The breed of pigs red-belted is rightfully referred to as specialized meat breeds. According to official data, the breed was first registered in Ukraine in 1994.
Representatives of Poltava meat breed were crossed with landrace, large white, duroc, and hempshire to breed the redbelt breed. Pigs of red color with a white stripe in the area of the shoulder blades.
Despite the fact that the breed is quite young, it calmly competes with foreign breeds in such indicators as growth intensity and feed payback. Considered pigs collected the best qualities of 7 breeds recognized in the world.
Strong animals with a proportional body, the body is long, the head is small and light. They are distinguished by unpretentiousness in the diet, do not need special conditions of detention. The main requirement - the presence of dry litter and protection from drafts. Acclimatization is easy. It is worth noting a good immunity in the red-hired breed of pigs - they do well without vaccination.
Breed quietly bred in small farms. Friendly character. The quality of meat at a high level. The output of meat from the carcass reaches 55-65%, the thickness of the fat 20-25mm. The meat is very tender with a thin layer of fat.
The main advantage of pigs of this breed is a quick weight gain, with a significantly lower feed intake, when compared with other breeds.
Pigs reach a weight of 100 kg in 6-7 months. The weight gain in young stock per day varies between 500-800 grams, while the feed is spent 3 k. Units. per 1 kg of pig weight.
In order to get the best quality meat, it is necessary to include barley, sugar beet, carrot, rye, green fodder, pumpkin in the diet. Good results are achieved by feeding concentrates. Corn and oats should be excluded from the diet, since they lead to the deposition of fat. It is recommended to give the food raw.
As producers, the breed of red-belted pigs can also stand out with success. It has been observed that when sowing with red-horned boars, the number of offspring and its quality significantly increase. Redbred sows can produce up to 12 pigs at a time, some up to 15.
Keeping piglets at home
It is recommended to build for adult individuals spacious pens in the pigsty. In the summer, you need to provide them with the opportunity to walk in the fresh air, as well as swimming in the mud. Small pigs especially important to walk on the street - the activity of pigs has a positive effect on their health.
Breed of pigs red and belt
They are strong, proportionally folded animals, with a wide, deep, long body, and a small light head. Pigs of this breed are quite unpretentious in feeding, and do not require special conditions of detention. The only requirement is dry bedding and no drafts in the shed. Perfectly adapt to different climatic conditions. Animals have strong immunity, can do without vaccination.
This breed is great for keeping and breeding in small farms. Red-belt pigs differ friendly behavior, give the meat of the highest quality. At slaughter, the output of meat in the carcass is from 56% to 64%, with a fat 21 to 25 mm thick. Meat with a thin fatty layer, tender, with great taste.
The main advantage of the red-belt breed of pigs in the rapid mass gain, with a smaller, compared with other breeds, the daily amount of feed. According to various sources, the live weight of 100 kg of young red-belt breed is gaining approximately in 180 - 205 days. At the same time, the average daily gain of young stock ranges from 500 g to 800 g, with an average feed expenditure of 3.1 c. Units. per kilogram body weight. Under the control of fattening, the live weight of the young red-belt pig gained 169 days, with weight gain of 1014 g per day. According to these indicators, the red-belt breed outstripped the standard breeds of meat type, such as the large white.
For best quality meat, it is recommended to feed barley, rye, sugar beets, pumpkin, carrots, green fodder, and dairy whey. Excellent results are given by feeding concentrates. Do not give corn and oats: they stimulate the deposition of fat. All feed is better to give raw.
Red-belt pigs have established themselves as excellent producers. When crossing red-belt boars with sows of other breeds, the breeders noted a multiplicity of queens, an excellent set of condition in the young, and an increase in meat yield up to 3%. Sows of the red-belt breed are very prolific: on average, a pig produces 10–12 piglets, also, not uncommon nests in 15–16 pigs.
Cultivation of pigs, breeds of pigs, meat breeds of pigs, meatosalny breeds of pigs, bacon breeds of pigs, grease breeds of pigs.
As a result of the centuries-old selection of pigs, today in the world, there are more than a hundred breeds of pigs, each of which was selected by breeders according to well-defined, useful and valuable features for humanity. Conventionally, all these signs subdivide modern breeds of pigs in three production areas.
Breeds of the Tallow type pigs - Pigs of this type are distinguished by a special exterior, they are characterized by a very deep and wide body, a heavy front part and a full fleshy ham, ganash is heavy, fleshy, the depth of the chest is significant. Measurements of chest circumference are close to or greater than the length of the body. Breeds of the sebaceous type are distinguished by a high content of adipose tissue, because by six months the piglets stop the growth of muscle fibers and accelerate the process of fat accumulation. These carcasses can contain up to 40-45% fat, and meat - less than 53% by weight.
