southern beauty, it tolerates frost well in winter, but, nevertheless, spring frosts with a temperature of - 2, only appearing buds can not withstand. The root system of the first November frosts is also very difficult, as there are still no snow drifts that can warm it.
Experienced gardeners shorten the cherry shoots during the annual trimming of a tree to increase frost tolerance. As a result, the leaf plates become larger and plastic elements accumulate better in them, which significantly increases the frost resistance of fruit buds. If the frost has overtaken the ovary or flowers, then, most likely, the death of the crop, because they do not withstand the temperature drop even to –1.
Not less winter frosts sweet and terrible sunburnthat occur due to large temperature drops after sunset. As a result, cracks appear on your tree and wounds form on the bark, which contribute to the drying of the branches and, in large quantities, the death of the tree.
To prevent sunburn is necessary whitewash the trunk and branches wood lime mortar. For very young seedlings in whitewashing lime is replaced with chalk, so as not to damage the young bark. This whitewash acts as a mirror and reflects the sun's rays. It is necessary to pay attention to the consistency of the solution.
Its viscosity should resemble the thickness of sour cream to cover the tree well and evenly. Some types of solutions perform the function of not only protecting the tree, but also its feeding, such as, for example, a mixture of lime with mullein or a mixture of clay with ashes and mullein. All components whitewash thoroughly mixed with the addition of water and applied with a brush on the trunk and skeletal branches of the tree.
In addition, it is desirable cherries wrapping insulating "fur coats" that not only protect the tree from burns and frost, but also prevent damage to the bark by small and large rodents. As materials for the "fur coat" you can use roofing paper, paper, old rags and pine, as well as spruce branches, which are tied to the stem of a tree. It is absolutely impossible to use straw as it attracts rodents, who prefer to live in it.
Black Cherry Tree of Leningrad
The black cherry of Leningrad Black is resistant to sudden changes in temperature and quite cold-resistant. Cherry is also immune to major plant diseases, and it is extremely rare to meet aphids or ticks. The leaves are wide, thick, with distinctly noticeable veins on the underside of the leaf. Along the edges smooth leaves have notches.
Description of the fetus
Sweet Cherries Leningrad Black
In the berries there is a large amount of minerals and vitamins, including vitamins of group B, PP, A. The stone at the black cherry of Leningrad black is not completely separated from the pulp.
It has an oval shape of medium size. Fruits ripen mainly in mid-July. Cherry blossoms profusely, white flowers, may be pinkish.
Cherry variety Leningradskaya black
It is possible to grow Leningrad black cherries both in the South and in the Siberian regions, as this variety is unpretentious to the conditions and tolerates low temperatures and frosts well.
Characteristics of sweet cherry varieties Leningradskaya black
The variety of medium ripening is rightfully considered to be one of the most cold-resistant, hardy varieties. It can be successfully grown from the central black earth zone to the Leningrad region.
In the conditions of frosty winters, not too warm and sunny summers, the early arrival of cold weather and spring frosts, the variety shows high resistance and yield.
Saplings in the first years after planting grow rapidly and already at the age of three they bloom, forming the first ovary. In the future, the growth rate is somewhat reduced, which does not interfere with the Leningradskaya black variety cherries, according to the description and photo, to form a volumetric, sprawling crown up to 3-5 meters high. Growing, branches can make the crown too thick, impermeable to sunlight and air. The large elliptical foliage with jagged edges, pointed tips and elongated petioles complements the effect, so the trees need particularly careful pruning.
After the May flowering on the bouquet branches appears ovary. Collected in bunches of 2-5 pieces of fruit quickly poured. In the Chernozem regions, the harvest can be harvested at the end of June; in the North-West this period is delayed by 2-4 weeks. For cherries Leningradskaya black is characterized by non-simultaneous ripening of fruits. When the first of them have already acquired a thick, almost black color and a sweet dessert taste, others are still preparing to pour.
