The word "sideraty" in recent times is increasingly heard in the conversations of gardeners. No wonder. Many owners of dacha plots, who have received a garden in their use, which has been a garden before this, have been thinking about restoring the fertility of depleted soil. And siderata or siderealnye plants - this is one of the best assistants in this difficult matter. Under the name "siderata" hiding plants that can quickly rise and gain green mass. It is this ability that gardeners use to get “green fertilizer” in a short period of time.
List of plant sideratov
Here is a list of the main ones:
- Legumes (annual lupine, beans, espartret, soybean, lentils, seradella, peas, chickpeas, alfalfa, sotechechnik, tributary, spring vetch, clover),
- Hydrophilic (phacelia),
- Cruciferous (mustard, rape, oilseed radish, canola),
- Cereals (oats, barley, rye, wheat),
- Buckwheat (buckwheat),
- Aster (sunflower, calendula),
- Amaranth (amaranth).
How to apply siderata
As a rule, green manure plants are planted before or after the main crop.
Early spring sideration most often used on beds under heat-loving crops with a planting period from the middle or at the end of May, for example, cucumbers, pumpkins, zucchini, late cabbage, etc. In order not to leave the ground bare, immediately after the snow melts, fast-growing cover plants are planted or watercress). Before the planting of the main crop, siderats will have time to gather enough green mass, which they mow and use for mulching or compost. The roots of the green manure plants are left in the ground. In order for the soil microorganisms to at least partially decompose the plant residues, it is recommended to plant the main crop 2-3 weeks after mowing the green manure.
Autumn sideration - a great way to improve the soil and its preparation for the cold. In this case, cover plants are sown immediately after harvesting the main crops. Due to the fact that the ground is still warm in autumn and the air is already cool, the plants are trying to make the most of favorable conditions. So, for the period from August to October, siderats on average grow 20-40 centimeters of greenery and 30 centimeters of roots. With the onset of cold weather, the plants die, and worms, bacteria and other underground inhabitants enter into action. During the winter, all organic matter overheats, which means that even the earliest vegetables such as radish and salads can be sown safely.
Rules for successful greening
In order to use green manure as a green fertilizer on your site has the maximum effect, and all your efforts are not in vain, you need to follow a few simple rules for successful green manuring:
1. Sow the seeds in a loose, moist soil.
2. Plants will grow faster, if the seeds are slightly rolled, increasing the area of their contact with the ground.
3. Take care of the seeds from the birds, put a scarecrow on the sown areas. Birds can easily peck up the seeds scattered on the surface and negate all the work.
4. Do not use for planting plants of the same family as the main crop that you plan to plant. Plants of the same family suffer from the same diseases and consume the same substances from the soil.
5. Do not dig, do not embed the green mass in the soil. Digging violates the soil structure and destroys the beneficial microflora. It is better to mow or cut the green "tops" and use them for mulching, compost or liquid herbal dressing.
6. When spring sideration or joint planting, cut off green sideratov before flowering, until a hard stem has formed. This stem slowly decomposes.
Useful properties of sideratov
Why is greening so useful? Why make so much effort to buy seeds, water, birds drive away? Maybe it is better to scatter a bag of mineral fertilizers on the plot and the matter is ready? Soil fertilization using siderats is the use of a natural, natural mechanism for creating a fertile layer. For centuries, plants have provided and sustained themselves. They germinate, develop, die and decompose, enriching the soil with nutrients for future generations. Therefore, with the right greening, the soil in your summer cottage will quickly “revive” and turn into a full-fledged ecosystem. Well, no matter how much mineral fertilizer you put in it, the dead soil will remain dead - dried, clay, hard and depleted. Sideral plants enrich the soil with organic matter, nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and calcium in the usual form for microorganisms. Plants-green fertilizers stimulate the development of beneficial inhabitants of the garden, creating favorable conditions for the life of small insects, worms, bacteria, etc. Siderats perfectly suppress weeds. In case of continuous sowing, the ground part of the cover plants completely obstructs the access of the sun to the soil, preventing competing weeds from germinating. Roots of green manure plants loosen the soil, improve its structure, increase moisture permeability, reduce acidity, and deliver nutrients from the depths to the upper soil layer. Cover plants form a solid carpet on the bed, shading the soil, thereby protecting it from overheating in the heat. In addition, green manure prevents the evaporation of excess moisture from the soil. Autumn sideration protects the ground from erosion by rains and blowing, contributes to less soil freezing in winter and retains snow on the beds for better moisture saturation in spring. Some green manure plants contribute to the improvement of the soil, adversely affect pathogens and pests. When planted with garden crops together, they scare off harmful insects with their phytoncides.