Dyurok breed of pigs
Duroc pigs are hardy, large animals, perfectly adapted to grazing. Initially, the breed was greasy, but given the high demand, over time, the direction of productivity changed to meat. The animals are usually large in size with well-marked meat forms, have a strong constitution, have well-made hams. The body of Duroc pigs is of medium length, wide and deep. The average trunk length of boars is 180-185 cm, sows 175-185 cm. The back of pigs is arcuate. The limbs are strong and high enough, the legs are straight, like an elephant's. Head with a slight curvature of the profile, ganash full, meat, ears hang down forward, with the tips of the auricle lowered. The pigs are usually red, although there are various shades - from golden to yellow-brown or dark cherry.
The fecundity of the breed is satisfactory on average - in one farrowing, the sow brings from 9 to 11 piglets. For example, large white breed pigs bring an average of 11-12 pigs for farrowing. Duroc sows are caring, attentive to the offspring, have a calm disposition, feed the young well and care for them. Indicators of milkiness, that is, the total weight of piglets at three weeks of age, and the nest mass is low: they are respectively 41 and 141 kg. The survival rate of piglets is 92%.
The main advantage of the durocs is the extremely high growth rate. Average daily gains reach 750-950 g per day, and on tests in the USA, duroks had the largest average daily gain of 1016 grams per day. Juvenile breed Duroc reaches a live weight of 100kg for 170-180 days. Adult boars reach a live weight of 330-370 kg, sows 240-320 kg. Slaughter yield over 80%. Durok breed is distinguished by its high meat qualities. The presence of a large amount of intermuscular fat - 3.93% attracts attention, which ensures a high caloric content of meat and good taste. The meat quality is stable, carcasses are uniform. Thickness of fat 17-17,8 mm.
The most common breed of pig in the world. Bred in England at the end of the last century. In Russia, it is cultivated very widely due to its versatility - when slaughtering young stock with a live weight of about 100 kg, high-quality bacon is obtained, and when fattening up to 150-180 kg or more - fatty pork.
Pigs of large white breed are bred with success in all natural and climatic zones.
They are distinguished by a strong constitution, high productivity.
Adult boars weigh an average of 320-350 kg, uterus - 225-250 kg.
The productivity of sows is 10–12 or more piglets, which weigh 18–20 kg in two months of age.
The average daily weight gain of young for fattening reaches 600-700 g
The color is white, the constitution is harmonious.
The head is of moderate size with a slight bend in the profile.
The forehead is wide, the snout is of medium size.
Ears of medium size, thin, elastic, directed upwards and forwards.
The neck is wide, fleshy.
The withers are straight, without cavities and interception behind the shoulder blades.
Chest wide, ribs set cool. The back is straight, in young animals slightly arched upward, imperceptibly passing into the lower back and sacrum.
The belly is dense, in adult animals bulky.
The sacrum is wide, fleshy.
Hams roundish, fleshy, descend without a sharp interception to the hock.
The skin is firm, elastic, without folds.
With proper feeding, animals give high quality meat.
Red-waist specialized pig line
The red-belt specialized pig line was developed in Ukraine and approved by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of Ukraine dated March 15, 1994 No. 77 as a red-belt specialized line of meat pigs with the assignment of the factory mark - ChPSL.
Created by the method of complex reproductive crossing of Poltava meat-type pigs, as well as large white, landrace, Hampshire and Duroc breeds. The total number exceeds 5 thousand breeding heads. Pigs of this population are bred in 16 farms in the Cherkasy, Nikolaev, Odessa, Ternopil, Chernivtsi, Khmelnitsky regions, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Stavropol Territory. According to the genealogical structure, the population created is represented by 7 lines and 7 families.
Pigs of the specialized line are relatively large, proportionally composed of well-developed meat forms, light head, with small ears set horizontally, a long, wide and deep body on strong limbs. The color of animals is red with a narrow white belt on the side of the shoulder blades. Pigs of strong constitution and unpretentious to the conditions of feeding and housing.
Adult boars-manufacturers have an average live weight of 300-340 kg, body length 180-185 cm, sows, respectively, 200-250 kg and 160-168.6 cm, record holder Dilemma 2498, which had a live weight of 265 kg at 49 months torso 177 cm
Under the conditions of ordinary farms, sows with two or more farrowings have the following average indicators: multiplicity - 10-11.8 pigs, live weight of the nest at 2 months - 176.7-188 kg. Among the female record-recorders, the Dilemma 5112 should be noted, which for three farrowings resulted in 36 piglets with a total weight at weaning 660 kg. A decade sow of 2390 from the Niva agrofirm in 8 farrowings had an average of 11 pigs with a live nest weight of 2 months 181 kg.
Juveniles live weight of 100 kg gained an average of 170-205 days with average daily gains of 480-870 g, a cost of 3.1-3.8 to. Units. per 1 kg of growth and meat output in carcass 56-62.1%. The thickness of the fat over the 6-7 thoracic vertebrae is 21-25 mm.