Features fruiting cherries Leningrad black
Fruits that have a heart-shaped or almost round shape and weighing from 3 to 4 grams are inferior in mass to southern varieties of sweet cherries. Under the dense burgundy dark skin lies rich red flesh. The berries have a pleasant sweet taste, barely noticeable sourness and light spice. The sugar content depends on the growing conditions, the place of planting and the care of the sweet Leningrad black. The warmer the spring and summer, the greater the amount of fruit and better taste. If June is rainy, the sugar content drops, and the flesh seems slightly watery. The same happens when excessive watering.
To ensure maximum yield and quality of fruits, for planting cherries choose places protected from wind and frosts with light, aerated soil. In addition, the self-sterile variety needs pollinators, which are planted in close proximity.
The flesh of the Leningrad black flesh, according to the description of the variety and photo, hides a medium-sized, oval-shaped bone. In ripe fruits, it is quite easily removed, which helps the summer resident to transform fresh cherries into excellent ruby red compote, tasty jam or jam without unnecessary trouble. In the refrigerator, the fruits taken from the branches during the week are stored well and can be transported.
Another feature and advantage of the variety is the ability of ripe sweet cherries not to crumble for a long time, which is very important in case of non-simultaneous ripening. During the season one adult tree gives from 20 to 40 kg of sweet black and red berry.
As pollinators for cherries, Leningradskaya black is used in such varieties as Iput, Tyutchevka, Fatezh, Ovstuzhenka, Veda, Bryansk Pink and Bryanochka, Michurinka, as well as varieties of Leningradskaya sweet cherry with fruits of yellow and pink color. When selecting pollinators take into account not only the flowering period, but also the frost resistance of trees. In addition to the winter cold, the spring sun may threaten the sweet cherry. It is this that causes the appearance of burns on perennial wood, its cracking and weakening.
What is famous Leningrad black cherry
The authors of the variety recommend cultivating it in the north of the Central Black Earth zone, where it copes well with winter weather. Flower buds of the Leningrad black are laid early enough, and young shoots by September completely stop growing and become overgrown with a dense layer of cork, therefore it freezes the tree rarely and lightly. In addition to convincing winter hardiness, Leningradskaya Chernaya imparts to the fruit grower a number of remarkable properties.
Attention! Cherry is samobesplodn, therefore it is necessary to have 2-3 varieties nearby. Other varieties of the “Leningrad” series (yellow, pink), as well as no less frost-resistant Fatezh or Iput, are usually planted in the company to the Leningrad black.
How to help the sweet winter
Considering the southern origin of the culture, one should not rely solely on the results of the selection of the Leningrad black. Observance of several obligatory conditions of cultivation will prevent freezing of sweet cherries even in a particularly cold year.
It is recommended to purchase one-year-old seedlings, and it is better to choose those that are grafted onto a frost-resistant cerapadus - a hybrid of ordinary cherry and bird cherry. Older saplings need more time for rooting and adaptation.
The best place for a landing hole is the southern slope of a small steepness. It is good if the tree is protected from the northern winds by the building. On the south side, on the contrary, there should be an unobstructed flow of the sun.
The soil is chosen well-drained and moderately fertile. Excess nutrition does not allow the cherry in time to stop the autumn growth and meet the frost "fully armed."
Fertilizers on the cherry used carefully, especially nitrogen, which is applied last time in May, before flowering. Further dressings limit superphosphate. Water according to the weather, ensuring that the plant does not experience water shortages in May-June, when flower buds of the next year are laid.
In the predawn, you should take care of the trunk insulation. It is covered with spruce spruce branches and covered with agrofibre. In the future, take care of the wind did not blow out from under the sweet snow.
Features pruning varieties Leningrad black
The plants of this variety are extremely low, so the main activities for the formation of the crown end in the 5th year of their life. For the role of skeletal branches, 3-4 strong shoots are prescribed and shortened by half to the external bud. The conductor must remain 20-30 cm above the branches. All other shoots are ruthlessly cut out "on the ring."
In the future, try to branches of the second and third order were covered with overgrowing branches as evenly as possible. Sanitary pruning carried out annually includes removal of:
- root growth,
- crossed, diseased and broken shoots.