Plants - green manages in the country
For sideral cultures to be beneficial, they need to be properly used:
- We plant in early spring or autumn after harvest.
- The seeds of the green manure in spring are sown in the soil 2 months before planting the main garden crop.
- We mow plants in the period of appearance of buds, when the content of trace elements in their tissues is maximum. It will take about 2 weeks to rot the biomass.
- When planting in the autumn siderata can not mow.
- We do not dig the soil where the siderats were planted. Large roots can be cut down with a flat-cutter, long roots will rot and improve the structure of the soil.
- Green mass close up to a depth of 5 cm, if the weather is dry, water the beds.
- Thickly planted siderata, growing, drowning weeds.
- It is useful to plant next to different types of siderats.
As a green fertilizer is usually grown:
- Legumes (lupine, vetch, peas, beans, sweet clover, soy).
- Cruciferous (mustard, rape, Pancake week radish).
- Cereals (rye, oats, barley).
- Buckwheat (buckwheat).
Legumes enrich the soil with nitrogen and phosphorus. On their roots in nodules live specific bacteria that can absorb nitrogen from the air and convert it into a bound state. Beans loosen the soil and clean it from nematodes.
Grasses grow on any soil. They have a developed root system, they form a bulk green mass. Cereal plants improve the permeability of the soil, enrich it with potassium and nitrogen. Tightly planted plants suppress weeds. Grasses grow well on acidic soils.
Cruciferous siderats during the growing season emit essential substances that have a detrimental effect on pathogens and pests. Plants can be buried in the ground at any stage of the growing season, they grow quickly, forming a lush green mass. These siderats do not tolerate acidic soils. It is recommended to plant crucifers along with legumes; they convert phosphorus into a readily available compound for plants.
Buckwheat siderata useful to plant in depleted soil. They will introduce phosphorus, potassium and organic matter into it.
The list of sideratov is complemented by individual representatives of the plant world - phacelia and marigold. They form an easily decomposable green mass and long thin roots.
The most common sidereal cultures
Of the variety of plants that can be used as a green fertilizer, we offer the most commonly used in garden plots. Their seeds can be easily purchased at the store, growing will not be a hassle.
Blue lupine contains lupine alkaloid, which helps rid the soil of harmful microorganisms. Its powerful roots can reach a depth of 2 meters and extract useful elements from the deep soil layers (potassium, phosphorus).
Lupine is useful to sow before planting Solanaceous (potatoes and tomatoes), cruciferous (cabbage, radishes, turnips, radishes), Rosaceae (strawberries, strawberries). Preference should be given to annual lupins, they are developing rapidly.
Lupine prefers slightly acidic and neutral soils. Sow seeds in the spring at the rate of 20 g per 1 sq. Km. m. Mown stalks when the plant begins to lay buds. The root is cut flat. Lupine fights nematodes, potato scab and root rot.
Vika, peas, often grows on sites like a wild plant. This legume plant is a good siderat. The plant has a long root, it is capable of extracting nutrients from a great depth.
The height of the peas can grow up to 2 meters. Flowers appear in June, in the fall on the wild vetch can collect seeds.
Spring vetch sown on the bed before planting tomatoes and peppers. Close it up into the soil a month after sowing, when the plant grows to 15 cm.
This plant is one of the best sideratov. The essential oils in mustard leaves scare away pests:
The plant fights against pathogens:
- late blight,
- root rot,
- scab potatoes
Mustard seeds are sown in early spring or autumn, after harvest. On 1 square. m will need 3 g of seeds.
Frost-resistant plant is planted in late August - early September. Shoots will have time to appear before the start of frost, and in the spring the plant will continue to grow and drown out the weeds.
Mowing greens for 3 weeks before planting vegetables. In the roots of rye contains a special substance that repels nematodes, it is useful to plant after potatoes.
Oats saturates the earth with potassium and phosphorus. Its roots loosen dense soil and are able to protect light soils from leaching. The plant is planted on soils of all types.
The plant does not tolerate frost and is sensitive to lack of moisture. The best time for sowing is early spring, when the snow melts, and early autumn, the first half of September. Grains are embedded in the ground at 3 - 4 cm, per 1 square. m will need 10 g.
Oat roots contain a substance - a fungicide that copes well with pathogens of fungal and bacterial diseases. Oats - a good predecessor of tomatoes, eggplants, strawberries.