Descendants Dithyrambs 1851 and Diction 1704 live weight of 100 kg reached in 172 days with an average daily increase of 924 g and an expenditure of 3.01 k. Units. per 1 kg increase. The best fattening animal reached 100 kg of body weight in 169 days with an average daily increase of 1014 g.
The use of boars in combination with uterus of different breeds contributes to an increase in their multiple births by 0.2–0.55 piglets, shortening the time to reach a piglet for passing standards by 15–18 days, and reducing feed costs per kilogram of growth by 0.3–0.5, units and increase the meat yield in the carcass by 2-3%.
The leading farms for the breeding of meat pigs of the red-belt specialized line are the agrofirma Niva of Ternopil, the state farm Odessa Guards and the collective agricultural enterprise Kommunist of Mykolayiv regions.
Pietrain - breed of pigs
Pietrain is a breed of pigs, which refers to the meat direction of productivity.
The breed was obtained as a result of the crossing of Berkshire and English large white breeds.
Nowadays, thanks to excellent meat qualities, pigs of this breed are very popular all over the world. Boars are used for industrial crossing to improve meat qualities.
When crossed, Pietrain with Duroc. get high quality meat. When crossed, Pietrain and Landrace, animals have a rapid growth.
The peculiarity of the breed is that they are not genetically predisposed to accumulate fat. When pigs are crossed, Pietrain is sewn with greasy pigs and meat - the greasy direction turns out young meat breed.
Pietrain is very sensitive to heat and cold, demanding conditions, they need a properly balanced food. If feeding is organized incorrectly, then the weight gain will be minimal.
Pigs have a wide and short body with well-developed muscles and hams, thin bones. Lightweight head has a straight profile. Ears - small, erect. Chest - wide, not very deep. The back is wide and muscular. Boca - rounded. Well-made hams go down to the hock. Color pigs - white or variegated.
When breeding pigs for slaughter, it is desirable to use white sows.
Plural fertility is low, up to eight piglets in one litter. But since the milkiness of the uterus is low, it can only feed five to six babies.
Weight in 90 - 100 kg young growth reaches at the age of 210 - 230 days. The average daily gain is 500 - 550 g with feed costs 2.0 - 2.5 feed. units on 1 kg of weight gain on meat fattening and 3.5 - 4.0 feed. units on meat-fattening fattening.
The advantages of the breed include high quality meat, well-developed ham, low feed conversion, lack of predisposition to fat accumulation, resistance to circovirus.
Disadvantages: intolerance to heat and cold, poor acclimatization, poor milkiness and low reproductive qualities, feed requirements, low average daily weight gain.
Sources: www.fermerbezhlopot.ru, vancats.ru, agropost.ru, zachuha.narod.ru, fermer.ru, domgivotnovodstvo.ru
The history of the breed and its description
Work on the creation of this breed of pigs began back in 1976. The whole selection process took 3 stages:
- 1976-1993. During this period, the search for initial forms, the definition of the desired physique, the study of various variants of rocks and their compatibility, the formation of a genealogical structure, the preparation of herds and other initial processes.
- 1993-2000. During this time, we have increased the number of herds, the formation of new lines and families, the preparation for probation of specialized types of meat breed pigs and other standard procedures.
- 2000-2006 year. In this time period, subsidiary herds were created, the livestock was increased, the breed was tested, the herds were certified, further breeding programs were developed and all preparations for the official presentation of the new breed were completed.
In November 2006, the pig breed "red white belted" was officially approved. In all its characteristics, it exceeded domestic counterparts. When it was bred, various variants of breeding of such breeds as Poltava meat, large white, Hampshire, Landrace and Duroc were used.
The resulting breed has high performance, for which it is especially appreciated by all breeders of pigs.
Red and White Belt is often called the “Red Belt”, this name was given to the people by the pig - it sounds simpler and easier to remember.
The breed features are:
- resistance to severe weather conditions
- strong constitution and strong immunity of the body to various diseases,
- good appetite, providing increased growth.
The red and white belted breed of pigs has a red suit and a distinctive white stripe, passing near the shoulder blades. The breed has a calm, friendly character.
Pigs of this breed have a proportional body, a long body and a small head. In the diet they are unpretentious, do not require special conditions of detention. The presence of a dry litter and the security of the room from drafts will be the most significant for them in terms of optimal surrounding space. Get used to the new place of residence of the pig easily. Due to innate strong immunity, this breed can do without vaccination.
The breed may be quite young, but in many respects it will easily compete with many foreign breeds.
Productive indicators of red whitebelt pigs are as follows:
- three year old boar: average weight - 320 kg, body length - 180 cm.
- three year sow: the average weight is 220 kg, body length is 165 cm, the third litter is 10-11 piglets, the mass of the two-month nest is 182 kg.
- young: the average daily weight gain is 680 g, a set of centners of body weight is 188 days, the cost of 1 kg of weight gain is 3.5 units of feed, the output of meat at slaughter is 60%.
