The natural habitat of this tree are the eastern lands of North America and the expanses of Canada bordering them. Silver maple tree prefers to grow in wet lowlands, along river and lake shores with rich soils. Occasionally, individual specimens are found on elevations. Trees climb to a height of 30-600 meters. In arid areas grow only near the water.
Biological tree description
Cylindrical or rounded in shape and wide and sparse crown formed by drooping branches. The branches at the beginning of the development of trees rush down, and then, going up, beautifully bent in an arched form.
The branches are equipped with V-shaped leaf scars (red maple has exactly the same). True, branches of silver maple are more durable, they are often painted in dark brown, and when they break, they emit an unpleasant smell. In young trees, branches are bright red, and in mature specimens they are silvery-gray.
The length of the opposite five-lobed deeply dissected green from above, the bluish-silver leaves below is 8-16 cm, and the width is 6-12 cm. In autumn, the leaves burn with yellow-golden and orange colors.
Young specimens are covered with smoky gray smooth bark. As trees grow older, the bark darkens and is covered with long, narrow, flaky scales. Silver maple has a core root system. The lateral roots, branching, form the surface fibrous system.
Silver Maple Barrel
A short tree trunk (maple), covered with silver bark, reaches one and a half meters in girth. The crown is formed on the trunk, divided into several powerful branches-bases. Large branches from all sides are covered with drooping shoots.
Flowering and fruiting
The plant is endowed with red-brown buds that cover large scales. Flower buds are usually collected in visible clusters. Flowering in trees begins in mid-spring, before the leaves bloom. Flowers are endowed with a greenish-red coloring. During the flowering period begins the movement of sugary, suitable for cooking juice.
The lionfish is the name of the silver maple tree. The fruit of the tree is made up of two identical wings, in which the seeds are hidden. The length of the pairs of connected wings - 3-7 cm, and width - 12 mm. The ripening time of crescent-shaped krylatok is late spring.
For seed germination, the sugar maple requires high humidity. In dry time, they lose their germination. Fruits in wet soil immediately germinate. Sprouts can appear within 24 hours. The seeds that fall into the wet soil after the rain have the best germination.
The seeds of this plant are heavy. The interconnected pair of wings helps them to move in space (hence the answer to the question “what is the name of the maple fruit”). Water streams also play a significant role in the spread of dashes, facilitating their movement over long distances.
Growing silver maple
Silver maple grows well in fertile areas with good drainage. He needs an illuminated place with a well-moistened fine-textured soil. On a fairly damp ground, trees take root easily. They have moderate tolerance for saline soils. Because of its ability to exist in wet places, the plant easily withstands long-term flooding. It dominates the woodland, competing with poplar, beech and ash.
Mature trees are resistant to harsh winter frosts. Young shoots in severe frosts sometimes freeze over. Trees are not able to withstand the onslaught of powerful winds and excessive snowfall. Their fragile branches break under the influence of adverse natural phenomena.
Sugar maple easily withstands unfavorable environmental conditions. He is not afraid of smoke and gassed air masses. It is suitable for the organization of landscape gardening complexes in cities. Sugar maple trees affect some pests. They suffer from leaf weevil, whitefly and mealybug.
The silver maple has several varieties. It can be heterogeneous, tripartite and pyramidal. In addition, there is a weeping form and variety Viera. Trees differ in the form of leaves and branches.
A pyramid maple does not exceed 20 meters in height. Vertical branches form a columnar wide crown. Autumn foliage lit in dark red. Maple Vieri has a spreading crown, covered with greenish-silver leaves. Its fragile branches have increased fragility. Grade Bornes Graciosa endowed with a light crown, studded with huge rugged leaves. The height of the trees does not exceed 15 meters.
Use silver maple
Silver maple is often used to form original compositions on the streets, in park and garden complexes. He is good as a tapeworm and in group plantings. It is planted in estates, gardens and parks near the reservoirs and on the hills, getting spectacular arrangements.
Maple wood is used in the manufacture of furniture. Maple sugar, syrup and beer are obtained from the plant.
According to the description, silver maple has a silver crown of light gray color. Young shoots bright red. This combination looks especially original when the wind blows. In the fall foliage is painted in yellow, red color.
Silver maple belongs to fast-growing trees. The young plant develops rapidly, rising annually to the meter. Later, maple slows growth to twenty centimeters per year.