Buckwheat is able to extract beneficial elements from the poorest soil due to its ability to excrete particular acids by its roots. The root system of the plant grows rapidly and inhibits the growth of weeds.
Sow the seeds need to warm land. Buckwheat is often planted between the rows in the summer.
After buckwheat, all crops can be planted, except for representatives of the buckwheat family. This siderat will help get rid of the wheat grass. Substances secreted by the roots of buckwheat inhibit the growth of malicious weed.
It grows well on all types of soil, clay, peat, sandy, rocky. It is unpretentious, grows quickly, tolerates drought and cold well.
Sow phacelia in early spring, when the snow melts. Planting density - 2 g of seeds per 1 square. m. Pre-winter landing will protect the ground from freezing.
Phacelia normalizes the acidic soil, frightens the wireworm, fights fungal diseases. After this siderata any garden plants grow well.
Marigolds, or calendula, are more often grown for their beautiful flowers, but these unpretentious plants are good siderats, they are useful to plant carrots, beets, potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes, pumpkins, eggplants, onions and garlic before planting.
Its smell is afraid of the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm, caterpillars and nematodes. Marigolds cleanse the earth of harmful microorganisms that cause blight and fusarium wilt.
As a siderata, calendula is sown in summer. In a month and a half, the plants will grow by 15 cm, they are mown and the green mass is buried in the ground. During the winter, it will have time to decompose and create favorable conditions for earthworms.
Siderats - what is it?
Green manure is a green fertilizer that is grown specifically for the normalization of the condition of the soil. After the growing season, these plants saturate the soil with nitrogen, as well as nutrients and help in the fight against weeds. From the Latin language the word "sidera" is translated as "a star receiving power from the sky." Greening plays a very important role in organic farming.
Siderites include plants that are fast-growing. After the siderats are mown, they are either left on the ground or embedded in it, and the roots in the soil, after they rot, fill the soil and subsoil with nutrients. Such plants are able to damp weeds with their green mass and also protect the ground surface from the scorching rays of the sun. And still quite a powerful root system of such plants contributes to the fact that the weed can not normally eat. Also, the roots make the soil looser, and when they rot, they improve its ability to pass and absorb water, and also have a positive effect on aeration.
So, often as siderats grow leguminous plants, which are annuals (rarely use perennials), which have a very powerful aerial part and phytosanitary properties. And the best options for the garden will be cereal, characterized by its rapid growth and cold resistance. As well as early siderats, plants belonging to the family of the asteraceae or crucifers are very popular.
Siderats can be sown throughout the entire season, but most often they do this before they plant a main crop or after it has been removed. But which siderats are suitable for spring sowing? Plants such as mustard and phacelia require early planting. They are frost-resistant and start to grow after the temperature in the street ceases to drop below zero. It is possible to sow spring rapeseed and rape early in the spring, while Vic is recommended to plant in that area, which is reserved for tomatoes and peppers. Such plants, after the need comes, to plant the main crop, it will be necessary to remove. And in this case there are several options:
- The easiest, but less effective way is to dig a section with siderats. After that, the main crop is planted on the site.
- For this method you will need a flat cutter. With the help of it, it is necessary to cut the plants several centimeters deep into the ground. Then the main crop is planted in this place, and the remaining cut green mass is used as mulch. The stems begin to rot and eventually become fertilizer. But here it is necessary to take into account that after cutting, the phacelia no longer grows, but the mustard does not stop growing.
- The most laborious is the 3rd method. Vegetables are planted on the site where siderats grow. So, these plants are grown together with siderats for 2 or 3 weeks. After this, the "green fertilizer" must be cut with scissors, while the remaining stem should be about 5 centimeters high. The cut green mass must be decomposed in the same area over the soil surface. After the plants grow back, they prune again to the same height. And so this procedure should be repeated until the time of harvest.
This method is considered to be the best for soil improvement in the event that no vegetable crops are grown on it in a given year. Seeding is done in the springtime, and at the same time, such siderats are selected, which grow back quickly enough after they are mowed down. During the summer period, siderats are systematically mown, and it is recommended to do this before budding begins. The fact is that the greatest number of useful substances is found in young shoots, and they also rot very quickly. After mowing the grass, it is not removed from the site.
Planting sideratov autumn
It is recommended to sow rye in autumn, as well as mustard. Sowing of these plants is made after vegetable crops are removed from the site and, as a rule, this time falls at the end of the summer beginning of the autumn period. The growth of mustard does not stop until the winter frosts, and its green covers with snow cover. In the spring, it is necessary to cut the mustard with a flat cutter, and the main vegetable crop should be planted over the remaining tops. In autumn, it is necessary to harvest rye before the appearance of spikelets. Для этого ее необходимо подрубить по узлу кущения, располагающегося у самой поверхности грунта. Зеленую массу можно оставить на поверхности грунта либо положить в компост.
