General information

Features of the process of fertilization in chickens


It is important for novice farmers to understand how chickens reproduce in order to control the process and increase the productivity of their farm. Due to the peculiarities of the physiological structure, the roosters do not have a full-fledged penis, but this does not prevent them from stomping chickens up to 20 times a day and safely leaving behind posterity. Seminal fluid is only necessary for the reproduction of birds on the compound.

Mating games

Mating of chicken and rooster always begins with foreplay.

It looks like this:

  • The male flirts with the vending female, demonstrating his attention,
  • He walks around her, beckons for the worm she found, defiantly scrubs her wing with her foot,
  • After that, she tramples on the female and performs insemination.

Love games of birds continue throughout the year and stop only during the season of molting. During the natural loss of plumage, the roosters do not want to stomp chickens and show aggression towards them: they bully, beat, and drive them away from the feeders as the leader of the pack.

During this period, chickens are left to themselves. After renewing the plumage, the mood returns to the male, and he again begins to flirt with his girlfriends.

Mating process

Fertilization is carried out using the cloaca - an extended part of the intestine. The structure of the reproductive system in males is represented by two whitish-yellow testicles with excretory channels leading into the intestine. The reproductive organ in chickens consists of a uviform ovary, which is connected to the cloaca by a special channel - the oviduct.

Mating domestic birds lasts a few seconds:

  • The male jumps on top of the chicken, firmly holds his withers with his beak, runs over his paws on her back and performs several quick frictions. In the common people, this process is voiced by the phrase “A rooster tramples a chicken”,
  • During the love ritual, the gut is twisted, opens the testes and comes into contact with the female's cesspool,
  • At this moment, the seminal fluid, which is necessary for the emergence of future embryos, is secreted from the male glands into its reproductive canals.


After mating a hen and a rooster, the hen develops a new living organism. But this happens only after fertilization by the male seed.

The process is as follows:

  • Every day a new egg forms in the bird's ovary,
  • Through the oviduct, it goes into the cloaca, where the male seed is,
  • Spermatozoa enter the egg through the softened shell,
  • The shell matures, becomes a hard shell and comes out.

From 20 to 60 cock spermatozoa get into the egg at a time. Others remain inside the chicken cloaca and remain active for up to 20 days.

The eggs laid during this time will be fertilized without new matings with the rooster.

How to determine egg fertilization

To check the presence of the embryo, use a special device - an ovoscope. Using this device, the method of scanning can determine if fertilization has occurred.

The device is a body with a powerful light source - a halogen lamp. Eggs are inserted into oval holes and highlighted with bright rays.

One can check the emergence of a new life inside the egg by ovoscoping no earlier than five days after its passage through the bird oviduct.

Checking eggs before incubation

Thanks to the ovoscope, determine the suitability of the egg to incubate with a hen.

Using the device allows you to identify the following defects:

  • Shell damage (cracks, calcareous growths, thin shell),
  • Mold damage
  • Irregular shape
  • The presence of two yolks,
  • Wandering or displaced airbag,
  • Rupture of the yolk membrane, entailing the mixture of yolk and protein,
  • The presence of blood clots.

If any of the defects is detected, it is better not to use the egg for the reproduction of bird offspring.

How many roosters should be in a flock

If it is planned to breed chickens at the farmstead, the presence of at least one rooster in the chicken family is necessary. Only in the presence of a male, maternal instincts of egg incubation appear in the hens.

Features sharing content:

  1. Chickens are herd animals, therefore they are united in groups, under the leadership of one strong leader.
  2. The pack leader has the right to trample any layer when he chooses. Other males will be able to do this only with the permission of the leader.
  3. During the year, one male can fertilize dozens of females.
  4. The presence of a large number of males can provoke violent conflicts. Bloody cockfighting battles for primacy and the right to trample chickens will constantly take place in the house, and frequent mating will cause stress and trauma in the hens.
  5. The optimal number of males in the chicken coop is 1 for 10–12 chickens.
  6. Since the young males do not immediately know how to properly care for chickens, it is optimal to keep an adult and a young male. A more experienced rooster will educate the future leader and teach communication with layers.

What if the rooster stripped the back and sides of the chicken

If during the love games the male often injures the hens and leaves bloody scratches on their body, you need to shorten his long claws.