The bark of the tree is smooth, gray, but with age it begins to darken and become covered with narrow cracks and scales.
The originality of the plant allows you to apply it not only in group, but also in single plantings. Most often, silver maple is used for landscaping ponds.
Proper care and planting maple silver will help to get a beautiful tree that will delight with its decorative effect for many years.
To grow a tall beautiful plant, you need to choose the right place. Maple likes humus-rich moist soil. It tolerates flooding and short-term droughts. It is successfully grown on cobbled streets in the city.
When planting choose places that are protected from strong gusts of wind. Otherwise, there is a high probability of breaking the branches due to gusts of wind.
Photos of silver maple are striking in their beauty. The pictures show that most often trees are planted near water bodies, in parks, in gardens. The plant can be used for group plantings, creating groves. Maple looks impressive in the landscaping of streets and squares, as well as city courtyards. When choosing a tree planting site in the city, it is important to consider that it has a spreading crown. Therefore, planting maple under the windows is not recommended. Also, do not plant seedlings near parking lots, garages. This is due to the fragility of the branches with strong gusts of wind.
For planting choose sunny or slightly shaded places. If the maple is planted in the shade, its foliage will lose its decorative color.
When planting it is necessary to monitor the level of the root collar. It should be at ground level.
Planting maple, it is necessary to properly prepare the landing hole. In it add in advance prepared nutritious soil. For its preparation use sand, peat and sheet earth in the ratio of 1: 2: 2. In the soil add one hundred grams of nitroammofoski. When compiling the soil is important to monitor its acidity. The pH should be 6.0-7.5.
The following year after planting, maple must be fed. To do this, make a mixture of:
- potassium fertilizer - 20 g,
- nitrogen fertilizer - 50 g,
- superphosphate - 50 g
Everything is mixed, then the land is prepared around the maple for fertilization. To do this, shovel digging the soil to a depth of at least ten centimeters. Then dry fertilizers are applied to the ground and covered with a shovel in the ground. When watering the granules will dissolve and feed the tree.
In the first years of life, young plants should be watered abundantly. One sapling needs at least twenty liters of water per month. With strong heat, the amount of watering increases.
With the development of a plant, it can be watered less frequently, but the maple grows best when the soil moisture is good, because it likes watering.
To the soil around the plant does not dry out, you can carry out mulching. To do this, use peat or moss.
Maple is one of the plants that is unpretentious in the care and grows well on all types of soil. It is practically not exposed to diseases, but from pests the tree needs to be processed. To do this, use various drugs offered in country shops. Most often maple is affected by whitefly, aphids, weevil.
Appearance and botanical description
Silver maple - deciduous tree, which belongs to the same-named family. It should be noted that according to another classification, silver maple belongs to the Sapindov family.
The height of the tree is 27-36 m, depending on the climate and soil fertility. The tree trunk is short, and quite often additional branches are formed at its base. This suggests that the crown is formed almost the entire height of the tree, because of which it is impossible to achieve the absence of shoots on the lower part of the trunk.
Crown does not differ in density, has a rounded shape, because of what from a distance it looks like a cap. Shoots are arcuate. At first they are tilted down, but their tips rush up. The shape of the branches in a bend resembles spruce shoots.
Bark in young trees it is painted in a light gray color, but in older and older trees it is dark, has weakly visible narrow cracks, and is also covered with small scales.
Rhizome not very long. The root system is represented by fibrous roots. This means that the main massive root is absent, so the system is formed by a large number of accessory roots.
Kidney painted in dark red color that borders on brown. Large scales are well visible on the kidneys. Flower buds are distinguished by the fact that they are always gathered in clusters.
Familiarize yourself with the nuances of growing Ginnal maple, Flamingo, and Norway, Red, Tatar, Japanese, Alpine, and Manchurian maples.
Leaves painted on the outside in green or light green matte color. On the back of the sheet plate has a white color with a shade of silver. The leaves on the shoot are formed opposite each other (opposite), the plates are divided into five blades, between which there are deep grooves. The length is from 8 to 16 cm, and the width is from 6 to 12 cm.
Flowers both males and females are formed on one plant, so the maple can self-pollinate without the presence of other plants belonging to this genus. Buds are collected in small panicles. The petals are painted in different shades of green and red. Flowering occurs very early, always before the appearance of the leaves.