Посевы сидератов разделяют на:
- independent ― на участке выращиваются одни сидераты,
- уплотненные ― когда растут и «зеленые удобрения» и овощные культуры,
- кулисные― когда «зеленые удобрения» высевают на отдельных участках либо на дорожках и междурядьях.
When to bury (plow) siderata
Experts say that plowing "green fertilizer" allows you to make a much better structure of the soil, as well as to avoid compaction of the arable layer. Still siderata contribute to the fact that there is an improvement in water permeability and moisture capacity. All this contributes to the activation of microbiological processes. It is recommended that burying or plowing of “green fertilizer” be carried out 7–14 days before the main crop is planted. In this case, we should not forget that the green manure must be cut or cut before the budding period begins. But those who applied this method in practice, believe that as a result of digging or plowing siderarates, microorganisms that are needed by plants disappear, and this also leads to disruption of the soil structure. They are advised to cut the “green fertilizer” with a flat cutter, going deeper into the soil by 5 centimeters, and cut shoots should be evenly placed on the bed surface and mulched above, in order to avoid drying out. The cut off tops of siderats eventually become compost, and large amounts of nitrogen are released. The root system, which remains at the same time in the soil, due to microorganisms and earthworms gradually decomposes, resulting in the formation of humus. It is not recommended to plow wintery siderats, as in this case about 80 percent of the sidereal exposure is lost. After cutting or beveling “green manure”, it is laid out on the ground surface in winter. In the springtime, the snow will melt, and you will not see these plants on the site, but the ground will be very loose.
If you are looking for a universal siderats plant that could be used on any site and for all crops, then you are unlikely to find it. No one specialist will be able to call this siderat. Any plant needs a certain green manure. In addition, each of the sideratov has its own special purpose. In this regard, it is simply impossible to select the best from among them. For example, for the soil, the best "green fertilizer" is oilseed radish, rye, lupine, oats, and also phacelia. For strawberries it is recommended to choose rapeseed, buckwheat, oilseed radish and mustard. For sowing for the winter rape, oats, and also winter vetch, rye and rape are most often used. In this regard, it is worth getting closer acquainted with each group of green plants.
These include - clover, alfalfa, lentils, peas, seradella, lupine, sweet clover, vetch, satevichnik, soybeans, chickpeas and beans. The most popular is:
- Lupine. It contributes to the accumulation of nitrogen in the soil. At the place where this green manure grew, you can plant any culture in need of nitrogen. Seeding is done in the last days of July and until the middle of August, after the harvest of potatoes or cabbage has been harvested. However, spring is considered the best time for sowing.
- Clover. This legume is an annual. It is recommended to plant on neutral soil at the very beginning of spring. However, it is suitable for sowing in both summer and autumn.
These include oilseed radish, rape, mustard and rapeseed. The most popular are:
- White mustard. Especially significant for crop rotation. Special organic acids are released from the root system of this plant. They interact with the soil, resulting in the release of poorly soluble phosphates. They are also an excellent source of potassium and contribute to the fact that poorly digestible plant nutrients become easily digestible.
- Oilseed radish. This annual helps to bind nitrogen. And it also contributes to the fact that the soil is cleared of nematodes, as well as other pathogens. As a rule, it is planted together with Vika or other legumes.
These include oats, rye, wheat, and also barley.
Only one representative - buckwheat. This is a fast-growing plant with a very large root system, the size of which sometimes reaches 150 centimeters. This plant contributes to the deep loosening of the soil and reduce its acidity. And also contributes to the enrichment of poor soil with potassium, phosphorus and organic matter.
The only representative is amaranth.
These include phacelia, which is a member of the vodolist family, and a valuable honey plant. The plant is fast-growing, it has a developed root system, and it also grows a large amount of green mass. It is not demanding to light and the ground, as well as cold-resistant. It helps to improve the structure of the soil, as well as increases the breathability.
Winter green manure
In the spring time, siderats are sown in the furrows, and in the autumn - they are simply scattered on the ground surface, and mulch is laid on top of them. If desired, they can be sown in the fall in special grooves, but at the same time, seeds should be ground no more than 3-4 centimeters deeper. Such wintery siderats, such as oats and rye, are more popular.