Wounds in birds should be treated:

  • Rinse with a disinfectant (such as chlorhexidine),
  • Smear with healing ointment ("Healer", zinc, Vishnevsky).

As long as the female’s side and back are not healed, it is better to deposit it and hold it in a separate pen until the damage has healed.

Whether to get a rooster or not, it is up to the owner to decide. In the absence of a male in the household will not be fertilized eggs, but the chickens will not cease to carry them. Breeders interested in increasing the flocks and raising chickens will not be able to do at least one rooster.

The presence of a male individual is necessary both for fertilization of the female and for the occurrence of maternal instinct in chickens in order to incubate future offspring.

Makarov Ivan Vasilyevich

Hereditary poultry farmer, owner of a poultry farm, graduated from St. Petersburg State Agrarian University with honors, the author of articles in specialized publications

Love ritual at the chickens

Let's make a reservation: the nature nevertheless endowed the rooster with a penis - rudimentary. That is, during the development of the embryo, the makings of an organ are formed, and only that. Here is what the advancement of the male sexual organ looks like in a chicken embryo.

So how do the rooster and the hen mate? - One touch, in the full sense of the word. How else to explain the striking male power of a feathered partner? This is how this mystery takes place.

In humans, this is called fondling, and in roosters and chickens - to trample: the male saddles her friend and, holding her withers by the beak, makes several swift, barely noticeable frictions. His cloaca (simply the anus, which opens the genital ducts: in chickens - the oviduct, in roosters - the vas deferens) turns inside out.

Then the male and female cloaca are found, and the seed excreted by the male sex glands penetrates into his girlfriend. This happens very quickly.

As a rooster sharpening the female - in this video.

But what about the prelude, is it really not? Watching the birds a little longer, you notice: there is. These are the circles that the rooster makes around the vending female, and how he invites the harem to taste the worm found.

Cock care stops at once during a moult. Now, the rooster not only does not feed, but drives away yesterday's lugs from the feeder. He no longer wants to stomp on them. But as soon as the bully feathers are updated, his “politeness” returns to the rooster, he again begins to trample his girlfriends. This happens again and again as long as the male has the rights of a leader.

But the time comes, and the leader in this chicken paradise becomes another - a younger and stronger cock. The right to stomp chickens, he takes away from the former leader in a fight.

How is the process of fertilization?

So, we already know how the mating of birds. And how does the fertilization of chicken eggs? Rather, the egg. After all, an egg is formed after fertilization of the early egg. Although the chronology of the processes is exactly this: the fertilization of an egg is the formation of an egg, the latter will be formed without fertilization.

That is why, in order for the chickens to fly, the rooster is optional. It is needed only for chickens to multiply!

At first, the egg exists as an oocyte - it is also the future yolk, it is the egg germ. Oocytes in the ovary look like a bunch of grapes of different sizes. This picture is due to the fact that the eggs that make up the so-called bunch are at different stages of development.

Usually one layer of oocytes matures per day. Rare cases of simultaneous ripening of two eggs at the exit give an egg with two yolks. When the oocyte matures and becomes ready for fertilization, it is released from the membrane, detached from the bunch and moves into the oviduct. When the rooster and chicken cloaces are in contact, the spermatozoa enters the female's cloaca.

Moving up, the most brisk "tail" finds the egg and penetrates into it. So is the fertilization of the egg.

How to check if eggs are fertilized?

Cock sperms live in chickens for up to three weeks. The eggs that chickens are carrying at this time must be “alive”. How to determine whether a new life in the egg originated or not? Ovoskop will help to learn it.

If you cannot buy such a device, you can make it yourself. In fact, the simplest specimen is just a tube with a diameter of 3 cm and a source of light. To determine whether a living egg or not, you need to bring it to the source and carefully make out through the "device" from the unlit side.

In the first few days, it is impossible to determine in this way whether there is an embryo or not. What will show us the miracle device at a later date?

Love games in chickens

As you know, chickens live only in groups. And in this situation, the group must have a strict hierarchy, the top, which is occupied by the largest and most powerful rooster. But sometimes it also happens that a big and strong one cannot cope with a smaller rooster. Then the championship in the group goes to the last.