Fetus is standard for this genus and is a regular lionfish. Each wing has a length of about 4 cm and a width of up to 1 cm. Full ripening of the fruits occurs already at the end of spring, after which the cages are massively distributed over the adjacent territory. It is worth noting that after entering the soil, the seeds immediately begin to germinate.
Growth rate quite high. In the first 10–20 years, we can expect an annual increase in the region of 0.8–1 m. After 20 years, the rate slows down and is 20–40 cm. The increase is 35 cm in width.
Lifespan is about 130-150 years old.
Important!Silver maple is similar to maple red, so when they are planted in one area and further pollinated, they will give hybrid plants.
This type of maple is common in North America. It grows in the northern states of the United States, as well as in Canada. In the wild, the tree can be found in the wet lowlands, near rivers and lakes. Culture likes high humidity, so it is not screened out on dry elevations. We advise you to read about the beneficial properties and the use of maple and maple sap.
In nature, silver maple prefers open areas, especially if the nutritional properties of the soil leave much to be desired. In the penumbra can grow well only if the substrate is very nutritious.
Maple trees are a real salvation for many species of birds, as it gives them nutritious seeds at a time of the year when flowers only form on other trees. Shoots, seeds and buds act as food for squirrels and chipmunks, which in early spring suffer from food shortages. Not averse to eat sweetish shoots and deer, hares, and beavers. The tree is not only the root base, but also a refuge for animals and birds. Birds build their nests on a silver maple, and squirrels, raccoons, owls and woodpeckers are located in hollows.
Learn the basics of tree care to help avoid mistakes. How to form a cascade of several plants?
Timing. Planting can be carried out both in early spring and early autumn. In regions with a cold climate, it is better to plant the spring in order for the tree to acclimatize and get the necessary nutrients from the soil before winter.
Soil mix. The following mixture is used (in a ratio of 2: 2: 1): leaf earth, peat, sand. It is better to take large river sand to improve drainage properties. We should also mention the acidity of the soil and the initial application of mineral fertilizers. Maple loves a neutral or slightly acidic soil, so if you have an alkaline substrate in your area, it is good to oxidize it. In the prepared soil mixture contribute up to 150 g of nitroammofoski. Other mineral fertilizers are not required at the initial stage. You will probably be interested to read about how to independently determine the acidity of the soil, as well as how to deoxidize the soil on the site.
Preparation of the hole. In the area where you are going to plant a tree, you need to remove weeds and various debris, then immediately check the pH using tests. Next, dig a hole.
As is the case with the planting of most trees, we lay off the upper fertile layer separately, and remove the lower one. In the future, mix the top layer of soil with the soil mixture described above to get the best option.
The depth and diameter of the pit should correspond to the root system. In any case, the diameter of the hole must be larger than the size of the roots, otherwise you will damage them during planting. 1.3 - vegetable soil, 2 - root neck of the trunk. Separately, it should be said about groundwater. If you do not know exactly at what depth they lie, then deepen the hole by an extra 20 cm, and then lay the drainage (expanded clay, small pebbles, small crushed stone). This is additional insurance that will help you out if the groundwater level is above 2 meters.
Did you know?Not only maple syrup, which is produced on the basis of plant sap, is eaten. The Japanese began to use the leaves of the tree as a snack. After collecting the raw materials, the green leaves are kept in barrels of salt for about 6 months, then coated with sweet dough and fried in oil.
Landing. After the formation of the hole, make a small mound in its center, the height of which should not exceed 20 cm. We do this in order to better position the rhizome. Next, immerse the tree in the hole and straighten the roots.
It is important to immediately check whether the root neck is parallel to the substrate or is below the required level. This is very important, because if you bury the root neck, the tree will die.
Video: maple planting
If everything is in order, then slowly fill the pit, getting rid of air chambers that prevent the roots from contacting the soil, due to which the development process slows down. After the final filling of the pit, the tree should be watered abundantly. Bring at least 20 liters of water, which has an acceptable temperature. This means that pouring ice water or very hot is not worth it.
Do not forget about the mulching wheel circle. Immediately after planting, they spread about 3-5 cm of peat in order not only to protect the soil from the temperature drop, but also to improve its nutritional properties. Mulching also helps to avoid the appearance of weeds.