- Rye. Inhibits the growth of weeds, contributes to the death of pathogens of fungal diseases, as well as nematodes. The root system of rye contributes to the loosening of the soil. This green manure is recommended to use in areas where tomatoes, zucchini, potatoes, pumpkin, and cucumbers will later grow. But it is difficult to cut it with a flat cutter. In this regard, it is recommended to cut it above the surface, and dig the soil with the remaining roots.
- Oats. Contributes to the loosening of clay soil, while destroying the causative agents of root rot. As a rule, they plant it together with Vika. This siderat recommended to plant in front of cucumbers.
There are also several plants that are used every year as a green manure more often:
- Rape. It helps to protect the soil from diseases and harmful insects. It saturates the soil with sulfur and phosphorus, and also contributes to the suppression of the growth of weeds. It is recommended to plant in front of peppers, eggplants and tomatoes. The deadline for sowing is August. At the same time, raw clay and marshy ground is not suitable for sowing.
- Vika. Enriches the soil with nitrogen. Sowing is done in the first autumn month, while at the site where it grew in spring, you can plant any seedlings.
- Colza. Improves soil structure. After it is recommended to plant potatoes, grains or corn. Seeding is done in August.
Siderates for potatoes
If the potatoes are planted every year in the same place, the soil can be quickly depleted. When the harvest is gathered, to restore the soil, it is necessary to sow peas, oats, and white mustard on the plot. Leave siderata in the winter. In spring, the sprung up "green fertilizer" must be cut off, at the same time deepening the flat cut by 5–7 centimeters to the soil. After 7–14 days, you can plant early potatoes. In the springtime, it is possible to produce simultaneous sowing of oats, phacelia and white mustard, but only if you haven’t planted siderats since autumn. These siderats in a few weeks after sowing are cut with a flat cutter before planting potatoes. As a rule, it falls on the middle of May. When the crop is harvested, a “green fertilizer” is sown again at the site.
- they do not plant the main culture and siderats in the same area when they are related to the same family,
- it is very important - timely cutting of siderats, their shoots should not be woody, and seed maturation should not be allowed, as this leads to uncontrolled growth on the site of "green manure",
- when planting, take into account the laws of crop rotation, so in the same area do not sow the same green manure every year,
- Remember that there are siderats that need nutrient soil, but there are those that grow on poor soil.
What are siderats and what are they for?
Green manure plants, or siderats, is an effective natural fertilizer. These plants are sown in a free area in the garden or in the garden with the main crops. Then the lush green mass, which grows very intensively and quickly, without digging up, is cut off and buried in the ground.
This technique allows to enrich the soil with valuable nitrogen, inhibits the growth of weeds, prevents the spread of bacterial and fungal diseases. It is also a good alternative to chemical fertilizers and a suitable option for adherents of natural farming. You have not practiced planting sideratov? Well, it's time to start!
What are siderats?
As sideratov most often used:
- legumes crops - field and fodder peas, fodder beans, soybeans, lentils, chickpeas, beans, clover, spring vetch, annual lupine, alfalfa, seradella, sainfoin, sweet clover,
- cereal crops - spring oats and barley, winter wheat and rye, millet, sorghum, and mixtures - ryegrass, fescue, timothy,
- cruciferous plants - mustard, colza, rapeseed, oilseed radish,
- hydrophilic - phacelia,
- Astrov - sunflower, marigold,
- buckwheat - buckwheat,
- amaranth - Amaranth, schiritsa.
If you do not want siderats to scatter over the plot and turn into annoying weeds, cut them before the flowers appear
How do siderates affect different types of soil?
Sideral plants enrich the soil with useful micro and macro elements and organic substances, improve soil properties and structure, air and water permeability, prevent erosion (weathering and leaching), and in addition, they act selectively on different soil types, changing their composition and acidity. As experienced farmers say, the land should never be empty. Therefore, it is recommended that green manure sites be planted not only with cultivated plants, but also after their harvesting.
Legumes You can sow any soil, from light sand to very heavy and dense. These plants make the soil loose and saturate it with nitrogen, prevent the growth of weeds and clean the area from nematodes. By their effect on the quality of the soil, these plants are like fresh manure.
Cereals "work" on all types of soils, including loamy and high sand content. These plants improve the water permeability of the soil, replenish the content of potassium and nitrogen in it, and prevent the soil from washing out and weathering. The most preferred planting cereal sideratov on acidic soils.
Associated effect of cereals - suppression of the growth of weeds. This is due to the extensive root system, to break through which weeds do not have enough strength.