The meat of the breed is tender, there is a thin fat layer. The output of meat from the carcass can reach 65%, the thickness of the fat is 20-25 mm.
The advantages and disadvantages of the breed
Как и у каждой породы, у красных белопоясых свиней имеются свои положительные и отрицательные качества. Среди положительных стоит выделить:
- Fast weight gain. You can deservedly be called the main advantage of the breed. When compared with other breeds, this requires significantly less feed at the same mass yield.
- Good adaptability to the conditions of detention. This breed can be bred both in the northern and southern areas due to its resistance to climatic conditions and the ability to quickly acclimatize.
- Unpretentiousness in food. The rapid weight gain of these pigs can occur with a wide variation of feeding types, which makes them convenient for housing in many frequent households.
- High fertility. Sows of breed show excellent results in this regard.
- Ease of content. Representatives of this breed do not need frequent walking and swimming.
Of the negative characteristics worth noting only a couple:
- Need for dry floor. Without dry bedding, pigs can become irritable, making it difficult to keep them together and assimilating food.
- Fear of drafts. This breed is known for its frequent colds.
With a large number of advantages, for the red whitebelt pigs, the presence of only two drawbacks is not so significant. Therefore, many farmers choose to grow this particular breed.
Selection of piglets
Due to the specific color of the breed, it is rather difficult to make a mistake when choosing piglets.
But when choosing healthy pigs you need to pay attention to the following signs:
- Activity. According to many farmers, this is the most important factor when choosing a young pig. Low activity of the animal most often indicates its health problems.
- The condition of the skin and the purity of the animal. In the presence of bald patches, ulcers and other skin problems, it is logical to assume that the animal is affected by some fungal infection or external parasites. If the pig is dirty, then this may indicate poor conditions of housing, which most likely led to the infection of the animal with various parasites and diseases.
- Feces and condition of the anus. In the feces of any animal, much can be determined about its state of health. Not only laboratory examinations of feces can tell about it, but also a simple visual inspection. With a high presence of mucus and a liquid stool consistency, one can speak of the presence of an intestinal infection in a pig. In addition, along with the feces, worm-like parasites are also excreted. In inflammatory processes or ulceration in the sphincter area, it is also possible to judge whether the animal has health problems.
- Tail condition. Most pig producers are convinced that the piggy tail in a piglet is a clear sign of his excellent health.
According to the above characteristics, you can quickly determine the feasibility of buying the proposed piglets. If the animal fits according to these criteria, then you can safely buy it.
Care and maintenance
The process of growing such pigs does not present any particular difficulties. For them, fully acceptable living conditions in a standard pigsty. They calmly relate to the lack of space for walking or a rare swim. For pigs in adulthood, low temperatures, which for other breeds are incompatible with the content, will not be a particular problem.
In the content of red white belted breed, there are no special differences from the content of other breeds of pigs. The decisive factor here is the cleanliness and lighting of the room. Also, the presence of dry bedding and the elimination of drafts are mandatory. With a low level of cleanliness of the room increases the risk of reducing the protective properties of immunity, pigs experience stress, which leads to weight loss.
For optimum existence, you need a dry clean room with a temperature of 18-20 ° C and protection from drafts. What material to build a pen for pigs is not so important. When forming the floor covering it is necessary to make a small bias. It is best to use flooring from tightly fitting boards. Empty space under the floor should not be.
When arranging a brick or concrete floor to the place where the animal's lair will be located, you need to put a wooden shield. Inside the wall of the pen also stands up with wooden planks of a meter height.
Machine for pigs must be separated board, installed on the edge. For fattening pigs, the total area of such a room should be at least 4 m², for sows - at least 5 m². It is advisable to equip a walking yard nearby. It is better to keep pigs in pairs, because pigs are herd animals. This will keep them a great appetite and weight gain.
For feeding red white belted pigs, you can use different feed options. Today, there are two main feeding options: traditional and modern. In the first case, the pigs are fed with mash potatoes from household waste and root crops, in the second case - with dry feed and various commercial mixes. The modern version, according to the observations of many farmers, gives the best results.
To get the best quality meat, you should include barley, sugar beets, green fodder, pumpkin, rye, carrots in the ration of pigs. A good result is achieved when using concentrates. It is recommended to give almost all the food raw.
Corn and oats should be excluded from the diet, since they lead to the deposition of fat.
Here are the basic rules for feeding this breed of pigs:
- cereals need to pre-grind,
- root vegetables should be cooked and given in small portions,
- give food in small quantities and always fresh,
- with a dry feeding option, the constant presence of water in the drinkers is mandatory,
- the presence of proteins in the diet is extremely important.
Newborn piglets in the first days of life need to feed the milk of pigs, and from the fifth day of life they can begin to feed gradually. It would be good to add mixed feed with an admixture of premixes in the food. This will allow piglets stomachs to coarse food, as well as perfectly feed their young organisms.