Planting several plants. When planting several maple trees, you need to maintain the necessary distance, otherwise the trees will shade each other, which will negatively affect their growth. As well as maple, popular ornamental trees also include: thuja Smaragd, juniper, chestnut, Glauka spruce, weeping willow, oak, magnolia, sakura, acacia, willow. In the formation of a hedge, where the density of trees is high, neighboring specimens are planted at a distance of 2 meters. In any other case, the minimum distance between maples should be 3 meters.
Irrigation. Maple needs a certain amount of moisture. A tree can survive short-term droughts, but only if the plant is in good condition, it does not get sick and is not affected by pests. Также стоит помнить о том, что засуху дерево также может перенести, однако в это время не должна стоять жаркая погода, иначе испарение влаги через листья будет крайне высокое.
There is a certain rate of irrigation, according to which 10 to 20 liters of water should be brought under each tree once a month if the weather is humid or the same volume, but once a week if the air temperature is very high.
Fertilization. If you didn’t add mineral water when planting, then next year you should feed the tree with potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen, adding the following fertilizers:
- 40 g of urea,
- 20 g of potassium salt,
- 40 g of superphosphate.
The specified amount of fertilizer applied to 1 square meter. Also, it will be useful to add 100 g of Kemira to 1 square in the summer during weeding or loosening of the trunk circle. The composition of this feeding includes many essential trace elements that are also needed by the plant, as well as macronutrients, but in smaller quantities.
Mulching. During planting, the mulch is put in, which eventually decays, so it is recommended to update it annually - to lay out a new layer of peat of constant thickness. Also, as the mulch fit pine branches, if you are afraid of the invasion of pests. Many insects do not like the smell of eating, so they will not come close to the maple.
Crop. In the first two years of life, pruning is not necessary, otherwise you will slow down the growth, and also cause the deterioration of the protective properties of the young plant. In extreme cases, only diseased or dry shoots are removed so that pests do not settle on them.
Beginning at the age of 3 years, maple should be pruned annually at the end of winter, removing diseased, dry and broken shoots. It is possible to carry out formative pruning, but this is not a mandatory step. The main thing - to save the plant from the "dead weight", which affects the appearance, and also attracts pests and diseases. Did you know?On the basis of American maple, a special coal is made, through which Jack Daniel’s famous drink is filtered.
Now you know what a silver maple is, where it grows, and whether it is difficult to grow it. Remember that the plant can start side shoots, which will cause thickening of the plantings.
Do not forget about the seeds, which when released into the fertile soil immediately germinate. Such seedlings are best removed, because after a year they will have a height of about one meter.
Description of sugar maple (silver)
Sugar Maple - fast growing treewhich in the first years of life, under good growing conditions, a plant can grow by a meter in a year and in a short time turn into a slender beautiful tree. In Moscow, the sugar maple grows as a single or multi-stem tree about 10–15 meters in height with a spreading, lush crown.
The krone is very picturesque. Through, unevenly spreading in all directions on low strong trunks, it very often falls almost to the ground, everything else, has a silver color. Due to the amazing color of the leaves - silver-green - with the slightest breeze, the crown flickers with light shades, making it appear transparent and very light.
The foliage rests on slightly drooping branches that have a reddish-brown shade with a brilliant coating, and the young shoots are bright red. The combination of red shoots and dark greens gives the plant a surprisingly picturesque view.
The most colorful in the sugar maple tree - deeply dissected, five-lobed leaves, having an amazing color. In early spring, they are painted in delicate “honey” tones with “apricot” shine, in the summer they are dark green, and in the fall they acquire a pale yellow color, and this is all on a silvery shade of the leaf. The slightest oscillation of the leaf blade on the long petiole leads to the effect of flicker. To walk past such a tree without stopping is simply impossible.
Sugar maple is very beautiful not only in the autumn, when it brightly stands out with its light yellow outfit among other plants, but also in winter, attracting a glance with patterns of cracks on the gray bark of the trunk and weave light brown branches in the crown. It is difficult to say at what time of year the tree is the most decorative. Even in early spring, before the leaves open, becoming covered with delicate red-brown buds, the tree looks amazing, resembling a light cloud at sunset.