Cruciferous siderats improve the quality of any soil, only a soil with high acidity does not suit them. They build up a lush green mass, and their roots act as a natural baking powder. In addition, they make phosphorus compounds difficult to assimilate by crop plants available for absorption and prevent other minerals from being washed out of the soil.
Compared to other sideratami rape - the most capricious. It develops poorly on poor and waterlogged soils with high acidity.
In no case should cruciferous siderats (radish, rapeseed and mustard) be sown before cabbage: because of the mutual "conflict" between these biological relatives of the head crop, one cannot wait.
Hydrophilic plants are a reliable "weapon" against weeds and pathogenic bacteria. They improve soil aeration, making it easier, and reduce acidity towards neutral values.
Buckwheat Siderats make the soil easier, enrich the poor, barren land with organic compounds, phosphorus and potassium.
The roots amaranth loosen the soil, increase its fertility, supply the lack of nitrogen to the roots of cultivated plants adjacent to them.
Buckwheat ryryhlyaet earth no worse than a hopper garden
Mustard as a siderat
The plant is very popular among gardeners. Sow mustard from spring to autumn. In the spring This is done very early, as soon as the snow melts, as the plant is afraid of cold weather. The period from sowing seeds to technical maturity is 1.5-2 months, the main crops can be sown as early as 2 weeks after mowing and plowing. Lush green grows quickly, gives a slight shadow to the young sprouts of cultivated plants, but the growth of weeds drowns out.
When grown in garden beds, mustard is cut when its height reaches the growth of cultivated plants.
AT summer time mustard is well sown with crops that need more time to ripen - pepper, tomato, eggplant. In addition, it is an indispensable tool in the fight against scab and late blight, and hence the desired "guest" in the beds with these crops and potatoes.
For winter mustard seeds are sown in September, after the crop is harvested from the bed. In this case, the tops are cut only in spring. Moreover, it is so delicate in mustard and decomposes so quickly that it is not even buried in the ground.
Mustard seeds are sown in rows with a gap of 10-15 cm between them or randomly. The seed sowing rate in the first case is 1-1.5 g / sq.m, and 3-4 cm / sq. When dispersed.
Phacelia as a siderat
Universal siderat, after which any vegetables and berries will feel very comfortable. Phacelia is unpretentious, cold and drought-resistant, characterized by rapid growth and decorative.
Phacelia seeds are sown in the spring, immediately after the snow has melted. Sowing rate - 1.5-2 g / sq.m. It grows well on clay, sandy, peaty and even rocky soil. Sown for the winter, phacelia protects the soil from deep freezing. It loosens dense soil structure, strengthens light soil, while reducing acidity.
Phacelia is a good honey plant and attracts insect pollinators to the site.
Phytoncides contained in plant tissues inhibit the reproduction in the soil of dangerous bacteria and fungi, pathogens of rot, scab and late blight. In addition, repel aphid, moth, wireworm, nematode. The green mass, which is rich in nitrogen and other mineral substances, is cut off 45-50 days after planting, when flowering begins. Close up to a depth of 10 cm. When planting a seedling, phacelia can not be mown - it will protect young plants from the wind and possible frosts. After some time, the greens are cut and used as mulch for bed.
Clover as a siderat
Clover prefers moist soil with a low level of acidity. Like other legumes, it fills the soil with organic matter, nitrogen and other minerals. The roots protect the soil from weathering and leaching, and at the same time loosen the ground, making it light, crumbly, rich in oxygen and moisture.
Clover is recommended to be embedded in the soil just before flowering, during the period of mass formation of buds - at this time the plants are richest in nitrogen
Helping the activity of beneficial soil bacteria, clover promotes the formation of beneficial humus. However, soils with high acidity or too salty clover are not suitable. Loves moisture, but not excessive. Sowing is done in early spring (March-April), with summer sowing it is necessary to ensure sufficient watering. Seeding rate - 2 g / sq.m.
Greens are mown shortly before flowering begins, and after 2-3 weeks after that, it is possible to plant the main crops - eggplants, tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, cabbage. The only exceptions are legumes, since they are infected with the same diseases, and they have common pests.
Lupine as a siderat
Lupine is notable for the fact that its long (up to 2 m) roots are inhabited by special nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which absorb nitrogen from the deep layers of the soil, and then transfer it to the upper ones. In addition, lupine makes difficult to absorb phosphate compounds available for other crops.
Thanks to lupine, the soil becomes less dense, its acidity decreases, and the ability to accumulate and pass moisture improves.