Of the many external factors affecting the growth of pigs and their health, feeding conditions and the composition of feed can be called fundamental. For example, lack of feed and poor dietary intake directly affect the reduction in weight gain and lengthen the duration of the fattening period.
The effect of feed on the quality of meat at the outlet can be divided into 3 categories:
- Positive. It is good to feed pigs with rye, wheat, millet, carrots, fodder beans, barley, beetroot, peas, combined silage, clover grass, alfalfa, skim milk, whey. In the presence of such nutrients in the diet to a sufficient extent, the detrimental effects of other feeds are minimized.
- Negative. Wheat bran, potatoes and mash, corn, beet molasses, buckwheat. The negative impact of such components of the feed is not so noticeable if their presence in the diet is no more than half, but the other half of the diet must fully consist of feed of the first category.
- Extremely negative. Food waste, cake, soy, bard, oats, fish and fish industry waste. Such a negative impact of these feeds is due to the fact that they have a high content of vegetable fats and a specific odor in their composition, which affect the consistency and smell of meat at the exit. Aft of this category is permissible to use only as a third of the total diet of pigs, and 2 months before slaughter, they should be completely excluded from the diet.
With proper feeding, red whitebelt give excellent results, and their meat is greatly appreciated due to high quality characteristics.
Additionally, we recommend reading the article: how to fatten a pig for meat.
As producers, this breed of pigs also stands out noticeably against the background of others. It is observed that when sows are crossed with boars of the red white belted breed, the number of piglets in the offspring and its quality significantly increase. Such sows can bring up to 12-15 piglets at a time.
Piglets of this breed of pigs reach sexual maturity by 8 months, pregnancy lasts an average of 115 days. The day before farrowing, it is necessary to prepare litter, limit food intake and ensure sufficient fresh water. You also need to take care of heating the room, if the farrowing fell on the cold season. It is desirable to have a knowledgeable person in the farrowing, because in case of problems, you may need to help the sow or call the veterinarian.
Increased genital organs and mammary glands of sows testify to soon litter.
The process of preparing for farrowing and the birth itself is an extremely important part in the breeding of pigs, so it must be approached with the utmost responsibility.
The features of this time period should be considered in detail:
- 3-4 days before farrowing, the daily feed rate is halved. This is required in order not to overload the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the milk formation process in the udder. During this period, the sow must have constant access to drinking water.
- A sure sign of advancing childbirth is the appearance of colostrum in the nipples. By this time, you need to prepare a dry litter, clean burlap and a special box for jigging piglets. It is also necessary to have a five percent solution of tincture of iodine, scissors, sterile silk threads.
- In order not to miss the beginning of farrowing, you need to carefully monitor the sow. A couple of hours before giving birth, the pig begins to worry and breaks the litter, arranging a nest for future piglets. In the absence of litter pig is able to crack the wooden floor and arrange a nest between the destroyed boards.
- A born pig is covered with mucus, and some are born in a generic shirt. In these cases, the shirt needs to be quickly broken, rub the piglet dry with a clean towel, clean its nostrils and mouth from mucus.
- Then proceed to the processing of the umbilical cord. The newborn pig has a very long umbilical cord, therefore, at a distance of 3-4 cm from the abdominal wall, it is tied up and cut 0.5 cm below the ligation, and then smeared with iodine tincture. If necessary, the umbilical cord can be torn off. To do this, with the fingers of the left hand at a distance of 5 cm from the abdomen of the piglet, the umbilical cord is strongly clamped, with the right hand they take the remaining part, make two or three turns around the axis and tear off. When twisting and tearing the vessels narrow and bleeding does not happen. Place of separation treated with tincture of iodine. The treated piglet is deposited in a box with abundant bedding.
- After farrowing, remove the afterbirth and change the litter. The sow should not be allowed to eat the afterbirth, as this may be one of the reasons for eating the pigs. Crotch crotch and nipples wash a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 10 liters of water) and piglets are placed under it. To the front, most milky nipples, the weakest ones are brought down, to the rear ones - the largest piglets.
Newborn piglets are inactive, so the uterus often crush them. To prevent this from happening, a barrier of wooden bars or metal pipes is installed along the walls of the machine at a height of 20 cm from the floor and 15 cm from the wall.
Victor Semenovich, a novice farmer. I am engaged in breeding this breed for about a year. I have no complaints about the pigs. High-quality brute: weight is gaining fast, in the feed is not picky, clean. I noticed one drawback - they constantly catch cold, although the weather is good and there are no drafts.
Elena, household. Red White Belt Pig is already my eighth year in the farm. The meat is tender, tasty. Care - as for ordinary pigs. Even fat is salted, but only if you feed the pig specifically for this purpose.