Leningrad Black variety is a real gift to lovers of juicy fruits of sweet cherry. As a true aristocrat, this breed requires careful care, but also thanks for it luxuriously - with abundant clusters attracting aroma and taste, exciting by the depth of the color of the cherries.
Selection of winter hardy varieties of sweet cherries
During the last watering, the water should be warm enough (about 25 C) to help slow down the speed of the sap and prepare the tree for winter.
Now you need to deal with the sapling: twigs, if they began to grow, you can initially prune. Touch a good root system is not worth it. Only when dry roots are present, the dried-up part can be cut and the tree placed for 10 hours in water for renewal.
Susceptibility to Disease and Pest Attacks - LowAll these recommendations will help to adapt the southern varieties and move them further to the North. Permafrost moves away. And areas, let and risky farming are increasing. Even if the width is not great, for the length of the territory of Russia is huge, it means that the area of the territory that can be mastered is of interest. We must not forget that in the south there is dehydration and salinization of land. And that means there is something to think about.
This season was distinguished by the fact that there was a very strong invasion of thrushes. Clouds of birds just demolished the entire crop before our eyes. They are usually saved from this by grids, which are thrown onto branches during maturation. These nets are sold, and you need to take care of them in advance. Or, as from old times, to use noise, rustling, frightening mechanical devices.
Immediately after planting, before fruiting, during fruiting. Also, do not forget about pruning and care for frozen trees. This is a serious job that you can’t tell in two words. There is a special literature on this topic, and the main information is well described in the book by MV Kanshina and A.A. Astakhov Cherry in central Russia (Bryansk, 2001)Place for planting cherries should be elevated, it can not be planted in the lowlands, where cold air stagnates‘Iput’ is a variety of early ripening, medium strong. Winter hardiness is high, highly resistant to coccomycosis. Skoroplodny. Fruits are large, with an average weight of 6 g (sometimes up to 9 g), obtuse. The skin is dark red, almost fully black when ripe, the pulp is dark red, of medium density, tender, juicy, sweet. The variety is partially self-fertile.
In the world there are currently up to four thousand varieties of sweet cherries. All varieties are divided into two groups - bigarro and gini. Bigarro - varieties with dense cartilaginous pulp, with colorless or slightly colored juice. They are good not only for fresh consumption, but also for processing (sweet cherry compotes are considered to be the best among stone fruit compotes), since their flesh is not boiled soft. As a rule, these are varieties of medium and late ripening. Gini - varieties with delicate juicy sweet pulp, the juice is little or completely unpainted. These are varieties of table purpose and mostly early ripening. The period of consumption of the northern varieties stretched from late June to early August.
Cherries were grown before our era in ancient Greece.
There are many associations with summer. This is the smell of meadow herbs, and the chirping of swallows, and the taste of juicy and fragrant cherry. If you have your own plot of land, then by all means try to grow it.
The last and most extensive watering is carried out during the autumn digging. Each tree consumes 50 liters of heated water, and mulch is laid out on top, contributing to the preservation of moisture.After that, the seedling is removed from the water and installed in an already prepared pit so that the neck of the tree trunk is on an elevation above the soil of about 5-7 cm. In the future, the earth will precipitate and the levels will be equal. In the case of the initial concealment of the neck under the ground, the sweet cherry may die.As you can see, Leningradskaya Chernaya black cherry is not capable of self-pollination, therefore, it is better to plant it in a pair with another variety, or even cherry, which also has a favorable effect on the quantity and characteristics of the crop.
The benefits of cherries and cherries
Cherry fruits contain carotene, nicotinic acid, a small amount of vitamin C. There are relatively many in the sweet cherry copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, iron, and there is in it PP vitamin. Dark colored varieties contain many P-active compounds, phenolic and coloring matter, as well as coumarins. The fruits of sweet cherry have a vascular strengthening and anti-anemic effect.
The cherry grows and has already begun to bear fruit, and suddenly the unfavorable winter has frozen. Is this the end?
. Best southern or south-western slopes. From the prevailing winds, trees should be protected by plantings or buildings. Sweet cherry is a light-loving plant. It prefers loamy and sandy soils. Heavy clay and peat bogs are not suitable for it. The culture is demanding on soil moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water, so it cannot be planted in areas with close groundwater levels.