Different types and varieties of lupine prefer different types of soil: plants with white flowers feel good on loams and sandy soils. The more common purple lupine loves acidic soils, in contrast to the composition of the yellow-flowled soil, which needs only good moisture. Lupine sowed in early May. The green mass is ready for mowing in 6-8 weeks after the emergence of shoots, until the stems are coarse. The green mass is embedded in the soil at a depth of 5-6 cm. The seeding rate is 20-30 g / m2.
Oats as a siderat
Like all cereals, oats enrich the soil with valuable organic matter, as well as macronutrients - phosphorus and potassium. To saturate the soil with the necessary amount of nitrogen, it is good to sow oats in a complex mixture with a rapidly growing vetch of spring or pea. It grows on soils of different types - from sandy and clay to peatlands and black soil.
In terms of efficiency and ability to fertilize the soil, oats are similar to manure.
The oat root system is capable of loosening a dense soil, providing air and moisture access to the inner layers. Due to the strengthening properties of roots, light oat soils will protect against erosion and facilitate the absorption of moisture by plants. In addition, the roots of this cereal contain a substance capable of suppressing root rot pathogens, bacterial and fungal diseases. Sow oats in the middle of spring (usually in April). The latest term of sowing (before winter) is the first half of September. When sowing in rows, the seeding rate is 10 g / m2. Метод рассыпания требует увеличения расхода до 15-20 г/кв.м. Глубина заделки зерен в почву – 3-4 см.
Когда и где сеять сидераты?
Сидеральные растения сеют в течение всего года, а поскольку сроки вегетации у них небольшие, за год можно получить до 3-4 "урожаев" полезных зеленых удобрений.
- Весной. At this time of year, the green mass of siderats is growing rapidly and simply does not allow the weeds to manage in beds with cultivated plants. The most popular early siderats are mustard, clover, seradella, radish, oats, fatseliya, peas, vetch, alfalfa.
- Summer or early fall. After harvesting the main crops, to restore fertility and other valuable properties of the soil. At this time, cruciferous plants are sown - rapeseed, mustard, radish, rape, as well as legumes, buckwheat and phacelia.
- At the end of autumn (towards winter). The end of the gardening season is the time to sow winter oats, rye and other cereals, vetch, clover, lupine (including mixtures), and phacelia. Radish, mustard and rape are also sown on the eve of the coming winter and are no longer mown, so that in winter the soil does not freeze.
Place for planting sideratov choose depending on the goals that you pursue.
- In the free space. If the land is not occupied, seeded siderats will prepare it for future plantings - they will “feed” and enrich the composition.
- On the garden. In the spring, siderats should be planted before planting seedlings, in summer - after harvesting the main crops, so that the bed is not empty. Sowing aromatic plants (mustard, radish, etc.) around the perimeter of the beds will scare away the planting of harmful insects.
- Between the rows. The optimal way to disembark. First of all, it will protect against "uncontrolled" growth of weeds. Secondly, it will not allow the ground to crumble under the action of wind and rain. And finally, the thick "wall" of siderats - reliable protection against pests and good mulch after cutting.
- Between the trees. Siderats, sown in tree trunks, are not just decoration, but also natural mulch, which, after mowing, provides plants with food, does not allow moisture to evaporate and weeds to grow.
Optimum green manure for cucumbers
The root system of cucumbers does not develop in depth, so it is difficult for the cucumber to absorb nutrients from the deep soil layers. Delivery and accumulation of nutrients (magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, nitrogen) in the surface layer of the soil is the main "task" of cucumber siderats. The best for cucumbers recognized:
- legumes - peas, vetch, clover, lupine, chickpeas, clover, alfalfa,
- cereals - barley, wheat, oats,
- cruciferous - rape, mustard, rape.
Sow these plants in between rows of cucumbers - and you will be pleasantly surprised by the taste of the collected fruits.
The best siderata for potatoes
The main tasks in growing potatoes are to prevent the spread of diseases and the invasion of harmful insects on the plantations. Therefore, the green manure for tubers must be sown, taking into account these requirements. The best "allies" of potato:
- legumes - clover, lupine, peas, beans, beans,
- flax - flax
- cruciferous - mustard, rape, radish.
- borage - phacelia.
Under potatoes, it is better to sow not a monoculture, but their mixtures. The most effective are the mixture of peas with oats or barley. Phacelia mixed with mustard will chase the wireworm. But cereals are bad neighbors for potatoes, because they, on the contrary, attract wireworms. Alfalfa, vetch or honey clover fertilize a potato bed no worse than manure.