The right to primacy is not subject to dispute. As soon as the slightest signs of an attempt on power appear, a violent fight begins between competitors. The victor retains power, and the loser shamefully escapes. And it happens, always and in all chickens.

The leader of the group has great advantages over the rest of the roosters. All the concubines are at his disposal. And he does the mating ritual whenever he wants and with whom he wants. For chickens, it is difficult to call a nice pairing, because during it the cock sits on top of the back of the female and with its beak clings to the back of her head. Therefore, often the chicken tries to get away from the anxious male, which sometimes can even turn out.

The cock-leader always shows the chickens that he is the chief and tries to constantly care for and seduce them like a real gentleman.. By flirting, he can walk around the chicken and leg scrape the wing down. And finding a tidbit or a worm, be sure to call the rest of the chickens and give it to them. It would seem that the limits of his caresses no boundaries.

But during the molting period everything changes. The rooster ceases to care and trample chickens. He can even peck and drive away females from feeders and drinkers. This behavior lasts only during the molting period. As soon as it stops everything becomes old.

The secret of the process of fertilization

As it is known, chickens have no sexual organ. But as we see it does not prevent the rooster from being a great lover. The question is brewing, how do chickens breed then? Everything is simple, it happens in a cloacal way. As the rooster tramples the hen, his cesspool turns out and the sex glands begin to secrete.

Then his cesspool is in contact with the cesspool of the hen and thus the seed gets inside the female. Once inside, it can remain active for up to 20 days. All eggs laid during this period will be fertilized. But what about the process of conception?

The fact is that the chicken ovary resembles a ripe bunch of grapes. Every day a ripened egg comes off of it, which is an egg cell. From the oviduct it enters the hen cloaca where the seed is waiting for him. While the egg is still soft, the process of fertilization takes place. Then, during 23-24 hours, the egg hardens and becomes covered with a shell, and after this period it is brought out.

How to check whether eggs are fertilized?

This is very easy to do. You need to put an egg in front of a bright light source, which can be a simple light bulb. Then it will be a little translucent. This is enough to notice a black dot near its center. If it is, then everything is fine, if not, then nothing will hatch from such an egg.

How many chickens can one fertilize a rooster?

Roosters, though not having a sexual organ, are violent lovers. After molting, its testes increase by almost 20 percent. Thus, one male can cope with many beautiful chickens. But it will be correct to keep 1 cock for 10-12 hens. So you can be sure that all females will be fertilized.

It is not recommended to keep a larger number of roosters than given above. This will lead to constant competition and fights. Also, the frequent marking of chickens can lead to serious injuries of the latter. They may even die.

Find out more

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Rattles in chickens: what is it and how to treat?

Seek and Obit

The other day it was discovered that everyone knows that the rooster is “trampling” the hen, but not everyone knows how the process of fertilization of the chicken takes place. Some even suggested that the hen bears eggs only because the rooster "caresses" it with its paws on top. Nuacho, because the rooster does not see anything, where is he. "exactly this"?

Let me explain this point briefly and in your own words, in more detail and correctly read in the internet, who will be interested. "This is the" cock rotated inside, and does not stick out. The mating of the rooster and chicken occurs in a cloacal way. As the rooster tramples the hen, his cesspool turns out and the sex glands begin to secrete.

Then his cesspool is in contact with the cesspool of the hen and thus the seed gets inside the female. Once inside, it can remain active for up to 20 days. All eggs laid during this period will be fertilized. But what about the process of conception?

The fact is that the chicken ovary resembles a ripe bunch of grapes. Every day a ripened egg comes off of it, which is an egg cell. From the oviduct it enters the hen cloaca where the seed is waiting for him. While the egg is still soft, the process of fertilization takes place. Then, during 23-24 hours, the egg hardens and becomes covered with a shell, and after this period it is brought out.

That's how it all happens. Did you know about this?

How to choose a rooster

First of all, you need to pick up the appropriate cock.