‘Fatezh’ - low growth tree, height due to crown drooping is limited to 2.5 m. The variety is medium early, resistant to coccomycosis, high winter resistance. The first fruits appear in the 3rd year after planting 1-2 year old saplings. The yield in the first year of 4-5 kg per tree. Fruits of medium size (4.5 g), rounded, pink-red skin, light pink flesh, medium density, cartilaginous. The taste is very good (4.7 points), sweet and sour. The fruits of universal use.
The first began to engage in the selection of cherries in the middle zone I.V. Michurin. By sowing the seeds of southern cherries, he received three forms from himself - Kozlovsky Rose, Black Bitter, and Firstborn, which grew and bred in the Tambov Region.
In the Middle Ages, cherry orchards spread throughout Western and Central Europe, especially in Germany, northern Italy, and even in southern Sweden. In Europe, this culture has been cultivated for at least 2000 years. There is no complete data on the history of sweet cherries in our country. One can only assume that in the mountains of the Caucasus, where it grows wild, local residents have long introduced it to the culture. In the Crimea, it was grown by Greek colonists. It was in Kievan Rus, as evidenced by references in ancient Ukrainian songs.
In total in the world there are about 4000 varieties of this plant. All of them are divided into gini and bigarro. The first are mainly early varieties with sweet, juicy and tender pulp of berries. Their juice is almost colorless. Такая черешня малотранспортабельна и не подвержена долгому хранению, имеет столовое назначение.
Следующий полив проводится только новой весной, до того как дерево зацветет (т.к. иначе оно может потерять весь цвет). Прополка, особенно молодых деревьев, проводится аккуратно по мере необходимости.
После того как ствол установлен в яме необходимо лопатой образовать небольшое углубление вокруг него и равномерно вылить 1 ведро воды.
Ripens, it is, incidentally, not evenly, so the berries ripened on July 15-16 can safely hang in the "waiting" for ripening fruits until the beginning of September, without losing a gram in weight and taste characteristics.
Cherry seedlings and many other fruits (can be ordered with delivery in Moscow): www.sadypodmoskovya.ru/garden/p3.html
Much has been written about cherries, that the culture is southern, but our illustrious gardeners, through heroic labor, overcoming the hardships of the weather and Russian reality, brought new winter-hardy varieties. They say that it’s useless to plant stones on southerners, etc. And I remembered the article Michurin, who advised not to engage in this nonsense. Everything is frozen out and this is a loss of effort, time and money. Do you feel how the rhetoric has changed? Now you can. Doubts crept into my head. And is it really so, as our scholars are writing?
No In our institute, we had just such an experience: the trees were cut into hemp, causing the growth of adventitious, dormant buds, so as to rejuvenate the plant so that they form a new crown on the resulting shoots. It is also often said that after the central conductor died, the lateral shoots go into growth. While they have not yet gained vegetative mass, it is possible to make a leader from one shoot, and others to form a type of skeletal branches. In the northern regions, sweet cherries can be grown in the form of a low-growing shrub with 3-5 trunks. For this, in spring the annuals are cut above the fifth or sixth buds, giving the opportunity to develop lower shoots, which can then play the role of skeletal branches. When growing cherries in several trunks space is spent more economically.
Landing is carried out in the spring, according to the scheme 3x3 m,
‘Oryol pink’ - medium tree (3.5 m), winter hardiness is high, the variety is relatively resistant to coccomycosis. Skoroplodnost high. Fruits of medium ripening period, medium size (4 g), wide-round, pink skin, pink flesh, juicy. The taste is very good, sweet and sour (4.4 points).