Green manure for tomatoes
Green manure tomatoes make the soil loose, enrich it with nitrogen and minerals, reduce the growth of weeds. The most suitable sidereal for solanaceae is universal phacelia. It grows quickly, "does not allow the passage" to weeds, its stems and leaves easily decompose, enriching the soil, and the unusual shape of the flowers just look beautiful on the garden.
Suitable for tomatoes:
- all legumes and cruciferous crops,
- cereals - wheat, oats, rye.
Siderates for cabbage
Cabbage is a great lover of nitrogen-rich soil, therefore sideral crops, the “suppliers” of this macroelement to the soil — pea, lupine, clover, alfalfa, sweet clover — are suitable for it.
Lupine and clover in the company with phacelia will chase the wireworm, nematodes and other annoying pests. Alfalfa clover and oats planted between the rows, neutralize pathogens.
It must be remembered that siderats should not be from the same family as cultivated plants, since such close "neighbors" can get sick and infect each other with the same diseases.
What diseases and pests are effective siderats?
The curative effect of siderats is an additional bonus in the piggy bank of their useful properties.
For example, leaves flax contain tannin, the smell of which will chase the Colorado potato beetle, so the plant is well planted near the plantation of potatoes.
Colorado potato beetle fears smell like fire calendulatherefore, it is the place between the rows of potatoes and eggplants.
Landing rye after potatoes - a good tactical move in the war with a nematode. The roots of rye secrete a special substance, which will permanently repel the pest from the bed.
Rye - an excellent natural orderly, suppressing the growth of weeds
The functions of phytosanitary are performed mustard and radish - they do not allow weeds to grow, and the pungent smell of spicy plants has a neutralizing effect on pathogenic microorganisms in the soil.
Phacelia prevents the spread of fungal infections - late blight, various types of rot, as well as scare away the wireworms (clicker beetle larvae). The oats, in the roots of which contains a substance with a fungicidal action, will cope with rot just as well.
Marigold or dill, planted next to a strawberry bed, very fragrant, which is completely disliked by many parasitic insects.
Marigolds disinfect the soil and repel nematodes. Also, the smell of these flowers do not like bedbugs, aphids, flea beetles, the bear and the Colorado potato beetle.
Many species lupine - a reliable remedy for root rot, scab potatoes, nematodes. So, its proximity to vegetables and root crops in the garden not only pleases the eye, but also has a “therapeutic” effect.
Sanitary action has clover - this plant with fragrant flowers will not allow wireworm to your crops, nematode, and also root rot. In addition, the oblique green mass of the plant improves the activity of beneficial microorganisms in the soil. And the sweet clover is a wonderful honey plant, it will attract pollinators to your beds.
Substances included alfalfa- natural antiseptics. So neither the weeds, nor the harmful nematodes of the company will be happy with it. But the beneficial soil bacteria and worms - just the opposite.
Alfalfa not only improves the structure of the soil and provides it with nutrients, but also drowns out the growth of weeds.
When and how to clean siderats?
It all depends on what purpose at which time they were planted. You can cut them, not allowing flowering, a fortnight before planting the main crops. Plants with beautiful and fragrant flowers (phacelia, lupine clover), leave on the garden a little longer - they will attract in your garden insect pollinators and those who eat pests. Remove these siderites before they scatter around a thousand seeds. Cereals (rye, oats) must fully ripen. Their dry stems are suitable for mulching, and seeds can be sown next season. Legumes can be cut after harvest.
Siderats in the aisle need to have time to remove in advance, until they have outgrown the main crops, otherwise they will hold them in growth and may displace.
It is usually necessary to plow the cut tops into the soil 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings of cultivated plants. The depth of embedding depends on the structure of the soil: in light ground it is 12-15 cm, in dense 6-8 cm is enough.
Another way - plowing on the eve of winter. To do this, cut along with the stems and leaves of the siderata dig with the top layer of soil. A lot of green plants rot and become fertile humus. To speed up the process of its maturation, you can pour the plant residues with a solution of EM-drug.
Planning a plan for planting siderats next year is needed now, in August-September. Therefore, carefully study your site, think about what crops you want to grow. And decide which green helpers will be good companions for them in the future.
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The most common siderata
As sideratov can use a large number of representatives of the flora. It can be not only vegetable and cereal crops, but also several types of flowers and weeds.
- From the cruciferous family - radish, mustard, rape.
- From the legume family - soybeans, beans, lentils, peas, clover, alfalfa, chickpeas.
- From the family of cereals - wheat, rye, barley.
Calendula, sunflower, nettle, amaranth, buckwheat, phacelia and nasturtium have proven themselves as sidereal plants.