Sugar maple has a deep, strongly branched root system. The lateral roots are powerful and strong, often protruding on the surface of the earth. They easily raise the road surface, can damage communication. Therefore, maple trees should be planted at some distance from the roads, and garden paths should not be paved under the crown of the tree.
Winter hardiness of the plant is quite high: a zoned sugar maple can withstand temperatures down to -40 degrees Celsius. However, in very severe winters, young mature shoots can freeze slightly, but this does not harm the decorativeness of the tree, since damaged branches are simply removed without damage to the plant.
The only drawback of the sugar maple is the fragility of the wood, which, in combination with the large crown windage, can lead, at best, to breaking off the branches (due to strong wind or heavy snow sticking), and at worst - to the felled tree. Imported maple varieties overwinter, but even in this case different instances of winter resistance are different.
Features of growing sugar maple
Sugar Maple likes to grow in a sunny, open place. This rather large plant requires a lot of living space. And if you decide to plant this beautiful plant in your area, you should take a responsible approach to the process of planting and choosing a permanent place of registration. For sugar maple should be chosen protected from winds through the place, and this is important! A strong wind can break the fragile branches of a tree, damaging the decorativeness of the plant.
- 25-30 m
- 20-60 cm
not afraid of stagnant water
- Frost down to -40 °
- Any drained
- Formative, sanitary
- Not required
Maple is undemanding to soil type, easily adapts to different soil conditions.: can grow on slightly acidic sandy, sandy, light, loamy soils, poorly tolerates only alkaline soils (with an excess of lime, the tree turns yellow). But to the fertile characteristics of the soil, the maple is very demanding. On fertile, humus-rich soils, the plant will be just gorgeous.
The maple soil moisture also has increased requirements. Although the plant withstands short-term drought well, maple prefers sufficiently moist, well-drained soil.
Despite the superficial root system, sugary maple perfectly tolerates the non-drowning and compaction of the soil.
Saplings (including large plants) easily tolerate planting and transplanting. Plants can be planted in early spring before budding, or in late autumn after leaf fall. The plant from the container can be planted at any time, except for winter. Planting pit and soil mix for backfilling should be prepared in advance. The mixture consists of sod, leaf earth or humus, sand and peat in the ratio of 1: 2: 1: 1. On heavy soils, drainage from sand or crushed stone is laid with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Young saplings after planting require regular watering, especially during the dry season. The plant does not need a shelter for the winter, but maple needs protection from sticking of sleet.
Young trees in the early years require the formation of a crown, otherwise they will grow razlapistymi and shapeless. Maple tolerates pruning well, so you should not be afraid of this procedure. Because of the fragility of the branches, adult plants need annual sanitary pruning, which is carried out in early spring, before sap flow begins.
In general, tree care is not a big problem for gardeners., since the sugar maple is not affected by fungal diseases, and pests bypass this tree side. On maple leaves you will not find any caterpillars or other harmful insects.
The tree perfectly transfers city conditions, is not afraid of gas pollution, dustiness, feels rather well among asphalt roads. All these properties make the maple a universal plant for city streets.
Sugar Maple in landscape design
Sugar maple is often used as an ornamental plant in urban parks and squares.. The tree is used for shady avenues, they are planted in arrays, groups, and in single plantings. In any combination maple looks great. But as a solitary plant, maple is simply irresistible. An amazing view of the crown with branches almost falling to the ground, colorful shoots and foliage - everything attracts attention, makes this tree the center of a large park, square or garden.
The plant is perfect for group plantings. With the help of sugar maple, you can create picturesque tree-shrub compositions. The tree will look great on the shore of a reservoir paired with willow or birch. Very picturesque compositions (especially in the autumn period) are obtained in combination with maple and coniferous trees. Silver maple looks great in tandem with other maples, especially good next to the Ginnala maple in autumn, when the contrast in the color of the foliage is especially strong.
With the help of sugar maple, bouquet compositions are often created. In the bouquet planting, in addition to silver maple, you can include common juniper, blue spruce, crown anchors and ashberries.
Sugar maple is suitable not only for large gardens, it can also be successfully grown in small areas, it will perfectly fit into small household plots.
In small areas, maple trees are grown in the form of a large bush, cutting the plant to a stump. It will be perfectly combined even with garden trees - apples, cherries. Looks great near maple almonds and ordinary felted cherry.