Formation of sweet cherry
1 All seeds sprouted after stratification.What other varieties would you recommend for the middle band?W. To set fruit, be sure to plant several varieties.‘Tyutchevka’ - tree is medium thick, high winter hardiness. The variety is resistant to coccomycosis, skoropplodny, high yields. Fruits have an average ripening period, large (5.3–7.4 g), of a beautiful dark red color, universal purpose. The flesh is thick, juicy, gristly, the taste is excellent, sweet (4.9 points).Following the Bryansk scientists, selection of southern sissies was carried out in Michurinsk - in the Institute of Horticulture, the Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants, and in Orel - in the Institute of Breeding of Fruit Crops.Currently, there are up to 4,000 varieties of sweet cherries in the world, but all of them are descended from the same species - bird cherry. Now it grows wild in the deciduous forests of Western Asia, Southern Europe, North Africa, in the mountains of the Caucasus, the Crimea, in Ukraine.Russian varieties that are ideal for the middle bandMaking a warming "fur coat" - made of paper or pine branches, toli, will help, both to protect the tree from sunburn, and to protect from exposure to cold air. The only rule and warning is not to use “grass fur coats”, both green and dry (straw). Since they do not protect the tree, but rather attract pests.The food area of each young cherry is 12 m2. Knowing all the above-mentioned "secrets" and following the recommendations exactly, you can easily cope with the planting of Leningrad black cherry!Namely:Nursery in the village of Vereya, Moscow region, before reaching the town of Zhukovsky, in the territory of the Bykovo industrial farm. - www.sadograd.ru/01/6/s1-6.htm2 All ten cherries have grown, not frozen. In the fourth year gave the harvest. Only one cherry tree went wild, the rest were successful.Here isBut since in a small area it is difficult to find a place suitable for a microclimate for several cherry trees, and this culture is not basic, it is good to plant several varieties on one tree (the best method of grafting is in the spring, using the improved copulation method). This will contribute to the successful pollination, in addition, the fruits of different colors on one tree look very beautiful. Fruits of sweet cherries are left on the tree until full ripening and peeled off. Excess moisture during ripening can lead to cracking of fruits in some varieties.‘Revna’ - a tree of medium size, high winter hardiness. Resistance to coccomycosis and klyasterosporioz high. Variety skoroplodny, fruitful, dessert destination. Fruits of medium late ripening, large (5–8 g), flat-round, almost black in color, firm flesh, juicy, excellent sweet taste (4.9 points). The variety is partially self-fertile.Oryol breeders have already transferred three novelties to the State trials -Nowadays, in stores in many countries, fresh cherries are sold all year round. And in France, several well-known factories specialize in the production of special cherry wine.Sort of sweet cherry "path" refers to dessert early ripening. It is resistant to diseases, pests. A tree with a raised wide pyramidal crown. Fruit will be in the 4th year after planting. The fruits of this variety are dark red, large and one-dimensional. They have heart-shaped and sweet taste. It is used both in fresh form, and for compotes, jams, juices, jam and fruit wine. As pollinators are suitable "ostuzhenka", "tyutchevka" and "Bryansk pink".Breakage of flowers in the first year of flowering is done with the aim of preserving the "strength" of the plant and the best survival rate Break all or almost all the flowers. Although it is not so easy to do from an emotional point of view, this process is very important, because otherwise the tree may simply not survive the winter or give the first good harvest only in the 5th year of flowering.The process of caring for a planted tree can be divided into work related to the ground and with the trunk and crown of the tree itself. If we talk about land works, then they can be divided into two main areas: fertilizer and watering, as well as additional - weeding.Positive effect on the composition of the blood and the condition of the vessels. It increases the level of hemoglobin, dilutes the blood, strengthens and thickens the walls of blood vessels.Related Links:3 Apricots. All the first and second years were frozen out.) Except for one.)) Why you ask? A new winter-hardy variety has been cut. And no. I just planted the first year next to the adult plum. Then he cut the plum bark, trimmed the apricot bark on one side and injected the young apricot stem under the plum bark. Interlacing. And the apricot survived. In the third year I cut the plum. In 2012, this apricot was the first flowering. This year I am waiting for the harvest. I ask you to consider this method of ablaktorovka, as a way to improve winter resistance. And not as breeding a new variety. Plum acted as a mentor (teacher) and bulk antifreeze, to increase winter hardiness. On my site apricots of different breeds grow and bear fruit. Red-cheeked, Son of Red-cheeked and other varieties.