Zoya Yakovlevna, Samara Region. The red-belt breed pleases me with its large output of meat. Products are bought up very quickly. Business is booming. Pigs grow and multiply rapidly. The plans while engaged only in this breed.
More and more private households and large livestock farms are beginning to breed precisely this breed, because it stands out markedly against the background of other breeds of pigs for its high characteristics. Farmers do not have any special difficulties in its maintenance and breeding, which once again speaks of the excellent work done by breeders and pig growers.
History, main characteristics
Today, there are 16 breeds in the CIS, including the red-belt pig breed. What does she represent? This breed, as noted by breeders and pig breeders, is distinguished not only by its pleasant exterior, but also by its high fattening and meat characteristics. So, to obtain high-quality meat, pigs of this breed can be fattened up to 130 kg without loss of taste.
It took the scientists almost 30 years to breed the red-belt pig breed. The main task of breeders was breeding a breed that would exceed all domestic analogues in its characteristics.. As a result, the “fathers” of the new breed received an animal of red color with a white belt under the shoulder blades, which gave the name of the breed. The main advantage of pigs of this breed was not, productivity, as expected by the breeders, but a high level of acclimatization and unpretentiousness to the conditions of housing and feed. The red-belt breed of pigs shows high efficiency on almost any diet (naturally, a balanced and well-chosen diet will be more effective). It is also worth noting that adults tolerate a decrease in air temperature up to +5 degrees, the absence of spacious paddocks and a place for swimming, although this should not be abused. Since red-belt pigs belong to the meat, their greasy indicators are quite low: at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra, the layer reaches 20-25 mm.
As for the rest of the indicator, they are as follows:
- Boar-maker aged 36 months:
- Body weight - 300-340 kg (record 347 kg),
- Body length 180-185cm.
- Sow at the age of 36 months:
- Body weight - 200-250kg,
- Body length 160-169cm
- The third litter - 10-11.8 pigs,
- The mass of the nest at the age of 2 months is 177-188 kg (a record: 36 piglets with a total weight of 660 kg were planted for three farrowed sows).
- A set of 100kg body weight - 170-205 days,
- Average daily gain - 480-870g,
- The cost of 1 kg weight gain - 3.1-3.8 feed units,
- Meat yield at slaughter is 56-62%.
Content and feeding
The content of the red-belt breed does not differ much from the content of other breeds of pigs. The decisive factor is the cleanliness and lighting of the room, which is often neglected by breeders. Not for nothing in medicine, the phrase “Where the sun rarely happens, there is often a doctor.” It is possible to talk about the importance of the sun and the biosynthesis of vitamin D for a long time, and this aspect is important in keeping any animals. Also, there must be a dry litter, a low level of purity helps to reduce immunity and causes stress, which leads to weight loss. Among other things, the important point in keeping a pig of a given breed is the absence of drafts.
In feeding, as mentioned above, this breed of pigs is not whimsical. They can be fed food waste. However, for high efficiency, it is advisable to feed these pigs with standard combined feed, which consists of grains of cereals and legumes, coarse feed, meat and bone meal and biological additives, yeast and others. . It should be noted that for the red-belt, as for other pigs of meat breed, it is important to have a high content of proteins or amino acids in the diet, for the normal formation of muscle tissue. With this type of feeding, it is also important to maintain sufficient water. To increase the efficiency of feeding, grain should be ground, and potatoes and other root vegetables should be boiled. Effectively dispense feeding and break the daily rate into several servings.
From the fifth day, the pigs need to introduce compound feed, but in small quantities, so that at the age of one and a half months the piglets can be safely weaned off the sow. It is advisable to plant the young in spacious pens to give the piglets a walk.
Representatives of this breed of pigs reach sexual maturity at the age of eight months; pregnancy lasts an average of 115 days. A day before the farrowing, you need to prepare a litter, limit food intake and ensure an adequate amount of fresh water.
About soon litter shows an increase in the genitals and mammary glands. It is advisable to be present at the farrowing: taking into account the brood size of 10 piglets, and in case of problems, assist the sow or contact a veterinarian. It is also important to take care of the heating of the room if the farrowing takes place during the cold season.
The content of the red-belt breed has no particular differences from the content of pigs of other breeds. These pigs are excellent for industrial meat production and for household plots, demonstrate high rates of weight gain, yield and high performance sows and unpretentious.
Officially, the breed was registered in the spring of 1994 and since then it has spread widely both among large farms and among amateur pig producers.
The right choice of piglets - the key to successful breeding
Производительность свиней в первую очередь зависит от того, правильно ли был сделан выбор поросят. По этой причине, к подобному вопросу следует подходит основательно, обращая внимание не только на общие характеристики, но и на особенности нужной Вам породы.
В первом случае важными считается следующие характеристики внешнего вида поросенка:
- Обращайте внимание на общее состояние животного. In the hole, small pigs should be quite energetic, alive.