Amazingly picturesque maple looks with decorative undersized firs, pines and junipers. silver outfit in summer and golden autumn perfectly shades the dark needles and unique shape of ornamental plants.
Maple provides gardeners and designers a lot of opportunities to use this gorgeous plant in landscape compositions of different styles and eras. Maple is equally well suited for classical and romantic garden in the style of the 18th century.
Silver maple can be included in the picturesque landscape compositionsBecause maple trees in the fall have a fantastically beautiful view. The “golden outfit” of plants strikes the imagination, and the words of A.S. Pushkin come to mind: “... the magnificent nature is withering. In scarlet and gold-clad woods. " Not one season of the year has such a wealth of colors as autumn, and the sugar maple rightly sets the tone for this holiday color.
Botanical description of species
Silver maple is close to red and can form hybrid varieties with it. It has five lobed leaves of 8 cm in length. The upper part of them is painted in green, and the lower in silver color.
Monoecious small flowers, gathered in panicles, bloom in March or April. Fruits of silver maple are large, each wing can be up to 50 mm in length. They ripen at the end of May, falling to the ground, immediately sprout. Tree planted in urban parks, thanks to the rapid growth and simplicity in care, it is popular.
The famous Latsiniatum Vieri variety is distinguished by hanging branches and an asymmetric crown. Its leaves are more delicate, they are cut more strongly than in the main species. Their color is bronze in spring, pale green in summer, yellow in autumn. The maximum tree height is 20 m, the average is about 10 meters.
In addition to Laciniatum Wieri, there are other decorative forms of maple:
- variegated - leaves are not divided into lobes,
- threefold - sheet plates consist of three blades,
An interesting variety is Lutescens with yellow foliage. This tree in the first 30 years grows up to 7 meters in height. In winter, it can freeze, so it is more suitable for cultivation in the southern regions. In spring, when blooming, maple leaves are orange or bronze, then turn yellow.
Growing area of silver maple
The homeland of the silver maple (Acer saccharinum) is the eastern part of North America, the USA and Canada. He prefers moist, light soils, river banks and ponds, rarely growing in arid places.
The tree is adapted to the long-term flooding of the soil, tolerates it easily, does not tolerate shading. It grows well in any locality where there is a sufficient amount of moisture, especially in a warm Mediterranean climate.
Planting maple in open ground
Saplings of maple with an open root system are planted in open ground in spring. When planting in the summer heat maple will suffer from overheating of the root system, and in the fall may freeze. For a container plant, planting time does not matter much; it can be any warm day of the growing season, except for winter.
It is important to choose a site for planting, protected from strong through winds, fragile branches of the maple easily break off. A young tree should be light, in the shade of a building or other trees it will be uncomfortable, diseases and pests can overcome.
An adult tree will occupy a large living space, therefore the seedling is placed at a distance of at least 4 m from other trees and shrubs. The soil type of maple is undemanding, grows well on sandy and loamy slightly acidic soils, loves the abundance of humus. In the planting hole add leaf, sod land, humus, peat and sand, at the bottom of the drainage make of gravel and sand, 15 cm high.
Sapling brought from the garden center, planted in the prepared hole. The root collar is not buried during planting; it should remain at ground level. After planting, the maple is watered and mulched near the stem using sawdust or dry soil.
Agrotechnical cultivation and care
Carrying out special agrotechnical measures does not require growing maple. This strong and unpretentious tree grows rapidly even without fertilizers and seasonal treatments from pests.
It is necessary to pay attention to watering, maple does not like drying of the soil. The soil should be loose, therefore, after watering, the near-stem circle is loosened and mulched.
To increase the decorative effect, a complex mineral fertilizer is applied - with a predominance of nitrogen in the spring and potash-phosphorus from the middle of summer. For the year enough to spend 3-4 dressing.
Cropping and crown formation
Silver maple has fragile branches, they are often broken by a strong wind and snow sticking in winter. It is advisable to conduct annual sanitary pruning, removing all damaged parts of the shoots.
If you need to restrain the rapid growth of the tree, spend forming pruning crown, shortening the top and side branches.
All types of pruning are done in the spring before the start of sap flow (about 2 weeks before bud break) or in the fall when there is no frost, but the foliage has already fallen. If the air temperature is below 0 ° C, do not touch the tree.