TyutchevkaCherry trees from nature have a powerful trunk, a strong skeleton with strong skeletal branches, therefore, the best form of the crown for it is sparsely-tiered with three tiers of branches. Each subsequent tier should have less per branch, according to the 3 + 2 + 1 scheme. The central conductor (top) is cut out a year or two after the formation of the last branch. When forming the crown, it is important to pay special attention to the branch angle - it should be 45-50 o. Near the wall, sweet cherry can also be grown in fan form.
‘Michurinskaya late’ is a variety of late ripening. Winter hardiness is above average, relatively resistant to coccomycosis. The tree is medium. Enters fructification in the 3-4th year. Fruits are above average sizes (5.5–6.5 g), wide heart, universal purpose. The skin is dark red, the flesh is red, tender. The taste is sweet and sour, good.Oryol pink, Poetry and KidSweet cherry is clearly better than cherry"Crimean" refers to winter-hardy variety. Tree with a spherical crown. The fruits are small, ripen early, their juicy flesh resembles the taste of bird cherry. It makes excellent compotes and preserves.
Comment from Vladimir
Cherry fertilizer:Improves the condition and functioning of the heart, normalizes blood pressure.Description of different varieties of sweet cherries
4 The same method instilled in cherries, cherries. But the cherry did not cut. The trees have grown together. Cherry has overtaken the cherry in growth and now it is a two-tiered plant. Most likely, the service life of the cherry will increase, since the cherry has a life expectancy of 50 - 100 years. Winter hardiness of this chimera will also increase. Most likely, this method, as well as the transfer of plants into stanseum form, can promote southern cultures far to the north.
- just recently harvested, fruits very abundant. Usually it is sweet, but this year there is some bitterness. So after unfavorable winters, we observe not only shallowing of fruits, not only changes in color (Fatezh, which usually has a pink flank on a yellow background, this year closer to the sun turned bright red), but also changes in taste. Those who were with bitterness, were without her, who did not have it - appeared. But all this, of course, is within the limits of the varietal reaction!
The growth of cherry shoots is intense, so it has to be restrained by conducting annual formative pruning. The gardener's task is to keep the tree in certain dimensions. Be sure to remove all branching, going inside the crown, unsuccessfully located branches, prevent the formation of sharp forks. During sanitary pruning, broken, diseased and dry branches are removed with obligatory cleaning of cuts and processing with garden putty.
‘Bryansk Rose’ is a tree with restrained growth. Winter hardiness is high. The variety is skoroplodny, highly resistant to fungal diseases. Fruits of late ripening, medium size (4–5 g), pink with speckled pattern, rounded. The flesh is light yellow, dense, gristly, sweet taste. Variety universal purpose.
. The plants successfully withstood the temperature to minus 37.5 degrees and for eight years gave an average yield of 10.3 kilograms per tree. Fruits are juicy, large, weighing up to 6 grams. Trees are resistant to coccomycosis, a disease that has affected all varieties of cherries in recent years. Begin to bear fruit in the fourth year after planting.
- in favorable years, the best varieties of cherries yield 12–15 kg of fruit from a tree, cherries - 25–35 kg. In Cherry, unlike an apple tree, there is no periodicity of fruiting. She gives a crop annually. In recent years, monilia is severely damaged by cherry. With the northern varieties of cherries nothing like this happens.
"Bryansk Pink" - winter-hardy, samobosplodny grade
Very important in the matter of crown formation. It takes place in the first 5 years of the life of a sweet cherry, then it stops as unnecessary. The technology itself is quite simple: shoots / branches that grow at an angle of 45-50 degrees are selected - they will constitute the crown. Approximately 1/5 of their length is cut off. All the other young shoots are cut directly on the trunk without the formation of stumps, especially those that are directed vertically upwards or completely towards the trunk. Also deleted branches accumulated thickly in one place. We need a sprawling and spacious crown.Initially, you need to know how the soil itself is rich in minerals. Since rich lands are often not worth feeding, while poor in soil resources need to be “fed” not once, but annually.
Facilitates and improves the functioning of the central nervous system: It can be used to treat neuroses, stimulate brain activity (treatment of atherosclerosis).