If, on examination of the goods offered to you, you notice that they are lethargic, it is better not to risk it, and to turn to other vendors, since such signs may indicate the presence of diseases.
Experienced breeders in the first place I advise you to pay attention to the ass bought animals. The fact is that if it is dirty - this will indicate the presence of problems with digestion.
In general, this may not be a big problem, but it can bring a lot of trouble, the probability of death is high.
The easiest way to determine the state of an animal is to assess the state of its tail. If it is twisted, the piglet is absolutely healthy, and no problems should arise with it.
About scabies or some other disease shows and hard, dirty piglet hair. Normally, it should be smooth.
The fact that the animal will be able to gain more weight in the future is evidenced by the shape of its body: long legs, back and muzzle.
Understand that in front of you is a representative of the red-belt breed, you can directly on the color of the skin of a pig. After all, the breed has a red color, as well as they are distinguished by a narrow belt, which usually covers the body just below the shoulder blades.
And of course, do not forget to ask about the pedigree of the seller: it is important to ask the breed both sows and boars, their weight, the amount of farrowing in a pig. The bona fide seller should also inform you about exactly what products he fed the sow and piglets so that later you would have no problems with them.
What are the features of red-belt pigs: breed description
Start acquaintance with this breed of pigs is a description of their origin, or rather from those breeds that were used as starting material for breeding.
Primarily used Poltava meat type of pig, famous for its high performance.
Also, the genetic material was taken from other well-known breeds of pigs, which belong to the meat type - Hampshire, Duroc, Krupna Belaya and Landrace.
The breed obtained as a result of such crossing in a very short period proved to be one of the most productive, it was very quickly started to be distributed throughout the collective farm farms of the Soviet Union.
Today, red-belt pigs are used not only in industrial pig breeding, but are increasingly found in livestock amateur farms.
What are the main advantages of the described pigs?
The constitution of representatives of the red-belt breed of pigs is very strong.
First, this factor allows them to be more resistant to different climatic conditions, that is, breeding is possible both in the south and in the northern regions.
Secondly, with such a constitution, animals are less susceptible to various diseases, not so fastidious about food.
By the way, feeding this breed is very simple - pigs are able to eat and gain weight on almost any diet. Of course, that if it is more nutritious and carefully combined - then the result will come much faster.
The maintenance of red-belt pigs also does not arise difficulties, since even the simplest conditions of the pigsty will perfectly suit them. Adults quite bravely tolerate lowering the air temperature to + 5ºС, the absence of spacious walking plots or a place for swimming.
Of course, the pig's suit plays far from the first place whether it is profitable to breed it or not. However, due to the belt characteristic of the red-belt rock on the side of the shoulder blades, it is very difficult to confuse it with some other breed.
Thus, the likelihood that you will get the right piglets on the market and get a lot of good products out of them is very high.
One of the equally important advantages of the breed is the possibility of using red-crested boars for fertilization of other breeds.
At the same time, the following advantages:
- The multiplicity of sows of other breeds increases by 0.2-0.55 pigs.
Significantly reduced time for which the pig has time to reach the delivery condition (approximately 15-18 days).
Significantly reduced the cost of feeding piglets. In particular, one kilogram of growth is spent on 0.3-0.5 less feed units.
Red-belt boars, as representatives of the meat breed, also increase the output of meat and their offspring, regardless of what breed the sow was. The amount of meat in the carcass increases by 2-3%.
Acquainted with the disadvantages of the breed: what you need to be prepared in advance?
For this breed it is very important that there is always a dry litter in their pen.
The fact is that red-striped pigs are quite clean animals, therefore cleanliness should also appear on the part of the owner. Wet sex can irritate animals, with the result that they can begin to lose their weight.
Also, do not allow drafts in the roomwhere these pigs are kept. Despite strong immunity, under such conditions they tend to hurt.
In general, these shortcomings are the only ones that can be called in relation to the red-belt breed.
Other important features of red and belt pigs
Describing the red-belt pigs, it should be noted that they are quite large animals in size, which must be taken into account when building pens for them.
Meat forms, that is, all parts of the body where there are muscles, are very well developed. The head of these animals is quite light, small. Ears are also small, horizontally set.
The body is very deep, wide, long, which, as noted above, indicates the possibility of gaining a very large weight. At the same time, the limbs of the red-belt are not only long, but also strong.
According to the reviews of pig producers, such cases, when the pig falls on its paws due to its large weight, did not happen to representatives of this breed.
How can be productive breed when it is grown at home: the experience of pig breeders
By type of performance red-belt pigs are meat. This means that most of their carcasses consist of meat, and fatty tissues develop relatively poorly. At the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebra, the thickness of the fat of a well-fed individual can vary from 21 to 25 millimeters, which is very low for pigs.
In general, in adulthood, boars producing easily reach a weight of 300-340 kilograms. The weight of sows, of course, is less, and can vary from 200 to 250 kilograms, which is also quite a lot.