General rules of choice:

  1. For older chickens, a young one is picked up, and for young Klushs, a more experienced, two-year-old gentleman is needed.
  2. If you select a gentleman from your young, then leave the leader. He will be determined by the results of cock fights.
  3. Buying on the market, pay attention to the appearance of the bird. Eyes should be clear and clean, feathers are shiny, beautiful. The comb should be bright and fleshy, to the touch - warm.
  4. Age is determined by the spurs - they are small in the young cock.
  5. For breeding purebred birds leave the male with the correct breed characteristics.
  6. For chickens of egg and meat-egg breeds (weight - up to 2.5 kg) we need a male weighing no more than 3.5 kg.
  7. For layers of meat breeds, the one that is best suited to the exterior of chickens is chosen.

The ratio of rooster to the number of chickens

The recommended statistical ratio of rooster to chickens is 1:10. It is important to take into account the purpose for which the male is acquired. In order to simply carry an egg, a rooster is not needed. The reproductive apparatus of the hen will lay eggs in the usual manner. The male performs only the fertilization of these eggs. If you plan to withdraw chickens from the resulting eggs, then 1 rooster for 8 chickens is desirable. The same ratio is desirable for representatives of fighting and meat breeds. In this case, you may also need one backup. A young rooster can cover up to 16 hens. As his strength grows weaker, the three-year-old cavalier is considered too old for the reproduction of the herd.

The minimum ratio of roosters to chickens is 1: 3. Note that with a small number of chickens, the male becomes aggressive and the likelihood of damage during mating increases.

The mechanism of the pairing process

The process of fertilization of the hens depends on the structural features of their genitals. In fact, in chickens, the breeding organs of males and females are very similar. Both chickens and roosters have a so-called cloaca, where the genital ducts of the genitourinary system go. The spermatozoa, formed in the testes of the rooster, descend through the seed canals into the cloaca. At the time of mating, it is necessary for the cloaca to touch and sperm to enter the cloaca of the chicken. Чтобы семенная жидкость попала к месту назначения, петушку приходится удерживать спину подруги лапами и клювом держаться за её загривок. Сперматозоиды остаются активными в клоаке курицы в течение 20 дней. Всё это время они могут оплодотворять яйца, поочерёдно выходящие из яичника.

Как происходит сам процесс

Для успешного процесса спаривания самцу необходимо:

  1. Вскочить на спину курицы.
  2. Найти лапами вход в клоаку.
  3. Combine the genitals.
The process does not take much time, but it happens quite often.

Actual pairing nuances:

  1. The excess fat in the chicken condenses around the cloaca. When you buy a shopping carcass, then in the area of ​​the tail you can see the maximum accumulation of fatty deposits. In fatty hens, fertility is much lower than that of slim and fit, due to the fact that the rooster is simply not able to get to the cloaca. To help the process, excess fluff is cut around the cloaca.
  2. The back of the hen can not stand too massive cavalier and get damaged.

The rooster tore the back and sides of the chicken.

If the chicken's back is torn, then there may be only two reasons:

  • male weight
  • mating frequency.
If the rooster is too large for existing chickens, it should be replaced by a smaller one. Excessive matings occur when the leader is too active, or you have too many roosters in terms of 1 chicken. In this case, the population of males should also be reduced.

First aid is as follows:

  1. The hen should be immediately deposited from the herd.
  2. For small scratches, lubricate the back with a disinfectant solution, such as Chlorgenxidine, and smear the wounds with zinc ointment.
In case of large damages and in the event that the chicken does not stand up, it is better to cut it. In cases where the chicken has damaged sides, this is not necessarily the result of the actions of the rooster. It is possible that the hen is damaged on the run or in the hen house if there is not enough space. Check and eliminate possible sources of damage, and seed the chicken and treat the wounds.

It does not need to be allowed into the hen house until it heals. Recommend also filed claws claws. But if you do not know how to do this, and you do not have a spare male, do not risk the health of the bird. In the case of improper trimming, the rooster may lose the ability to hold onto the back of the chicken.

How to identify a fertilized egg

The seminal fluid in the chicken oviduct will fertilize the testicles for 3 weeks. You can check fertilization with an ovoskop - a device for determining the quality of eggs with the help of x-raying:

  • a small dark spot in the protein portion is noticeable in the fertilized eggs,
  • on the lumen of the ovoscope, you can examine the presence of a blood clot and small blood vessels.

Breeding hens is a completely simple task. There are no difficult conditions in it and its solution will not cost you much. It is enough to follow the rules and carefully observe that all participants in the process are healthy.