(Almost a hundred varieties) can be found on the website: www.vniispk.ru/sweet_cherry.php
5 Walnut. Five nuts were planted. Spring sprouted all five. The crows immediately pecked sprouts. Saved one sprout. I managed to close the can. For five years, never froze. Last year, gave the harvest. One nut.)) Walnut large. Gave a neighbor to breed.Nr 2-3-63
With proper placement on the site and proper care, sweet cherry gives a good harvest in the suburbs.
Landing is a very important matter, it is important to know some rules and many nuances. As we fill the planting pit, as we put food, so we will develop a plant. For example, we have already this year noted the entry into fruiting of two-year-old saplings planted last spring with annuals. Therefore, the landing pit size 70 to 70 to 60 (depth) must be well filled, put 2-3 buckets of rotted manure, always rotted, and not fresh! Add about 60 grams of superphosphate or phosphate rock, 60 grams of potassium sulphate or wood ash 300-500 g. As a complete mineral fertilizer, you can use nitroammofosku.The Malysh variety, a tree with a height of slightly less than 3 meters, is distinguished by its compactness and low growth, which in itself is a rarity for this tall culture. During the late spring holidays in May, the crown of the Kid is easy to cover with any non-woven material. The fruits are tender, bright yellow.
In the Central region, good results showWhich is resistant to diseases, but has a rather late maturity. A middle-growth tree with a wide pyramidal crown will bear fruit after planting in the 5th year. The size of the fruit is medium, the color is pink. Their flesh is juicy, with a dense texture of light yellow color and a sweet taste. The variety is used in both fresh and processed form. The best pollinators for it are iiput, tyutchevka and jealous cherries.
It is important! You cannot remove more than ¼ of the total number of branches / shoots at a time, since this will be a very big stress for the tree.
Sale of cuttings and saplings of sweet cherry:
But you should not overdo it either, because an excessive amount of fertilizer can provoke a rapid growth of new shoots and inhibition of the preparation process for winter: the tree simply will not gain in the thickness of branches and the trunk, build up the bark. And this can lead not only to the death of all immature branches, but also to the death of the whole tree.
Improves the work of the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract.
Conclusion Not everything is as bad as botanists say. Why is it that what was previously considered impossible is now the norm? It's not even about new varieties and genetic manipulations. This showed experience with cherries. Changing climate and electromagnetic field. It means that energy, informational limiters have been removed. It is necessary to consider the entire biogenesis of the Earth as a whole and understand that the migration of people, the animal and the insect world, and the plant world are interconnected. So, biological migration is now the norm, not the exception. So, attempts to transfer new varieties to other territories are doomed to success.
- elite selection of the Bryansk selection. Still grades
During the summer, the soil should not dry out. Pristvolny circle mulched mowed grass.
Well-groomed saplings are already in the second year above human growth. If the pit is filled with fertilizers in spring, organic fertilizers are mixed with all the soil that will be applied to the pits. 2/3 of the norm of phosphate and potash fertilizers should be laid on the bottom of the pit and repaired. The remaining 1/3 of the norm mixed with the soil and pour a mound. Seedling roots are isolated by a small layer of soil. In the upper half of the pit, where the root system of the seedling is located, mineral fertilizers are not applied, but are covered with soil mixed with organic fertilizers. On podzolic soils, mineral fertilizers are mixed with carbonated lime (or dolomite flour - 300-400 g) in a ratio of 1: 0.5 before application in order to avoid local acidification. Nitrogen fertilizers - ammonium nitrate, urea - are applied to the second irrigation.Oryol rose was the most resistant to frost and thaws, and Poetry was the most large-fruited (right photo).
Fatezh, Iput, Revna, Tyutchevka, Rechitsa, Raditsa, Bryansk Rose, Leningrad Black and Chermashnaya.
“Cheryomishnaya” is a tall tree with an elongated spherical raised crown. Refers to medium-resistant varieties. It has very tasty, large, sour-sweet yellow fruits. Cultivators include the Iput, Fatezh and Crimean cherries.