The length of the body of the male individuals can also compete with any other breed of pigs, since this indicator they can be equal to 180-185 centimeters. The length of the body of sows on average is 160-169 centimeters.
An equally important factor in the performance of any breed of pigs is the ability to reproduce their offspring. In the case of red-sided pigs, this factor should be assessed as another advantage, since their sows are considered to be rather multifaceted.
In particular, even in ordinary households, sows with two or one farrowing can produce from 10 to 12 piglets. Moreover, the live weight of the nest, which has reached the age of 2 months, usually ranges from 177 to 188 kilograms.
Pig farms are aware of the case when one sow of the breed described for 3 farrow brought 36 healthy piglets into the light. At the time of weaning from the pig, their total weight was 660 kilograms.
Young animals grow quite wellbecause their body has the ability to rationally use the nutrients it receives.
Already on the 170-205 day, young piglets reach a weight of 100 kilograms, not reducing the growth rate in the future. At the same time, the average daily increase can be from 480 to 870 grams, depending on the abundance and nutritional value of the diet they receive.
The cost per 1 kg of growth is only 3.1-3.8 fodder units, allowing you to get 56-62% of the meat at the output.
Caring for red-belt pigs: we provide high rates of productivity
Despite all the above-mentioned advantages of the breed, its productivity will depend directly on the care of the owner, as well as the thoroughness of animal care. With that, it sways not only the rules of preparing the premises for keeping pigs, providing them with space for walking, but also direct feeding.
Rules for feeding piglets and adults
On the one hand, feeding pigs is quite simple, because they are not picky about food, especially the breed described by us.
They may be quite enough wet mash from root vegetables with the addition of food waste from the kitchen. However, such a traditional way of feeding does not always give the desired result in terms of animal productivity. For this reason, modern breeders resort to dry feeding.
In this case, pigs are fed with the help of various cereal mixtures, to which for nutritional value they add bone or fish meal, various cake meal, as well as special vitamin-complex supplements.
The only important point in dry feeding is that pigs will need to be given plenty of water, which will prevent problems with digestion and water balance of their body.
In general, for the cultivation of the red-belt breed, of course, the second feeding option is better. In addition, it allows you to get a very high average daily weight gain of animals, it is more convenient for the owner.
After all, you do not have to cook potatoes every day, mix them with the other components of the diet and carry heavy buckets into the pigsty. The only thing that needs to be done is to fill the feed trough several times a day and pour water.
Grain pigs should be given exclusively in ground form. The fact is that the animal is not able to chew whole grains, and thus it will only translate feed.
Potatoes and other root vegetables are better to give boiled pigs, be sure to drain the water. In the form of litter, they are given only in small quantities, as a vitamin supplement.
It is not necessary to give the pig a lot of feed, so that he remains in the trough.
For small pigs, it is very important that initially they could eat pig's milk, and already starting from the fifth day you can start feeding them a little. It is important to give them feed, with premixes added to them. This will allow to train piglets' stomachs for coarser foodand will also nourish their organisms well.
Already at the age of 1.5 months it is important to take them away from the mother, but it is not worth doing it sharply; it is necessary that they have already learned to eat by this time.
How to grow red-belt piglets at home: the main advantages
If you were attentive to all the above information, then, probably, you yourself were able to conclude that it is not at all difficult to grow red-belt pigs at home.
This breed is the least whimsical to the conditions of detention and to what kind of food it provides.
When keeping your own sow and fertilizer boar, you can easily get very good offspring. Thus, the benefit from these pigs may be not only a large quantity of meat, but also the possibility to realize the young.
However, it is important to consider the following generally accepted points:
- For the maintenance of adult individuals need to take a spacious pens inside the pigsty.
- Very good, if you give animals the opportunity in the summer to walk down the street, swim in the mud.
- It is very important that a place for walking was provided to small piglets (but not together with adults). Without such activity, they can become quite painful, and rickets often develop.
Important about fertility of breed: insemination and farrowing of sows
As already noted, this breed is multifarious. In the presence of a fertilizer boar, problems with insemination of a sow usually do not arise.
Sexual activity in young individuals may begin as early as the 8th month of life. The period of gestation in pigs lasts about 115 days. They are born big nests, but the sow shows a lot of attention to them, providing all the necessary care. Immediately after birth, the mortality of this breed was practically not observed.
It is still important to be present directly in the farrowing, since such a large number of offspring rather depletes the sow.
It is also important at this point to lay a lot of dry hay in the pen with the pig, in which she herself can make a nest for herself.
Also, it is very important to limit it in food, giving only drink plenty of clean and fresh water.
The fact that the pig will soon bring the young, will show evidence of increased in size genitals and mammary glands, significantly lower the belly. A day before her farrowing, she gets milk, the pig starts to lie down very often and get up on her kubla.
Take care of artificial light for piglets, as well as heating, if the process of farrowing takes place in the cold season.